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law of biological selection. Only those individuals with marked endurance have been able to survive the dangers of a death-dealing environment; the race has descended from those who have stood the endurance test imposed by rigorous living conditions. The self-control of the Hebrew, in the second place, explains his longevity. Temperance and sobriety are correlative racial traits. His sanitary meat inspection and other hygienic customs, in the third place, are fundamental factors. A fourth reason is found in his sound home life. The interest of the parents in the care and training of the children gives them a favorable start in life. America today needs to go to school to the Jewish immigrant and make use of his methods of building up deep family affections, loyalty, and stability.
The Jewish immigrant shows a special interest in problems of social amelioration. His race has been noted for its humanitarian activities. Abraham showed a socialized spirit in his dealings with Lot. Moses led the first labor strike in the world. Amos, Hosea, the Isaiahs cried out bravely against social injustice. Seven out of the ten commandments are rules of social conduct. The Founder of Christianity made the love of man a test of one's love of God.
The orthodox Jews plan to re-establish themselves in Palestine when the promised "Messiah" The "national" Zionists possess political
*In the United States the Jews have developed the best philanthropic organizations that we have. Modern criminology has been founded by Lombroso, and "scientific" socialism by Marx.
aspirations and expect to re-establish the Jewish nation. The "socialist" Zionists look forward to the creation of a socialist state in Palestine.
The Jew in America is what "centuries of persecution and oppression" have made him. Though generally defeated, he keeps on silently and defenselessly. He rarely turns back. Though generally suffering, he keeps on steadfastly. Though vanquished from time to time, he gathers up his scattered forces and pushes on. Though defeated again and again he has had the unique distinction of seeing his conquerors, proud kingdoms and mighty empires, crumble into humble dust. He ever rises with "eternal suffering" and "untiring patience" to confront his contemporaries with his hitherto insoluble problems.5
Many Americans understand nothing of the Jewish immigrant's history. We are totally unacquainted with his problems or we would not call him opprobrious names. In America, the Jew has found political liberty, economic opportunity, and intellectual freedom, but he is losing his religion which has kept him "alive, isolated, and protected as a race." This loss may mean his racial disintegration. The Americanization of the Jew must proceed upon the basis of an understanding of his vicarious sufferings and unsullied aspirations.
Adapted from a quotation from L. E. Van Norman, Poland, pp. 263, 264.
THE ASIATIC IMMIGRANT
Representatives of five Asiatic races have migrated to the United States. From Western Asia, the Syrians and Armenians have come; from Southern Asia, the Hindus; and from Eastern Asia, the Chinese and the Japanese.
The Syrian immigrant is a relative of the Hebrew. He is descended from the Semitic branch of the Caucasian people. Syrian migration to America was stimulated by the Centennial Exposition in 1876 when olive wood and other carved articles from Syria were introduced to the curio-fascinated public. Upon arrival in this country, the Syrian immigrant usually becomes a peddler, and later, sets up a small store. He belongs to the Christian faith, generally of the Greek Catholic type. His thirst for knowledge has been noted by many observers. He possesses the "Oriental memory." His intelligence is attested by the fact that a few years ago a population of 70,000 Syrians in the United States were supporting ten Arabic newspapers and magazines in this country.
The Armenian immigrant traces his ancestry to a primitive branch of the Aryan stock. For his form.
of Christianity he claims a greater age than that of the Church of Rome. He has suffered indescribable persecutions, because of his loyalty to Christian beliefs. As in the case of the Syrian and the Hebrew, the horrors of persecution have cut deep into his nature. He is suspicious of strangers until their trustworthiness has been absolutely established.
began to migrate to By 1906, the annual The small numbers
The East Indian, or Hindu, the United States about 1900. figures exceeded one thousand. were more than offset by the strange appearance, the peculiar customs, and the very low standard of living. The Hindus were so different from us and on such a manifestly lower plane of culture that it seemed as though assimilation was practically impossible. An unusually strict interpretation of our immigration laws was invoked. By virtue of their low industrial status and of their obvious difficulty in securing employment, it appeared that a large percentage of them would soon need to receive public aid. It was decided that the Hindu immigrants come within the scope of the clause, "liable to become a public charge," and hence a large percentage has been debarred. Consequently, Hindu immigration practically ceased. When the Hindu has applied for citizenship, the courts have disagreed over the question of racial origin. Many East Indians are of Caucasian lineage, and admissible; others are of Mongolian descent, and apparently ineligible to citizenship. The question of eligibility to citizenship needs to be clarified and put upon the
basis of individual merit and worth, rather than left upon the uncertain and accidental grounds of racial origin in prehistoric days.
The Chinese first migrated to this country about 1849, attracted by the prospects of work in the gold fields. Many thousands were imported by American mine-owners and other employers. They were used in large numbers in railroad construction, e. g., in building the western end of the first transcontinental railroad, which was completed in 1869. The hightide year was 1882, when 39,000 Chinese came. At that time, about 130,000 Chinese were already here.
By 1882, however, a strong aversion to the Chinese had developed. They were charged with working for such low wages that Americans with their higher standard of living could not compete with them. Organized labor opposed them, because their presence in industry hindered the rise of or even lowered prevailing standards of living. They came without families and hence tended to degenerate. Immorality and gambling among them flourished. They returned to their own country after accumulating small sums of money; hence, they had no special interest in America except to earn money. They were exceedingly slow to assimilate, maintaining their language, religion, and other Chinese customs with tenacity. Their intermarriage with Americans was not feasible. There was danger that vast hordes would come.
Gradually, the anti-Chinese activities increased. The importation of Chinese coolie labor was for