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which is surrounded by thousands of representatives of thirty leading races from all parts of the world; it is an outgrowth of subsequent immigration investigations; it is an expression of experiences gained from teaching foreign-born laborers; it is a result of teaching the subject of "Americanization and Immigration" to university students during the past seven years.


University of Southern California.
February 21, 1919.







Americanization is the educational process of unifying both native-born and foreign-born Americans in perfect support of the principles of liberty, union, democracy, and brotherhood. It selects and preserves the best qualities in our past and present Americanism; it singles out and fosters such traits of the foreign-born as will contribute to the welfare of our people. The native-born, like the newcomers, must experience the process of Americanization. The former have twenty-one years (politically) to reach the goal; the latter, five years. The former have the social advantage of being born into an American environment; the latter, the social disadvantage of having to break with habits and customs arising out of sacred but alien associations. The former in the years of youth and leisure are surrounded in the home and school by American. teachings; the latter are obliged oftentimes to learn

a new language and new customs in the mature years of life, handicapped by long hours of routine. labor and despite little positive encouragement and sympathy.

The current emphasis upon Americanization had its origin in 1914 when the European War started and a renaissance of nationalism occurred. Americanization Day had its beginning on July 4, 1914, in Cleveland, Ohio; it was fathered by the "sane Fourth committee." In 1915 at least 150 cities observed Americanization Day. In that same year, the National Americanization Committee was organized by the Committee for Immigrants in America for the purpose of furthering a nationalization movement that would unify the various peoples in the United States.

In 1918, the government undertook specific Americanization work. In the Department of the Interior, the Bureau of Education outlined an Americanization program which has been endorsed and furthered by the National and State Councils of Defense and which has resulted in the appointment of county Americanization councils, and of regional directors under the supervision of the Division of Americanization of the Bureau of Education.

The Americanization movement, however, has not gone forward satisfactorily. Lack of under

'At the Conference on Americanization which was called by the Secretary of the Interior and held in Washington, D. C., on April 3, 1918, it was reported that six Federal departments and many semi-public and self-appointed organizations were sending out communications on Americanization. The situation, however, is being

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standing and interest has blocked the highways to action; pseudo-patriotic utterances have prevented, frequently, clear thinking upon the subject. The facetious statement that there are "fifty-seven varieties" of Americanism is not altogether groundless. Since the declaration of war in 1917, some of the elements of Americanism have disappeared, a few of the elements have united into ugly conglomerates, while others have exhibited the qualities of solid ores carrying pure American qualities.

Americanization is being defined in certain places with total disregard of its true foundations, the principles of genuine Americanism, and without realization that it is not to be confined to European immigrants alone. Historic slogans and battle cries are uttered glibly or hurled with fervor upon crowds whose feelings are likely to explode in applause more or less automatically; basic, rational principles of American progress are often ignored. Moreover, myopically to Americanize the immigrant from Europe and to feel thereby that the heights. and breadths of Americanization have been reached reveals a pitifully small concept of the theme. The following definitions of Americanization are entirely unsatisfactory:

(a) Americanization means teaching English and civics to foreigners in order to enable them to secure naturalization papers.

remedied. In January, 1919, the Division of Americanization announced that Americanization work had been apportioned between said Division and the Bureau of Naturalization. Moreover a further co-ordination of Americanization agencies is being effected by the Federal Division.

(b) Americanization is virtually a patronizing program based upon the ignorance of the foreigner and upon the superiority of the native-born.

Commendable interpretations of Americanization are given herewith:

(a) Americanization is an entering into the spirit of our country.

(b) Americanization teaches the duty of the host, not less than the duty of the newcomer.

(c) Americanization means helping the foreigner to acquire an American standard of living and an American loyalty.

(d) Americanization means giving the immigrant the best America has to offer and retaining for America the best in the immigrant.

(e) Americanization is that branch of political science dealing with the assimilation and amalgamation of diverse races in equity into an integral part of American national life.

(f) Americanization is the uniting of new with nativeborn Americans in fuller common understanding and appreciation to secure by means of self-government the highest welfare of all.

to "form a

(g) Americanization means more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of Liberty."

Americanization must begin at home. Americans must enter upon a new understanding of the principles of Americanism; they must unifiedly accept the tasks of translating these standards into mu

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