The Law of Nations Considered as Independent Political Communities, Part 2

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Contents

Retorsion
18
Reprisals
20
Embargo
21
Marque and Contremarque
23
The Admiralty Jurisdiction
27
Reprisals consistent with Peace
28
Negative and Positive Reprisals
29
Special and General Reprisals
30
Reprisals against the Two Sicilies in 1839
34
Reprisals not always lawful
35
Reprisals against PersonsThe Duc de Belleisle The Envoys of the Confederate States of America
39
Congress of Paris of 1856
41
CHAPTER II
42
WAR AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS Sect Page 22 War as defined by Grotius
43
munitiesView of Grotius as to Private Warfare
45
Albericus Gentilis
48
War a necessary alternative
49
Lord Bacons view of War
51
Private Peace inconsistent with Public War
52
Lawful recourse to War
54
Offensive and Defensive War 31 Formal Declaration of WarLaw of Germanic Em pire in twelfth centuryLaw of Europe in four teenth century
57
Declaration and Proclamation of War by Heraldsat Arms Last Declaration of War by a Heraldat Arms in 1657
60
Printed Declarations of War Manifestoes of War to Neutral Nations
62
Recall of Resident Envoys
64
Disuse of Formal Declarations of War
65
Object of Proclamations of War at home
68
Object of Manifestoes to Neutral Powers
70
Opinion of M de Hautefeuille and of Burlamaqui Practice of the United States of America
71
The Status ante bellum ambiguous
74
Unilateral Declaration of War sanctions reciprocal hostilities
75
Recall or Dismissal of Resident EnvoysIgnorance of hostilities on the part of Neutrals
76
Sect Page
81
Naturalborn and adopted Citizens
82
Inhibition of intercourse with the EnemyRecall of naturalborn Subjects
83
Commissions to carry on hostilities
84
Enemysubjects within the Territory of a Belligerent 86 Y 47 Treaties of Commerce Enemyproperty within the Territory of a Belligerent
86
Sect Page Polish EnvoyQueen Elizabeth and the Hanse Towns 240
88
Obligation of good Faith
89
Ancient Practice of Provisional Embargo
92
Enemysubjects resident in the Territory of a Belli gerent 3
95
Modern practice not to detain Enemysubjects
99
Debts due to Enemysubjects
100
Sect Page 163 Exceptions in transactions of good Faith originating in time of Peace 324
103
Opinion of Mr Justice Story IOI 55 Chancellor KentVattelBynkershoek
104
Judgment of Lord Ellenborough in Wolff v Oxholm
106
Suspension of Commercial Contracts
109
Embargo of Enemyproperty afloat in the ports of a Belligerent
114
Commencement of War with Russia in 1854
116
Immovable property of Enemies in the Territory of a Belligerent
118
RIGHTS OF A BELLIGERENT WITHIN THE TERRITORY
119
Usage of Europe in the sixteenth centuryAlbe ricus Gentilis 243
125
Immovable property of EnemysubjectsNational
126
Public EdificesThe Capitol at Washington
132
CHAPTER V
138
Practice of European Powers at the end of the six teenth century 247
144
The Judgments of the Sea or Rooles dOleronThe
145
The System of the Congress of Paris of 1856
162
Enemy Character may attach to Places in the oc cupation of an Enemy 326
164
Friendly Character may attach to Places in the
165
Right of Visitation and SearchCase of the Swedish
177
Treaty of the Pyrenees 7 Nov 1659
184
Sect Page
187
CHAPTER VI
190
Constructive NoticePublie Notification General Notoriety
203
Fact of a Blockade must accord with the Notification
205
Practice of the French Prize Courts
207
Cargo not always condemned with the Ship
222
Extent of Coast which may be placed under Blockade
224
Limited operations of a Blockade
227
Effect of a Blockade on Licenses
228
Effect of Licenses on a Blockade
230
CHAPTER VII
233
of 1677
256
Treaty of Whitehall of 1689
259
Opinion of Sir Leoline Jenkins
261
Treaty of Utrecht of 1713
262
British TreatyEngagements
264
Concert of European Nations as to certain articles
267
Bynkershoeks view
268
Vattel
270
French Jurists
271
Practice of British Prize Courts
272
Difficulty of specifying articles conditionally Contra band
274
General doctrine of British Prize Tribunals
276
British Treaty with the United States in 1796
280
Right of PreemptionTreaty of Westminster of 1656 Treaty of Whitehall of 1661Treaty of Orebro of 1812
287
Sect Page
288
Belligerents may not interfere with Trade within
295
The Character of Property is not always identical
306
Employment of Neutral Property in the service
313
Treaties of CessionLouisianaTreaty of Tilsit
320
cupation of an Ally
327
CHAPTER IX
329
What is essential to constitute a Capture
332
Form of proceeding in Great Britain to constitute Prize Courts
334
Jurisdiction of Courts to distribute Prize
336
Absolute Control of the Crown over all Captures
340
Recapture subject to the jus postliminii
341
Rule of TwentyFour hours Possession
343
Salvage on RecapturePractice of Great Britain and of the United States of America
345
Practice of France Spain Denmark Sweden and Holland
346
Insurable interest of British Captors
348
Ancient Practice as to Prisoners of War
350
Modern Cartels for the exchange of Prisoners
353
Cartel Ships
355
Ransom of Captures at Sea
356
Ransom Bills
357
Hostages
360
Modern Restraints upon Ransom
361
Joint Captures
364
Distribution of Prize amongst joint Captors
367
Condemnation of Prizes brought into the port of an Ally
369
Marque
374
CHAPTER XI
425
Views of Martens
431
The Political Duties of Neutral Nations towards
439
Hospitality to Belligerent ships discretional on
446
Belligerent privilege of Asylum in Neutral waters
453
CHAPTER XII
460
Trade unless interdicted not a violation of
477
Ancient jurisdiction exercised by Neutral Powers
484
A Neutral Power may claim a vessel captured
492
Page
511
Convention for the amelioration of the condition of
524
Additional Articles to the Convention signed at Geneva
536
Articles concerning the Marine
544
Note of the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
550
Declaration of a mutual engagement between the respec
558
Treaty for the revision of certain articles of the Treaty
578
March 1871
589
Index
609
Conflict of jurisdiction between a Neutral Admiralty
610

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Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 520 - Privateering is, and remains abolished. " 2. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception of contraband of war. " 3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband of war, are not liable to capture under enemy's flag.
Page 597 - State : or (3.) Equips any ship with intent or knowledge, or having 'reasonable cause to believe that the same shall or will be employed in the military or naval service of any foreign State at war with any friendly State...
Page 518 - ... a été, pendant longtemps, l'objet de contestations regrettables; Que l'incertitude du droit et des devoirs en pareille matière donne lieu, entre les neutres et les belligérants, à des divergences d'opinion qui peuvent faire naître des difficultés sérieuses et même des conflits; Qu'il ya avantage, par conséquent, à établir une doctrine uniforme sur un point aussi important...
Page 569 - that it is an essential principle of the law of nations that no power can liberate itself from the engagements of a treaty, nor modify the stipulations thereof, unless with the consent of the contracting powers by means of an amicable arrangement.
Page 588 - Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., and Apostolic King of Hungary...
Page 563 - Conférence, reconnaissent que c'est un principe essentiel du droit des gens qu'aucune Puissance ne peut se délier des engagements d'un Traité, ni en modifier les stipulations, qu'à la suite de l'assentiment des Parties Contractantes, au moyen d'une entente amicale.
Page 595 - He shall be guilty of an offence against this Act, and shall be punishable by fine and imprisonment, or either of such punishments, at the discretion of the court before which the offender is convicted; and imprisonment, if awarded, may be either with or without hard labour.
Page 536 - Genève, le 22 août 1864, pour l'amélioration du sort des militaires blessés dans les armées en campagne, et préciser d'avantage quelquesunes des stipulations de la dite Convention, ont nommé pour leurs Commissaires: 1.
Page 527 - Les ambulances et les hôpitaux militaires seront reconnus neutres, et, comme tels, protégés et respectés par les belligérants, aussi longtemps qu'il s'y trouvera des malades ou des blessés.
Page 520 - Considering : That maritime law, in time of war, has long been the subject of deplorable disputes; That the uncertainty of the law and of the duties in such a matter gives rise to differences of opinion between neutrals and belligerents which "may occasion serious difficulties, and even conflicts...

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