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to determine which is most deserving of ad- . in 1876, will remember the exceptional good miration—the solid masonry, with the tiled taste in which the exhibit was presented, roofs, dormer-windows, and antique wooden and the cleanliness and purity of the goods. ornamentations of which they are composed, Yet they were taken from the current stock or the embellishments and adaptations to the of their manufactory at the time. wants and conveniences of the employers and was then so prominently noticeable as a employés observable in every department of feature in the character of their productions the immense place. If it may be truly said, as was only the result of a system that is as no doubt it can be, that the manufactory is dominant in their establishment to-day as externally the most attractive of its kind, it was five years ago. They consume in so, internally, it may be said that it is with their manufactures only the choicest material, out a rival. A private office comparable in and supplement this practice with such elegance and quaintness with the one fitted rare skill in workmanship and neatness up in this colossal manufactory has prob- in manipulation as to uniformly insure ably never been seen, and nearly as much products of the finest quality and excelmay be said of the provision made both for lence. the comfort of the firm's numerous opera- Even where the tobaccos in the crude tives and the mechanical appliances by state are assorted, moistened, stripped, cut, which, in conjunction with manual labor, and granulated,-operations almost invatheir celebrated goods are produced. riably involving a considerable amount of Every serviceable modern mechanical in- litter,—the floors in this place, with their vention for individual or industrial manifold contents, from the little instruadapted to its purposes is to be found in ments wielded by hand to the mighty this place—some of the implements em- machines that convert in an instant vast ployed being original with, and most of masses of leaf into threads rivaling in tenuthem owned or controlled by, the firm. ity the most delicate gossamer, or particles Whatever is regarded as valuable among scarcely larger than the shining atoms of new discoveries in their line, the firm sand upon the sea-shore, appear so bright make a point to possess, and, if pos- and tidy that an epicure might dine amid sible, control, regardless of expense; their the surroundings without offense to his aim, from the inception of their house in gastric sensibilities. 1846, being to conduct their processes of In each department, novelties and manufacture in most instances in an origi- surprises are encountered, in means and nal way, and in all instances as different as methods, that are to be met with nowhere possible from the processes of other people. else, and if space were available, a sepa. To this reliance upon their own ingenuity rate page might be here appropriated with and resources, it may be, the firm owe propriety to descriptions of the various something of their remarkable success in rooms and subdivisions of the edifice. business ; but not all. Other circumstances, | The great apartment in which the cigarettes each inhering, also, in themselves, have con- are made, packed, and stamped is especially tributed to the same end. The proprietors, noteworthy, both on account of its magMessrs. William S. Kimball & Co., have nitude and the business conducted in it. become the foremost tobacco and cigarette It is forty-five feet in width and three manufacturers in the world, by seeking to hundred feet in length, and is filled continumake and succeeding in making the finest ously with skilled operatives engaged in goods of these descriptions known to the the pleasant occupation of making and tobacco trade in either hemisphere. Their preparing cigarettes for the market. productions have received eight first-prize This firm originated the plan, now popumedals at the great universal or interna- lar with society gentlemen, of making cigartional expositions, including Vienna in ettes bearing the monograms, names, initials, 1873, Philadelphia in 1876, Paris in 1878, or crests of private individuals; as, also, Sidney in 1879, and Melbourne in 1880. special styles for clubs, secret societies, They are sold and consumed all over the dinner parties, college classes, and fashionglobe, and were among the first-probably able festivals of all kinds. They were the first-of their kind exported to foreign among the first to popularize and make countries from the United States. People available for cigarettes the rich tobacco who saw the magnificent and varied display grown in the best producing districts of of tobaccos and cigarettes made by the firm Virginia, and which is now so highly esat the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, 1 teemed for cigarettes. The firm's most
widely celebrated brands of cigarettes are | ing, sedative quality, it is the practice of the “ Fragrant Vanity Fair," the “ New some manufacturers to employ both valerian Vanity Fair," and the “ Three Kings,” the and tincture of opium liberally, instead of latter embracing in their composition Turk- securing the same results by the judicious ish, Perique, and Virginia tobaccos, which selection and combination of pure leaf are to be found in combination in no other tobacco of varying degrees of natural cigarette. The “ New Vanity Fair” brand flavor and strength; and, as a consequence, is specially adapted to the taste of those serious physical disorders are induced in requiring a very mild and sweet-flavored many persons, not otherwise indisposed, by cigarette. The catalogue of brands, both the habitual use of cigarettes adulterated of tobacco and cigarettes, is almost endless, with these insidious drugs. In the cheap, but of the latter one especially worthy of common, and unwholesome cotton and mention is “ Kimball's Catarrh Cigarettes," | linen paper with which many of these fashanother article which this firm was the first ionable luxuries are covered, an apprecito produce. These cigarettes possess me- able element of danger is perceptible in dicinal properties which make them favorites tracing the effects of its combustion on the with consumers affected with “ hay fever” | membranes of the human throat and nasal and kindred ailments, while, at the same organs. time, they are exceedingly palatable to The injury that has been and may be smokers generally. They seem to be a done to our young men, who are now such pleasant remedy for many of the nervous liberal consumers of cigarettes all over the disorders to which our busy brain-workers land, by absorption, in their practice of are subjected. All their goods are rich in smoking, of the numerous poisons with quality and of unusual flavor and fragrance. which many of the cigarettes found upon The “ Orientals" is a superb new brand of the market are impregnated, can hardly be cigarettes which the firm make of genuine estimated. Turkish tobacco, and which are equal, if not The growth of the manufacture and consuperior, to the best imported Turkish cigar- sumption of cigarettes in the United States ettes.
within the past five or six years is one of A noted brand of fine-cut chewing to- the marvels incident to our industrial progbacco manufactured by this firm is the Formerly only foreigners smoked “Peerless,” which for thirty years has cigarettes here; now, natives and foreigners enjoyed an extended reputation, it be- alike enjoy them. They are consumed by ing the only brand of fine-cut that has the hundreds of millions all over the Amerreceived eight first class prize medals.ican continent, and millions of our domestic Their fine-cut chewing tobaccos are the product find their way to the marts of trade only varieties of the kind that have ever in Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the fiscal been sold in France; and both in France year 1880, 408,701,365 cigarettes were made and Great Britain, their Vanity Fair to- in this country, of which this firm made onebaccos and cigarettes are sold under the quarter of the quantity; and in the fiscal title “ Excelsior."
year ending June 30, 1881, 567,386,982 The wrappers enveloping all the firm's were made here, whereof they were the brands of cigarettes are first-class rice- manufacturers of more than one-fourth. To paper, made in France expressly to their the development of this new and great order. In smoking the cigarettes manufact- | branch of national industry no firm has ured at this establishment, consumers are contributed so much as the one whose assured against adulterations of any kind, name graces this sketch. their component parts being immaculately In the immediate future, a notable expanpure from first to last. This is a fact that sion in the consumption of fine cigarettes will inspire attention in view of the pre- by our people may be confidently anticivailing enormous consumption of cigar- pated. Within five years the production has ettes in this country, and the circumstance advanced from about 160,000,000 to a that so many of the brands of the same quantity approximating, as will be obclass of goods, issuing from other promi- served in the returns for the past fiscal nent houses, are tinctured in every part year, 600,000,000. This is an extraordinary and fiber with opium and deleterious growth of a domestic pursuit, and has no narcotic compounds of one kind and parallel, unless one can be found in the another.
domestic cigar industry, which has latterly To invest their cigarettes with a sooth- ' progressed in a similar ratio. The relish
now evinced for cigarettes may hencefor- | individual running any risk of remorseful ward check in some degree the expanding prickings of conscience for opportunities movement of the cigar interest, and if pro- wasted and money thrown away, as might ducers generally were more eager than be the case if an expensive cigar had been they are to cater to the æsthetic inclination brought into requisition for the discharge of cigarette smokers, there can be little of the same duty and summarily consigned doubt that such a result would be realized. to the street. How well the economical
The smoking of cigarettes is both a passion aspect of cigarette-smoking is understood and a fashion, and on this account is likely and appreciated, both to time and to be enduring. At first it was thought the money, is a point that is made very clear practice would be ephemeral, the habits of to the casual inquirer by a visit to any American consumers of tobacco predispos- fashionable place of resort where these facing them, it was inferred, to stronger and tors for any reason enter into the calculamore highly concentrated forms of the arti- tions of the masses there assembled. cle. But experience has demonstrated that Cigarettes in former years were mainly it only needed to be palatably and taste- made in Havana, Cuba, and Seville, Spain. fully prepared in the lighter condition pecul- Those which reached the United States iar to the best brands of cigarettes to secure were chiefly for the use of Spanish or Cupermanent approval and popularity. Cigar- | ban residents here, and the few Americans ettes are neat in appearance and generally who, through travel in Spain and Cuba, had pleasing to the sight, and can be smoked in acquired a liking for them. For the most social circles, where cigars and pipes would part, they were composed of Havana leaf be forbidden, without objection. It is this tobacco, granulated in an irregular manner. latter circumstance that makes them In form they were similar to those made at favorite, and insures their continuance as present in this country,—a paper wrapper, one of the minor indulgences of modern duly labeled, en veloping each one, and a social life. There is something fascinating, hundred bundles of from ten to twenty cigmoreover, in the flavor of good cigarettes, arettes each bound together, constituting a which attaches their votaries to them as no merchantable package. Comparatively few other thing, perhaps, devised for the grati- imported cigarettes, in the aggregate, have fication of the human appetite does or can ever been disposed of here, the home prodo. Once habituated to their use—to their ductions of the last decade far exceeding delicious fragrance, and the gentle, harmless all those before consumed by our citizens, stimulus they impart to the brain and body- native or foreign. When our domestic men and women alike become passionately manufacturers of capital and skill emfond of them, and refuse to relinquish their barked in the trade, they discarded, as a charming idol for any substitute that can be rule, the material and primitive modes offered.
of manufacturing and packing prevailing Cigarettes supply a general want. The abroad, and introduced new varieties of majority of smokers are not those who de- tobacco and new methods of preparing it sire a long smoke or a strong smoke, but
for use. With their ready capacity of those, rather, who covet a short and mild adapting means to ends, they discovered at smoke. Professional and business men, once, in novel combinations and appliances, young and old, are usually too busy to afford means not only to utilize to the satisfaction the time, if they had the inclination, to of consumers various native tobaccos posworry in business hours through a “ Reina sessing the inherent qualities most admired Victoria” or the contents of their pet meer- by connoisseurs of cigarettes, but of makschaum, every time the yearning for a puff ing these articles in every way equal, and, of tobacco-smoke comes upon them. They in most respects, superior to those made by must have, instead, something easily their old competitors. Having perfected lighted, quickly consumed, and thoroughly their processes of manufacture, they de satisfying; and, to meet all these require- vised effective methods of packing and ments in perfection, there is nothing so well embellishing their goods, the beautiful manadapted as a good cigarette. A few balmy ner in which cigarettes, with their exquiwhiffs can be taken from it and the natural sitely lithographed and printed coverings, longing for the nicotine stimulant appeased are now placed in dealers' bands, and by without perceptible effort or loss of time, while them exhibited for sale, being one of the the residuum left in a hurry can be thrown most attractive and pleasing features of the away without even the most parsimonious tobacco commerce of the present day.
It has become a trite saying, that this is form of velocipede known as the bicycle. a new era in industrial arts. To economize The parallelism between this and the other in the expenditure of time and the waste of instances does not end here. As was the energy, is the common problem which has case with them, its first introduction was had so many specific solutions within the hailed with smiles and doubt. It required last fifty years. For instance: to be able to be greatly specialized before its full beneto sew three times as much in the same fit and significance were acknowledged. It time, with less exhaustion, was the object furnishes the object of a large industry, and which led to the invention of the sewing- contributes greatly to the development of machine, and the immense industries due other industries; and it enables the user to directly to the supply of machines, and in- make threefold use of his time, and a large directly developed by the application of saving of his energy. this new factor to the arts. Again, to be When this delicate mechanism of steel able to travel three times as far in the same and rubber was first brought to the port of time, with less wear and tear, was the Boston, in 1877, the customs officers, entirely object the accomplishment of which led to unacquainted with it, pronounced it a maour great system of railroads.
chine which it undoubtedly is in a genIt was a long time after the first practical eric sense, just as a dog-cart is a machine; single-stitch, rotary-feed sewing-machine was but as there was no obvious adaptation for in use before the fine examples of mechan- the attachment of a horse, it required the ism which now go under the same general intelligence of the Department of Justice at name were adapted to almost every phase Washington to determine that it was neverand condition of our needs. It was a long theless a carriage. In these four years, howtime after the first rude tram-way, and even ever, this new-comer has made its way into after the first railway carriages, before the almost every city and town in the United Pullman palace car and the Wagner sleeper States, has sought an entrance through were wrought out, and before the wonderful nearly every custom-house on the borders of locomotives which make the circulation of the country, and has quietly but surely taken Grand Trunk lines were perfected. It has its place among the factors of our modern taken a long time to perfect that specialized life. An article in the pages of this maga
zine more than a year ago, was a revelation ness man of sagacity and enterprise might to some of the capacities for enjoyment bestow, and would in time reward the inafforded by the use of the bicycle. Some vestment of the requisite amount of capital, spectacular occasions, like the races at a he entered upon the American manufacture thousand fairs, or the annual parade of the of the new vehicle upon a large scale. He League of American Wheelmen in Boston, not only directed the energies of that corwith its subsequent festivities in Music Hall, poration to the business, but he enlisted have given to many a fair idea, by inference, the coöperation of the Weed Sewing of the extent of its use. There is frequently, Machine Company, whose works at Hartby inuendo, or by direct assertion, an ford, Connecticut, are noted for turning out expression of opinion on the part of some some of the best machine work in America. even now, that this use of the bicycle, The relations of Colonel Pope and the though attended with many appearances of Pope Manufacturing Company to this new stability, is likely soon to wane and disap- industry are such that a better idea can pear. If it were merely a fashion in sports, be given of the manufacture by some deand were dependent upon the interest that scription of their works than in any other might be excited in races, or the pleasure way. They did not attempt to construct that could be derived by the few thousand an entirely new machine, or yield to the uniformed club members who make it their almost universal Yankee temptation to inpastime, there might be some reason in the vent something better than the English apprehension; but the underlying fact that the have made; but they adopted the more prucelérifère which the Baron von Drais invented dent course of taking a good model already as “an aid to walking,” and which the dis- tried and popular. Some of the difficulties tinguished Faraday found worthy of a phil-encountered may be referred to. Tubular osopher's patronage in his day, has become steel perches had not been made in this in its modern specialized form a practical country, nor anything like them. The means of locomotion, will prevent any such same was true of the semi-tubular rims for untimely disappearance. The English post- the wheels. Round rubber tires, and the man has long used it on his rounds. The proper cement for holding them to a metalMassachusetts business agent finds he can lic rim, were unknown here. In a bicyvisit the factories of New England with its cle there are something more than three aid more rapidly and less laboriously that | hundred parts, which have to be constructed the railroads and stages enable him. The together in a mechanism weighing between New Jersey physician makes it aid him to forty and fifty pounds, although steel and save lives, and the Illinois doctor of divinity rubber are both heavy materials; capable makes it serve him for both domestic vaca- of many motions; to be subjected to strains; tion and foreign tour, with equal tenderness wherein friction must be reduced to the to his health and his purse. This practical minimum; and gracefulness of contour and vehicular use of the bicycle is likely to keep elegance of finish must be combined with it in our public highways so long as it is accuracy of adjustment. And for all this necessary for men to move about from place there was not a mechanic skilled in the art, to place. Another reason for its perpetuity, nor a piece of machinery adapted for it. and one which is less recognized, lies in the The company started with a view to making fact that there are already large investments every part of the bicycle by machinery, so of capital and endowments of business en- that the parts should be interchangeable. terprise and industrial energy devoted to its The facilities of the Weed Company were manufacture and distribution.
enlarged by additions to their buildings and When Attorney-General Devens and machinery, and the two companies made Secretary Sherman were instructing the ample preparations. They secured and kept collectors of ports that the bicycle was “ a up the services of designers and model-makcarriage," Colonel Albert A. Pope, the ers. They drew upon the best experience president of the Pope Manufacturing Com- at home, and the best literature of the subpany, was taking the measure of its capac- | ject, and the examination of the best ities, as the subject of American manufact-machines made abroad, and have continued ure. Satisfying himself on the roads of to improve upon their adopted style. Newton, Massachusetts, first, and by a visit The first bicycles were brought out by to Coventry, and other English bicycling them in the summer of 1878, and were centers, especially for the purpose, that it known as the “ Columbia Bicycle." The was worthy of the attention which a busi- | principal variation, and their lightest model,