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sentative of their kind had been previously the fog or the darkness, and the height of observed for many months. Cranes, storks, the light above the sea. In the thick darksome herons, swans, geese, and other large ness they become the only objects discemwading birds and water-fowl, often, perhaps ible, and, through strange infatuation, lead usually, fly at a great height and make long the birds only to destruction. passages without alighting, but there is little A few birds make long passages over the if any evidence that the smaller land-birds sea, as in reaching distant islands, or in make their journeys at great elevations; passing from one continent to another. but, on the other hand, much to the con- Ordinarily, the birds of North America trary. During autumn our woods for many which visit Central and South America durweeks are filled with busy troops of mingled ing the winter migration, make the passage species, consisting mainly of vireos and mainly by the way of the West Indies, and warblers, the general trend of whose leisurely thus without being at any time far from movements is southward, while in spring land. Many of the migratory birds of the movement of similar gatherings is Europe pass the winter in Africa, and are northward.

thus obliged twice yearly to cross the MediWhether birds migrate by definite routes, terranean; but here again no great breadth as some writers have maintained, is still a of sea is encountered. It is otherwise, howmatter for investigation. That such is the ever, with species that habitually visit discase seems probable from their greater num- tant islands, as the Bermudas and the bers near large water-courses than over the various groups in the Pacific and Indian country at large, as well as their special oceans. With few exceptions, the birds abundance at particular points. Their which take these exceptional and remarkroutes, however, evidently vary in different able flights are various species of plovers years, as is indicated by the scarcity of and sandpipers, the most roving of all some species over a wide area where they birds, many of whom pass from high are at other times numerous. It is also northern latitudes to quite remote parts noteworthy that the vernal and autumnal of the southern hemisphere. They are, routes are not always the same, being, it is however, evidently not wholly without believed, in a few species habitually different. means of directing their course. Their Birds during migration are also more or less general experience undoubtedly gives them at the mercy of the elements. Heavy storms a sense of direction, so that when not disoften deflect their courses, and many thou- turbed by unusual exigencies,—as protracted sands sometimes perish by being irresistibly storms and heavy gales,-their ability to borne far out to sea.

find their way is not really so marvelous as The keenness of sight in birds being duly at first sight seems. They are strong of recognized, together with the fact of the wing and can make the passage quickly. low flight and the short stages by which the The sun may be their guide by day, and passage between distant points, in the case the usual phenomena of air and sky, the of a large proportion of the species, is prevailing winds, and the changes of temusually made, it seems impossible to avoid perature attending change of latitude, may the conclusion that they are guided largely further aid them in their course. Such by the prominent landmarks of the coun- flights, considered in all their bearings, are, try traversed, as the outlines of coasts, the perhaps, even less remarkable than the trend of mountain-chains and of the larger usual pelagic wanderings of the petrels and rivers; and that the contrary view, often albatrosses, which follow the same ships for urged, is based on an erroneous conception hundreds of miles in mid-ocean, although of the general facts involved. To this aid during portions of the year they are not withmust, of course, be added that of memory, out a “local habitation and a home," and both individual and inherited. Evidence probably never allow themselves to be led bethat birds direct their course by the sight of yond certain definite boundaries. To account, well-remembered landmarks seems to be however, for the long pelagic journeys of afforded by the state of bewilderment they certain land-birds, it has been conjectured, sometimes exhibit in thick weather, and the and, perhaps, with some degree of probamistaken directions they at such times are bility, that they follow the ancient routes of known to take. The light-houses along the species, and that in remote times there coasts, than which there are no more de- were numerous islands along the line of structive agents of bird-life, are well known present flight, which have disappeared by to be fatal in proportion to the density of l gradual subsidence, and that they derive

their ability now to pursue these routes | Among the raptorial birds, and in not a few through inherited experience. The existence of the common song-birds, the sexes are in many cases of such former landmarks paired on their first arrival, as appears to be and resting-places appears not improbable, generally the case with our bridge pewee, but to accept the explanation thus sug- and not unfrequently with the bluebird, the gested seems placing an almost unnecessary robin, and the Carolina dove. In such species burden upon the theory of the transmission it seems probable that the conjugal tie reof habit.

mains unbroken through life, as appears to In the autumnal migration, the young birds be certainly the case in most birds of prey. often, and in some species always, precede It is commonly believed, however, that the their parents, the interval varying from a alliance between mated birds is of short few days to several weeks, according to the duration, lasting only for a few months. It species. This has been claimed to indicate

is certainly true that the pairing season is that it is folly to suppose that birds are often marked by fierce contests between guided in their wanderings by memory, as rival males for the possession of favorites young birds, only three to five months old, of the opposite sex. Yet the return of can, of course, know nothing of the routes particular pairs of birds to the same nestingpursued by their ancestors, and yet find their tree in species in which the arrival of the way without difficulty. This, however, seems males precedes that of the females, as well only to show that the instinct of migration as other circumstances, may well lead to the is really transmitted habit, and that the belief that in not rare instances the males knowledge of routes depends largely upon are rejoined by their former partners. inherited rather than individual experience; Closely connected with the general subfor it should be remembered that if there is ject of migration are the erratic movements anything in heredity,--and that there is much of birds—the casual or accidental appearin it seems beyond question,—it has operated ance of individuals at localities far away through many thousands of generations in from the usual habitat of their kind. Reall migratory species of birds, and may specting such occurrences, two general facts therefore be supposed to have developed a are apparent: first, that in probably nine potency that precludes the necessity of an cases out of ten they occur at or near the acquired knowledge of routes through indi- time of the fall migration ; second, that these vidual experience. That individual expe- waifs are almost always young birds, or rience and memory, however, are important “birds of the year." The appearance in factors in the problem, seems evident from New England, and even as far north as the facts already detailed in relation to the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, of single return of birds for many successive years to examples of species whose true home is far the same nesting-sites-indisputable facts to the south or west of even the middle that admit of no other so probable, we may portions of the United States, may be cited almost say evident, explanation.

in illustration. In explanation of such erWhile in the autumnal movement the ratic movements two suggestions immediyoung birds so often precede the old ones, ately arise: either that these stragglers are the reverse, as already intimated, is the true wanderers, which have inadvertently case in spring. If the physiological changes moved in a direction quite the opposite to which characterize the approach of the re- that they should have taken, or, that they productive season be presumably the stim- have been blown from their course while ulus of movement toward the breeding- en route to their winter homes. While the station, nothing is more natural than that fact of such wanderers being young birds the mature birds should constitute the van. might suggest their having taken a wrong A further noteworthy feature of the spring direction, the same fact equally favors the migration is the frequent separation of the theory of their having been carried by sexes during the north ward journey, the storms out of their true course, which their males generally arriving somewhat in ad- weakness and immaturity would enable them vance of the females, the interval varying to resist less effectually than do the stronger somewhat with the species. This seems not adults. That the latter is the correct exin the least strange when it is considered planation of such phenomena is not only that the initiative in all that relates to the generally assumed, but seems to be borne continuance of the species devolves upon out by the occasional appearance of North the male, in whom the sexual impulse is American birds in Europe under precisely first awakened and is apparently stronger. similar circumstances, and the much greater rarity of the occurrence of European species the change. Instances of this are too freon this side of the Atlantic, the prevail- quent to lead to any other conclusion than ing winds and the course of storms being, that birds have the power of recognizing as is well known, from North America approaching changes of weather. It is also toward Europe. Still further proof, how well known that many birds display great ever, is afforded by the appearance in restlessness just before the occurrence of midwinter of species as far north as Massa- severe storms, and that some species move chusetts, and even Nova Scotia, whose home south ward in large flights to regions of less at this season is the Gulf States, or even severity. Mexico. In the latter case, the inference The general facts and conclusions preseems irresistible that such stragglers are sented in the foregoing remarks may be carried. upward by cyclones and borne thus briefly summarized : ist. That the rapidly and helplessly north-eastward to habit of migration resulted from changes of these distant points.

climate occurring at a not very remote It is a popular belief that birds, especially geological period. 2d. That every gracertain northern species which in winter dation exists between species the most suddenly appear in temperate latitudes with widely roving and those which are strictly or just before heavy storms, as well as ' sedentary; and that even representatives various kinds of wild fowl, have the ability of the same species may be either migratory to discern approaching changes of the or sedentary according to whether they weather. While this idea has often been

occupy, as breeding stations, the northern treated by scientific writers as fanciful, or southern portion of the common habitat. accumulative evidence shows that it has a 3d. That failure of food induces a movebasis in fact. Among such evidence may ment toward warmer regions. 4th. That be mentioned the monthly weather reports the return of birds to their breeding stations, of the United States Signal Service Bureau, which are their only true homes, is prompted in which, under the head of miscellaneous by the recurrence of the season of procreaphenomena, reference is often made to the tion and strong home affection. 5th. That movements of birds. From these reports it they usually pursue definite routes, and are appears that the southward migration of guided in part by prominent landmarks, or geese and other water-fowl usually precedes, , by memory, and in part by “ instinct” or often by only a few hours, the approach of inherited experience. 6th. That erratic heavy storms, and a sudden and very great movements are the result of transportation reduction of temperature, which they often by storms. 7th. That birds discern approachwholly avoid by keeping in advance of ing meteorological changes.

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A LOCK of sunlight hair Then the master bringeth him golden hire, and

In this old volume, and it seems as soft giveth him praise as well,

And silken as when first I placed it thereAnd how happy the heart of the weaver is no

Tress gazed at fond and oft. tongue but his own can tell.

Upon the embers—thus !

The flame devours the thing before my eyes ; So ends the past. What phantom vaporous

Do I see slowly rise ? The years of man are the looms of God, let down from the place of the sun,

It sits in yonder chairWherein we are weaving alway, till the mystic The graceful figure in the kirtle blue, web is done.

The eyes of tempered steel, the golden hair,

That once so well I knew. Weaving blindly, but weaving surely, each for himself his fate;

Has she arisen, then, We may not see how the right side looks-we Spurning her cerements, from her narrow bed, can only weave and wait.

With all her arts to be admired of men

Is not the sorceress dead ? But, looking above for the pattern, no hath need to fear ;

And with her rises now Only let him look clear into Heaven-the Perfect

The spirit-pangs and madness of my youth, Pattern is there.

The throbbing heart, stirred soul, and aching brow,

And doubt of woman's truth. If he keeps the face of the Saviour forever and al

Smile not as once you smiled ; way in sight, His toil shall be sweeter than honey, his weaving Beguile me not as one time you beguiled,

Put off the beauty that in death was drowned ; is sure to be right.

Ere I your falsehood found. And, when his task is ended, and the web is

Go! get you to your tomb! turned and shown,

Lie down amid your fellows' moldering bonesHe shall hear the voice of the Master, it shall

Your beauty born again fills me with gloom : say to him, " Well done!”

Silence those siren tones!


And the white-winged angels of Heaven, to bear

him thence, shall come down, And God shall give him gold for his hire-not coin, but a crown!


The figure fades in air ;

Dies on my ear a faint, remorseful moan;
Before me I behold an empty chair-
I am once more alone.

Thomas Dunn English.

Seen and Unseen.

Let them idly dart and quiver,

Or sink into lurid rest,Above, like a child-saint's face in Heaven,

There's a sole sweet Star i' th' West ;


I Rose with sunrise, not so long ago,

To smell the morning air and feast the sight; The purple east grew golden-all aglow

With quivering, new-born light.

Ah! slowly the earth-lights wither,

But the star, like a saintly face, Shines on with the steadfast strength of love, In its God-appointed place!


The morning star drew in behind a veil

Of clearer beauty than the face it kissed; The ardent sun rose up with crimson trail,

And drank the morning mist.

From golden into crystal passed the light,

From amber into azure cooled the sky,The burnished dew flashed softly red and white,

To vanish: not to die.

The trees met over where I stood, and twined

Their sprays together-linden, oak, and bay ; The verdured mountains braced the dome behind,

Quick with the living day.

Between them, the blue ocean, vexed and rude,

Dimpled a hundred hues from other seas; And from the gray rocks where the light-house

stood Flowed in the salty breeze.

Mary's Ward.
My boy lay cradled for his last, long sleep,

On the white pillow of his coffin bed,
With rose-buds in his hand; I came to weep

Above the stricken glory of his head. And, “Oh! I cannot have it so," I cried. “Come back to me from Heaven, my babe, my

own ! No sorrow such as mine the whole world wide

Has ever seen! was my unreasoning moan. Above me, where I wept my precious child,

The dear Madonna clasped her infant son; And thus she seemed to say,—that Mary mild:

“O mother, loved I not this little one ? Yet through a life of pain I saw him go,

Till on the cruel cross I saw him die! Be still and think, is this, thy young heart's woe,

Like my pierced soul's long pain and agony ?" Such gentle pity seemed her lips to move,

The summer light warmed upward into noon,

And sloped away from zenith to the west ; The day of toil wrought its resultant boon,

And 'sank in rosy rest.

The dawning starlight and the fading day

Met with full kiss upon each other's lips; The silver sea blinked up the shaded way

And jeweled the eclipse.

O saddest heart! wake up some happy thought

Among God's thoughts of love in shape so fair ; O doubting heart, know thou the beauty wrought

Because the love is there !

Sweet worlds look down, and sweeter voices fall

With higher meaning than our faith can gain : “The blessing of the Lord enriches all,

And adds no thought of pain.”

The mountains darkened while the peaceful night

Fell over that vast beauty, sweet and deep; And, where the morning woke with orient light, The evening fell asleep.


The Lights. I see in the forest coverts

The sheen of shimmering lights ;They gleam from the dusky shadows,

They flash from the ghostly heights :

No lights of the tranquil homestead,

Or the hostel warm are they,But waning flames of the Titan fire

Which stormed through the woods to-day:

Each darts with an aimless passion,

Or sinks into lurid rest,Like the crest of a wounded serpent drooped

On the scales of its treacherous breast!

The blessed Mother of the blessed Lord,Her accents seemed so full of tender love From that dear heart, once pierced by sorrow's

sword, I said, “O Mary! as thou lovedst thine,

Guard thou the treasure I intrust to thee! Fold thy fond care, as I had folded mine,

About my boy, and keep him safe for me!” And so I yielded him to her embrace.

I know she keeps him through the long years gone! I charge thee, Mary, when I see thy face, Lead back to me in Heaven thy ward, my son!


The Gate of Home.
O GRAVE, how still tho art!

No sigh is heard in thee;
No groan. No helpless heart

Aches there with misery.
Tears fall not all the night,

O grave, in thee.
() grave, how safe thou art !

By this low, peaceful shore,
Whose music soothes the heart

Like mother-hymns of yore.
Fears, troubles, sleep in thee,

O grave, no more.

O grave, stretch forth thine arms;

Open thy faithful breast,
And gather tenderly

The desolate to rest.
Hope dead, to sleep in thee,

O grave, were best.

O grave, thou art the gate,

The flower-wreathed gate of Home;
By thee the faithful wait,

Until their chosen come.
Shut me no longer out,
O grave, from home.


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