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Sir Alexander Spottswood earned his spurs at Blenheim. A mystery of more ancient date than the Revolution hangs about the spot. Some authorities state that Governor Spottswood built a temple of worship here, whence came the name of the plantation, “ Temple Farm”; but the Temple is doubtless of older date than this account would make us believe. The more probable explanation is that the building, whose foundations alone remain at present, was erected in the early days of the colony. The double walls, one within the other, give credit to the story that it was so built for defense against the Indians, and the date on Major Gooch's tomb, October, 1655, corroborates it. The tomb of the royal governor has long since disappeared. Major Gooch's epitaph reads:


“ Within this tomb there doth interred lie,
No shape but substance, true nobility,
Itself though young in years, just twenty-nine,
Yet grac'd with virtues morall and divine,
The church from him did good participate.
In counsell rare fit to adorn a state.



Could the young soldier have had a fitter resting-place?

Right below the Temple sleeps Wormley's Creek, with its myriad water-lilies resting on its gentle breast; and not a hundred yards above stands the modern successor to the mill, where the first shot was fired | ing,” and a small ox-cart moving uncerin the siege. The old structure has disap- tainly nearer, as the little brindle bull in the peared, but the old customs still remain. shafts browses the short grass on the side of Here, twice a week, on Tuesdays and Fri- the street. The most lively things in sight days (for it takes three days to “catch a a small boy and the string of fish head of water "), come the negroes and he is carrying; for the latte have just country folk bringing their “turns” of corn, come from the water and are still Autsome in bags on their heads, or, if they are tering. Such is the scene now presented of larger means and appetites, in little carts in the street where a hundred years ago with generally a single bull harnessed in anxious red-coats double-quicked along or the shafts. The established rule of each in stole sullenly by, trying to shelter themselves his turn prevails, and they wait patiently, from the searching messengers from the batsometimes the livelong day, until their time teries out on the heights beyond the creeks. comes. They are not in a hurry; for a The Nelson house still remains in the hundred years this same thing has gone on family; but to the Nelsons, peace came as placid and serene as the stream down with poverty; the Governor's vast estate among the cow collards ”; to hurry would went for his public debts. The power of be to violate the most ancient and time- his name kept the harpies still so long as honored tradition of the fathers.

he lived; but they were already wrangling It is easy to see that “ little York” never among themselves, and at his death they recovered from its bombardment. The swooped down on the spoil. Years afterscene in the street to-day is an idyl,—a few ward, Virginia, under the leadership of massive old brick houses scattered among Governor Henry A. Wise, did tardy and modern shanties like so many old-time partial justice to the memory of Nelson's gentlemen at a modern ward-meeting; a great services by placing his statue among couple of negro children kicking up the the group of her great ones in her beautiful dust in the street a hundred yards away; Capitol-Square; and, in company with Washtwo citizens sitting under an awning “rest- ington, Jefferson, Marshall, Henry, Mason, and Lewis, he stands with the bonds in his gathered last fall to his fathers at the age outstretched hands in perpetuam rei mento- of sixty-five years, and whose funeral serriam. No recompense, however, was ever mon was preached last Sunday, were alive, made to the family for the vast sums Gov- he would have assured you that he rememernor Nelson had expended. Some forty or bered all about the siege of Yorktown, and fifty years after his death, evidence of his great waited on both Generals Washington and losses was collected for the purpose of ap

Cornwallis. plying to Congress for compensation; but After a while you reach Gloucester Point, a bill being brought in meantime for the literally a "point," and tread the ground relief of the widow of the young colonel invested by Weedon, De Choisy, and the who made the speech to his storming party dashing, bragging De Lauzun. that night under the walls of the redoubt A ride of a few miles up the river bank at Yorktown, and who had rendered brings you to an old place called Shelly, besides some other small services to the once a part of the Rosewell estate, and still country, a member asked if there were no owned by Governor Page's descendants. poor-houses in New York, that Mrs. Ham- However appropriate the name may seem, ilton came begging to Congress; and in view of the great beds of shell down on after that, one of Governor Nelson's sons, the river bank, it does not call up the who was in Congress at the time, refused associations connected with the name borne to proceed further in the matter, declaring by the place in colonial days—“Werowocothat he would not permit his mother's moco." Next to Jamestown, this plantation name to be brought before a body which is perhaps the spot most celebrated in the tolerated such blackguardism.

colonial annals of Virginia. It was here that It seems extraordinary that, after only a Powhatan reigned like Egbert of old, with hundred years, much doubt exists as to the kings, less poetic but not more savage, to spot where the British laid down their arms. pull his canoe. Between his wives, his eneImmediately after the surrender, Congress mies, and his English friends, the old Weroenacted that a suitable monument should wance had a hard time. Doubtless he found be erected there, to tell the story to suc- much consolation in his oysters. And judgceeding generations. But all things con- ing from the mounds of oyster-shells, those cerning Yorktown sleep, and the memorial Indians must have had royal appetites. It was neglected until the very spot was for- was at this place that the most romantic gotten. There has been builded up, how- incident of Virginia's history occurred, ever, a mighty nation, zealous for liberty, when the little tender-hearted Indian

maiden, touched with pity for an intrepid “ Monumentum aere perennius Regalique situ pyramidum altius.” young captive, prayed in vain for his life,

and then flung herself beneath the execuThis was, to

use the closing words of tioners' axes and clasped the victim in her the articles of Cornwallis's capitulation, arms, risking her own life but saving John “ done in the trenches before Yorktown, Smith and the colony of Virginia. in Virginia, October 19th, 1781."

Other memories cluster around the place: As York, the territory of the Nelsons, of the ghastly decorations of Payanketank witnessed the last act in Virginia's colonial scalps; the baliet dance of Indian nymphs drama, so Rosewell, the seat of the Pages, attired in the most ancient of recorded cossaw the first act. The places are only a tumes; the coronation of old Powhatan, who few miles apart, separated by the York with royal instinct refused to stoop while River.

the crown was placed on his head. The Taking a small boat at the Yorktown pier, whole place is quick with memories. you may, by promising an extra quarter, It has always been my opinion that the wake the lethargic boatman into positive world has not done justice to Captain John activity, and get under way to Gloucester Smith. He deserves to be ranked with the Point in something under a half-hour. greatest explorers of all time. At the age Your boatman, as black as Charon, rows of thirty he had left the Virginias and re. with a deliberation which would gratify you turned to England, having accomplished if crossing the Styx. You are apt to ques. what Raleigh, with all his wealth, power, tion him about the coming celebration and and zeal, could not do. Well might the the events it is to commemorate. Oh, yes! old chronicles call him “the Father of he knows all about it. If his immediate the Colony.” Had the die turned differpredecessor, “Old Unc' Felix,” who was ently on the spot where we now stand,


Virginia might have lain a hundred years It had the honor of being built by Captain more a wilderness and a waste place, and Smith, and was erected on the requisition the destinies of the world have been differ- of the king for “a house, a grind-stone, ent. I should write a eulogy on fifty swords, some guns, a cock and hen, Captaine” did I not recall the clever answer with much copper and many beads." The of the Spartan to a Sophist offering to de- fire-place is wide enough to roast an ox, liver a eulogy on Hercules—“Why, who and there is grave suspicion that it has has ever blamed Hercules ?” The son of served to roast other cattle-Payanketank Alcmena underwent scarcely greater hard- rebels and the like. All this land about ships or performed more labors than did here was a part of the old Page estate, oure Captaine.” What higher eulogy could | Rosewell. Away to the left it stretches,

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there be than that written by one who had | taking in all of Timber Neck, which came shared his danger:

to the Pages in 1690 with Mary Mann,

whom Matthew Page married. Very likely “ What shall I say but thus; we lost him that in

Artemus Ward's first reason for marrying all his proceedings made justice his first guide and experience his second, ever hating baseness, sloath, his sweetheart, to wit: that “the two farms pride and indignitie more than any dangers ; that j'ined,” had something to do with this never allowed more for himselse than his souldiers match. with him; that upon no dangers would send them

That broad stream down there is Carter's where he would not lead them himselfe; that would never see vs want what he either had, or could by Creek. There it was that Powhatan and any means get vs ; that would rather want then bor- bis people used to land in pre-colonial days, row, or starve then not pay; that loved action more and brown canoes, driven by dark warriors then words, and hated" falshood and covetousness

Later worse than death; whose adventures were our lives,

or dusky maidens, shot in and out. and whose losse our deaths.”

on, in the spring evenings, white-winged

sail-boats, with proud-faced dames or portly, A few miles below here on the bluff is ruddy gentlemen, or with laughing girls in Powhatan's Chimney, the sole remaining rich attire and gay young gallants, glided to relic of the royalty of the old Indian king. I and fro, now drifting wide apart, now near


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together side by side, amid mirth and shouts carved mahogany wainscoting and balusand laughter. Across the creek, a few hun- trade. Once again it is in the hands of dred yards, stands Rosewell, the ancient gentlefolk. Page mansion, stark and lonely, a solid There is a tradition that at this house cube of ninety feet. Once it was flanked Thomas Jefferson spent some time, while by great and numerous out-buildings, absent from his seat in Congress in 1775–76, stables, barns, warehouses, and negro in reflection and study, crystallizing into quarters. All have vanished before the worthy expression those principles which years, and nothing is left except the stately he was shortly afterward to set forth in old mansion.

the “ Great Déclaration.” It is said that When it was built, in 1725-30, it was the le then submitted his rough draft of that largest mansion in Virginia, and continued great paper to his friend John Page besuch for many years. The great hall was fore it was seen by any one else, and when wainscoted with mahogany, and the balus- independence was no more than a possitrade of the grand stair-way, also of bility. The summer-house on the roof is mahogany, was beautifully carved by hand pointed out as the spot where the paper to represent baskets of fruit, flowers, etc. was read and discussed. There is, perThe roof was originally covered with lead, haps, nothing to substantiate the legend, but during the Revolution it was stripped except that it extendeth back to a “time for bullets by its master, the fiery patriot, whereof the memory of man runneth not to John Page. He came out of the war with the contrary," and has always been one of broken fortunes, his large plantations going the traditions of the house. one after another to pay his debts. Shortly The founder of the Page family in after his death, the place was sold for twelve Virginia was “ Collonel John Page," who, thousand dollars to a man, who, after thinking that a principality in Utopia might making a fortune by selling everything he prove better than an acre in Middlesex, could sell

, from the trees on the lawn to the where he resided, came over in 1656. He wainscoting in the hall, sold the place, had an eye for "bottom-land," and left his stripped and denuded as it was, at a large son Matthew an immense landed estate, advance. The vandal not only sold the which he dutifully increased by marrying bricks around the grave-yard, and the Mary Mann, the rich heiress of Timber fine old cedars in the avenue, but what Neck. Their son, Mann, was a lad thirteen was even worse, whitewashed the superb | years old when his father died. After bebranches of the family. The eldest son, John, was a most ardent patriot, and would undoubtedly have been hanged if General Washington had surrendered to Cornwallis, instead of the latter to him. He and Thomas Jefferson were at William and Mary College together, and that closest of bonds, a college friendship, commenced there and lasted throughout their lives. As college students, they together stood at the door of the House of Burgesses, and, looking in, heard Patrick Henry ring out his famous warning to George III. From that time, the two young men were rebels, and their views were of the most advanced order. There remain a number of rattling "college-boy" letters which passed between the cronies at a time when the light of the world, to them, were Nancy's” and “Belinda's” eyes, and Fame's siren voice had not sounded in

their ears. In a letter bearing date Christmas Day, 1762, Jefferson, frozen up in his Albemarle home, wrote his friend :

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“ You cannot conceive the satisfaction it would give me to have a letter from you. Write me circumstantially everything which happened at the wedding. Was she there? Because, if she was, I ought to have been at the devil for not being there too."

The “she” alluded to was his lady-love, Miss Rebecca Burwell.

The letter goes on: ing sent to Eton, he came back and took “ Tell Miss Alice Corbin that I verily believe the his place at the “ Council Board,” as his

rats knew I was to win a pair of garters from her, fathers did before him and his descendants mine away. This very consideration makes me so

or they never would have been so cruel as to carry did after him.

sure of the bet that I shail ask everybody I see from Mann built the Rosewell mansion. The that part of the world what pretty gentleman is makbricks and material were all brought from ing his addresses to her. I would fain ask Miss England, and the stately pile grew slowly her own cutting, which I should esteem much more,

Becca Burwell to give me another watch-paper of under the Virginia sun to be a marvel of though it were a plain round one, than the nicest in pride and beauty for that time. The in- the world cut by other hands." scription upon the tomb, “ Piously erected to his memory by his mournfully surviving

A few weeks later, he writes to his friend lady," presents a complete biography of a mournful, woful epistle, like that of any Mann, who, together with his pride, pos

other love-lorn swain. After inveighing sessed the independence, the dignity, and against the dullness of his life, he says: the virtue so often found combined in the old colonial gentleman. He possessed the

“ How have you done since I saw you? How

did Nancy look at you when you danced with her at colonial instinct, and fought the tax which Southall's ? Have you any glimmering of hope? the Home Government wished to place on How does R. B. do? Had I better stay here and tobacco. The three surviving sons of old do nothing or go down and do less ? Or, in other Mann were Mann, John, and Robert, who

words, had I better stay here while I am here or go

down, that I may have the pleasure of sailing up the became the heads respectively of the Rose- river again in a full-rigged flat? Inclination tells well, the North End, and the Broadneck me to go, receive my sentence, and be no longer in

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