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exposed to heat and close air. I regard it as so promising that I am planting it largely. It is medium in season and perfect-flowered.
The Red Jacket-This variety is justly winning much favor as an early berry and, unless it develops weaknesses, will soon become a general favorite. It is very hardy and vigorous, the fruit is most abundant, early, and of a sprightly aromatic flavor suggesting the wild strawberry. It has proved soft with me for long carriage, but its delicious flavor and its productiveness should secure its general trial in the home garden. It is perfect-flowered.
The Longfellow.-This is a much-heralded variety from Kentucky, a region that has given us some of our finest varieties, as, for instance, the Charles Downing and the Kentucky. After one year's test I cannot predict a brilliant future for the Longfellow in this part of the world. Planted side by side with many other novelties, and on a rich, moist loam, it proved a very feeble grower, and both plants and fruit were prone to scald in the sun. I am able to grow many of the best foreign kinds successfully, and I have not much hope of a native berry that cannot hold its own beside them. There must be something in its native region peculiarly favorable to this variety. With me the fruit was firm, but poor and insipid in flavor.
The Warren, sent out by the same gentleman, and planted by the side of the Longfellow, proved far superior. It is a vigorous grower, fairly productive of large, obtusely conical berries that were of good flavor, though rather soft for market. I regard it as well worthy of further trial, and should not be at all surprised if it won its way to general popularity. As Mr. Webb, the originator, claims, it endures drought remarkably well, maintaining constant growth and healthful foliage. It is perfect-flowered.
The Seneca Queen.-This is a remarkable berry, for it is almost black when fully
ripe. It has proved enormously productive with me, and the fruit averaged large. Every one exclaims at its appearance. It is well worth a place among novelties, and I should not be surprised if its productiveness secured it considerable popularity. It is not rich in flavor, and its dark color would probably be against it in the market.
The Crystal City.-This is the earliest of strawberries: its season is nearly over by the first of June. Apart from this quality it has little value, and is scarcely more productive than the ordinary wild strawberry, which it closely resembles. It is too soft for market. Those who wish to make the season of this favorite fruit as long as possible can plant it on a sunny spot and pick berries from ten days to two weeks before the standards ripen. It is perfect-flowered.
The Memphis Late.-This, in contrast, the latest strawberry on my place, was much more productive and better flavored.
The Windsor Chief was sent out two or three years since as probably the most productive variety in existence. This claim may be true. Only the Bidwell surpassed it in productiveness last year, and whether it will continue to do this can be learned only after the test of years in widely separated localities. But I gravely doubt whether the Windsor Chief is a new variety, for the plants I obtained from the originator and from other sources were so entirely identical in flower, foliage, and fruit with the old standard kind--the Champion-that, for all practical purposes, it is the Champion. It is a pistillate, and requires to be grown near a perfect-flowered or bisexual kind. With proper treatment it is one of the most profitable strawberries, although rather soft for long carriage.
The Sharpless did admirably with me. last year. It is said in some localities that it is not productive, and this, no doubt, is true, especially on light soil in matted beds. Few of the very large, showy kinds are productive under rough field-culture.
The Kirkwood, or Mount Vernon, is at
The Hervey Davis.-I consider this a valuable strawberry for heavy soils and Northern culture. It was sent out by Mr. Johntracting much attention in New Jersey, and B. Moore, of Concord, Mass., and is by is probably a fine variety. far the best of his seedlings that I have seen. It is large under good treatment, firm, of good flavor, and of a beautiful glossy or glazed appearance. It is quite as It is quite as handsome as the Jucunda, and, I think, could be made more profitable in many localities. It is perfect-flowered.
Among the raspberries, the Gregg as a black-cap, and the Cuthbert as the best large red variety for general cultivation, still take the lead. The illustration of the Gregg conveys to the reader a better idea of its appearance than any words of mine could do. There are several new blackberries, currants, and gooseberries, besides other strawberries, but their value is yet to be established.
NEXT in interest to the active volcanoes of Hawaii is that vast crater known as Haleakala," the house of the sun." It occupies the whole summit of East Maui, which is one vast mountain-dome, ten thousand feet in height, and is connected with West Maui by a low isthmus, which, as seen from the sea, presents an aspect of unmitigated and hideous barrenness, while the mountain itself, presenting a sky-line almost as unbroken as that of Mauna Loa (which always reminds me of the slope of a whale's back), gives small indication of the marvels which lie concealed within it.
I had coasted Maui on my way to Hawaii and felt repelled by the ghastly desolation of its lava-bound shores-vast flows of the roughest, blackest lava, as hard as iron-jutting into the sea and giving horrible suggestions of the fate that would await any luckless vessel that might be driven on to that cruel coast. Nor, as seen from the sea, did the land beyond appear more inviting. It seemed to be one vast cinder-heap, with groups of small craters mingling with the black bed of ancient lava streams, with small trace of any vegetation to soften the dreariness of the scene. What vegetation there was was the pale green of the giant cactus or prickly-peara shrub so weird and grotesque as to be well in keeping with the desolate surroundings.
It was to this uninviting scene that I was to return from the larger island of Hawaii, where for some time I had lingered at beautiful Hilo, attracted alike by the kindliness of its most pleasant and friendly inhabitants, and by its many beauties of river, sea, and land, especially the richness of its tropical vegetation, the disintegrated lava proving itself the most fertile of soils in this region of abundant moisture. It is only, however, in certain spots, few and far between, that Nature unassisted treats us to true bursts of tropical glory. At Honolulu, the first exclamation of every traveler is, "What a bower of green loveliness!" Some even complain that the houses are too much buried. Yet the older inhabitants will tell you that they recollect when there were but four trees on the settlement, and one elderly American lady, Mrs. Dominis, gave me a graphic account of how she began to make the very first garden at Honolulu, by preparing a tiny plot before her own window, and there attempting to strike some geranium cuttings-an attempt much discouraged by her husband, who assured her it was hopeless to attempt to make anything grow on such soil. Yet she lives to see that region of fine cinders converted into a flourishing town, where hundreds of happy homes are surrounded by beautiful flowers and
shaded by tall trees of many different species. Of Hilo much the same things may be said, except that in so small a community there has been less opportunity for culture, but the immense rain-fall renders the grateful soil even more willing to yield her very best.
The rain fell heavily on the morning of my departure, the 14th of November, and the surf was so heavy that we had some difficulty in getting into boats to go to the little coasting steamer. Freight landing was impossible, and had to be left till the return voyage, which, however, proved a good deal worse than this! Once beyond the surf, we found the sea very calm, and were able to admire the wonderful coast lying between Hilo and Laupahoehoe-a distance of thirty miles intersected by eightyfive streams, each in a deep gulch and all in flood. One can imagine that riders may sometimes meet with unpleasant adventures, when overtaken by sudden storm between these two points. Many of these streams fall over one or more precipitous cliffs, as they enter the sea; and the view obtained from the little steamer, which runs pretty close inshore, is unique and beautiful. From one point I counted twenty waterfalls simultaneously in sight, and none of them seemed more than a quarter of a mile from its neighbor.
On the following day the steamer touched at Kawaihai, a point from which we obtained an excellent view of the three great volcanic mountains of Hawaii-Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and Mauna Hualalai. So far as the picturesque is concerned, it would be difficult to conceive a less attractive scene than the combination of these three dull curves. In spite of all efforts of imagination to realize that the two first were nearly fourteen thousand feet in height, and one of them a living volcano, the idea that would force itself uppermost was that of three stranded whales-not poetic, I admit.
A sail of twenty-four hours by steam-boat brought us back to the uninviting shores of West Maui, and here we landed on Maalea Bay, the dreariest and most repulsive-looking spot of all. The unpromising aspect of things brightened considerably when I found kind friends waiting to welcome me, and a choice of two pleasant homes as head-quarters. In such cases, selection is embarrassing, and the easiest solution seemed to be to devote a day to each. So my first night was spent with Mr. Cornwall, at Waikapu, in a house which, by contrast with its surVOL. XXII.-23.
roundings, is simply a paradise-a comfortable New England home in a lovely tropical garden, a true oasis in the midst of the dreary expanse of arid, disintegrated lava, which, however, only needs water to make it the most bountiful of soils. It took us about an hour to drive from Maalea to Waikapu, and we began to see some indications of the beauty which the inhabitants of Maui ascribe to their beloved isle. The mountain mass that seemed shapeless is rent by a series of deep gorges-each, we were told, a scene of bewildering beauty, both in rock-scenery and foliage. The wild waste of unproductive lava has been partially irrigated, and the barren wilderness now yields rich fields of sugar-cane. Very lovely were these green fields, with their tassels at once rosy and silvery, resembling the blossom of some giant grass. The fields are hedged with the prickly-pear, which here attains a great size, with stems upward of a foot in diameter, and becomes a very handsome though grotesque shrub.
Next day I moved on to Wailuku, where I received cordial welcome from Mr. and Mrs. Alexander, two of the early missionaries. "Father" Alexander-as he is commonly called-is a noble old man of about seventy-five, hale and hearty, ready to turn his kind hand helpfully to whatever work may be required, from tracing a map to harnessing a carriage. From him, as from my friends in Hilo, I heard much that was intensely interesting concerning the early years in these islands; but one subject which, on Hawaii, is forever cropping up-namely, the wayward actions of the volcano-is here utterly lacking, for on Maui there is not the faintest suggestion of any living fire-no active crater, no solfataras, no mineral or warm springs, no steam jets. Indeed, the commonly accepted theory is that more than two thousand years have elapsed since the mighty outburst which shattered the huge mountain of Haleakala, blowing off its entire summit as the steam might blow off the lid of a kettle. And such a lid! For the mighty cauldron in which such forces worked is, by the lowest estimate, twenty miles in circumference, and upward of two thousand feet deep. It is a vast pit ten thousand feet above sea level. Looking up from the coast to the summit of that huge dome, we failed to discern the slightest dent which should betray the site of this vast crater.
Anxiously we watched the weather, dreading a renewal of last week's rain, and great
was our delight when the morning dawned clear and beautiful, revealing the summit of the mountain without a cloud. My companion on the expedition was a stalwart Yorkshireman-a man to whom all lands are familiar, and all forms of campaigning, from Crimean winters to Kaffrarian summers. A third friend accompanied us across the isthmus, a drive of ten or twelve miles, in an open carriage with a capital express team, which we hired at Wailuku. The weather was greatly in our favor, for here the slightest breath of wind raises such clouds of blinding sand as usually to make this part of the expedition a matter of dread. To-day all was calm. Our route lay partly along the sea-beach, the sea and distant hills were of a heavenly blue, while the near sand-hills were of every shade of vivid orange. On our way we crossed a great level plain of richest lava soil, which hitherto has been useless for lack of water, but now has been taken in hand by a sugar-growing company under the management of Mr. Spreckles. Already they have dug great ditches, and are carrying on irrigation on a large scale, and soon the plain will become one vast sugarfield. There is no regular road across the isthmus, so we followed devious cart-tracks, and prolonged our distance considerably by going to Haiku, the plantation of Mr. S. T. Alexander, some miles out of the direct course, Makawao being the nearest starting point for the ascent. Both are sugar districts-indeed, the cane appears to be the one object of cultivation in all this region. At Haiku we found a native with horses to hire, and a store where we were able to lay in provisions, with which we filled saddlebags lent us for the purpose. Two natives accompanied us as guides and helpers.
The sky had become overcast, and dark, lowering clouds told of the coming rainstorm. Indeed, heavy drops were falling before we started. However, there was nothing for it but to push on, and make the best of it. Soon the rain fell in torrents; the roads were so heavy and so slippery that the horses could make no way, and the sun had set before we reached Olinda-a pleasant mountain-house in summer, but now closed for the winter. The house had, however, been kindly placed at our disposal by Mr. Alexander, and the key committed to our care, so it was not long before we had kindled a fire and commenced the task of drying our saturated garments-a process which occupied us all till midnight. This was a bad preparation for the early start,
which is one of the essentials in ascending this mountain, as, soon after sunrise, dense mists are apt to rise, which blot out the whole landscape. For this reason the wiser travelers are those who, ascending from Makawao, make their arrangements for a night of camping out, which means sleeping in a large lava bubble that forms a cave, less than a mile from the summit. Those who prefer starting from Olinda endeavor to be in the saddle by about two A. M., so as to reach the summit before sunrise, but we were far too weary to dream of such a thing. About six A. M. it suddenly cleared, and we hastened to prepare for the ascent. Fortunately, it is so gradual that there is not the slightest difficulty in riding the whole way. We passed a belt of pretty timber, and then rode over immense fields of wild strawberries, which unluckily were not in season. Ohelos and Cape gooseberries also abound.
Three hours' steady ascent brought us to the lava bubble, where we saw evident traces of previous camping parties, and where our guide left us, while we filled our water-bottle at a spring a little further along the mountain-side. One mile more brought us to the summit. Alas! the whole crater was veiled with one dense sheet of white mist; nothing was visible save the rockwall, on the summit of which we stood. Hour after hour we sat patiently watching that fleecy white sea, curling and writhingnow opening a break which gave us a glimpse of the far-distant mountains of Hawaii, and then of the coast ten thousand feet below us. Anon, as if a curtain were drawn aside, we had a momentary glimpse of a group of the cones, or rather secondary craters, rising from the bed of the great crater which lay extended at a depth of nearly half a mile below us-one, at least, of these cones attaining a height of seven hundred and fifty feet. There are sixteen of these minor craters, which elsewhere would pass as average hills, but which here seem mere hillocks. Most of them are of very red lava, which has quite a fiery appearance in contrast with the blue-gray lava which forms the bed of the crater, and which is here and there tinged with vegetation. Indeed, we could discern tiny dots which we were assured were quite large trees, and at the further side there is fair camping-ground in the bed of the crater, with two springs of good fresh water, where Professor W. D. Alexander told me he had spent a considerable time, while preparing
his admirable map of the crater. At certain spots is found a beautiful plant, known as the silver sword, which has the appearance of being made of finely wrought silver, and bears a blossom like a purple sunflower.
I had brought my largest sketching-block, determined to secure a careful drawing of this unique scene; but for hours my hopes seemed doomed to disappointment. All I could do was to sit with the paper before me, and, having outlined the near cliffs, fill in the rest of the scene, piecemeal, as it revealed itself, keeping a sheet of water-proof thrown over my paper to protect it from the mist. Thus patiently I watched for six long hours, and it was not till just before the moment which we had decided must be that of our return, that a kindly breeze sprang up, and revealed the scene more completely than during all the previous hours. It was scant time for work, but I made the most of it, and succeeded in carrying away a very fair suggestion of this, the vastest crater in the known world. Having thus delayed till the last moment, we had to hurry on our downward road, the track being very rough and unsafe after dark. Happily, we made such good time that we reached the strawberry-fields by daylight, and were able to cross them at a hard canter, and so reached Olinda by dark.
The following morning was clear and beautiful, and, from the high ground where we stood, we overlooked the broad isthmus outspread below us, already showing patches of bright green on the new sugar-lands, and with the bluest sea on either side; moreover, we could distinguish every detail of the hills beyond, as well as the further isles. A very lovely three hours' ride brought us to Makawao, where the governor of the island was awaiting our return We were cordially welcomed by one of the principal sugar-planters, who showed us all over his sugar-mill, and explained all the details of manufacture, including carrying, crushing, boiling, refining, cooling the sirup in great tanks,-in short, all the processes by which, in one day, the growing cane is transformed into pure white sugar. The refuse molasses is then boiled again, but a longer time is required to reduce to second sugar, and still longer to obtain a third quality. The crushed cane is left dry as tinder, and is used as fuel for the great oven. Whenever water is available on these plantations, the canes
are carried down from the upper grounds in flumes, which float them right into the crushing-mill; and occasionally the workmen themselves take passage in this strange water-carriage, letting the stream carry them down. I heard of one young couple who thus made their wedding trip to the coast.
After luncheon we started on our return drive across the isthmus to Wailuku, halting to eat prickly-pears, gathered and prepared by a handsome young native, who skillfully tossed the finest fruit from the upper branches. The natives are wonderfully expert in peeling this most thorny fruit, which no inexperienced hand dare venture to touch. Once opened, the interior is luscious and juicy, full of seeds like the guava, and of a rich magenta color. The fruit is most agreeable when scarcely ripe.
We reached Wailuka in a soaking rain, which continued all the following day. The next was fine; so, despite all warning about the danger of the fords, I determined to explore the far-famed Wailuku Valley, the beauty of which has been the theme of every visitor. The stream was much swollen, but the horses being strong and country bred, we managed to get safely over the first ford. The second ford we found altogether impassable, so swift a current, rolling down great stones, that it would have been dangerous even to attempt to swim the horses, so I was most reluctantly obliged to relinquish the attempt. Even what I did see of the valley was very lovely, but I was assured that it did not begin to be beautiful till we had passed the third ford, where vegetation seems to float in hanging mists of greenery, amid rockcastles and pinnacles of endless variety and grandeur.
Once more we stood on the black lava coast at Maalea, and reëmbarked on the little steamer Like-Like (so named after the king's sister). A few days later, at Honolulu, a crowd of most kind friends assembled on board the great steamer Australia, to bid me farewell. The Queen Kapiolani had sent gifts of flowers and fruit, and Queen Emma Kaleliokalaui had sent her ladies with leis— i. e., necklaces of bright blossoms—to wear around my hat and shoulders. Laden with these, and other keepsakes from the isles, and carrying away thence impressions of unbounded kindliness and many delightful memories, I bade, I fear, a long farewell to these sunny isles.