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exposed to heat and close air. I regard | ripe.
I regard | ripe. It has proved enormously productive it as so promising that I am planting it with me, and the fruit averaged large. largely. It is medium in season and per- Every one exclaims at its appearance. It fect-flowered.
is well worth a place among novelties, and The Red Jacket.—This variety is justly I should not be surprised if its productivewinning much favor as an early berry and, ness secured it considerable popularity. It unless it develops weaknesses, will soon be- is not rich in flavor, and its dark color would come a general favorite. It is very hardy and probably be against it in the market. vigorous, the fruit is most abundant, early, The Crystal City.—This is the earliest of and of a sprightly aromatic flavor suggesting strawberries : its season is nearly over by the the wild strawberry. It has proved soft with first of June. Apart from this quality it has me for long carriage, but its delicious flavor little value, and is scarcely more productive and its productiveness should secure its than the ordinary wild strawberry, which it general trial in the home garden. It is closely resembles. It is too soft for marperfect-flowered.
ket. Those who wish to make the season The Longfellow.—This is a much-heralded of this favorite fruit as long as possible can variety from Kentucky, a region that has plant it on a sunny spot and pick berries given us some of our finest varieties, as, for from ten days to two weeks before the instance, the Charles Downing and the Ken- standards ripen. It is perfect-flowered. tucky. After one year's test I cannot pre- The Memphis Late.—This, in contrast, the dict a brilliant future for the Longfellow in latest strawberry on my place, was much this part of the world. Planted side by more productive and better flavored. side with many other novelties, and on a The Windsor Chief was sent out two or rich, moist loam, it proved a very feeble three years since as probably the most progrower, and both plants and fruit were ductive variety in existence. This claim prone to scald in the sun. I am able to may be true. Only the Bidwell surpassed grow many of the best foreign kinds suc- it in productiveness last year, and whether cessfully, and I have not much hope of a it will continue to do this can be learned native berry that cannot hold its own be only after the test of years in widely sepaside them. There must be something in rated localities. But I gravely doubt whether its native region peculiarly favorable to this the Windsor Chief is a new variety, for the variety. With me the fruit was firm, but plants I obtained from the originator and poor and insipid in flavor.
from other sources were so entirely identiThe Warren, sent out by the same gen- cal in flower, foliage, and fruit with the tleman, and planted by the side of the Long-old standard kind--the Champion—that, for fellow, proved far superior. It is a vigor- all practical purposes, it is the Champion.
grower, fairly productive of large, It is a pistillate, and requires to be grown obtusely conical berries that were of good near a perfect-flowered" or bisexual kind. Aavor, though rather soft for market. I With proper treatment it is one of the most regard it as well worthy of further trial, and profitable strawberries, although rather soft should not be at all surprised if it won for long carriage. its way to general popularity. As Mr. The Sharpless did admirably with me Webb, the originator, claims, it endures | last year. It is said in some localities that drought remarkably well, maintaining con- it is not productive, and this, no doubt, is stant growth and healthful foliage. It is true, especially on light soil in matted beds. perfect-flowered.
Few of the very large, showy kinds are proThe Hervey Davis. I consider this a val- | ductive under rough field-culture. uable strawberry for heavy soils and North- The Kirkwood, or Mount Vernon, is atern culture. It was sent out by Mr. John tracting much attention in New Jersey, and B. Moore, of Concord, Mass., and is by is probably a fine variety. far the best of his seedlings that I have Among the raspberries, the Gregg as a seen. It is large under good treatment, black-cap, and the Cuthbert as the best large firm, of good favor, and of a beautiful red variety for general cultivation, still take glossy or glazed appearance. It is quite as the lead. The illustration of the Gregg handsome as the Jucunda, and, I think, conveys to the reader a better idea of its apcould be made more profitable in many pearance than any words of mine could do. localities. It is perfect-flowered.
There are several new blackberries, currants, The Seneca Queen.—This is a remark- and gooseberries, besides other strawberries, able berry, for it is almost black when fully I but their value is yet to be established.
Next in interest to the active volcanoes It was to this uninviting scene that I was of Hawaii is that vast crater known as to return from the larger island of Hawaii, Haleakala, “the house of the sun.” It where for some time I had lingered at beauoccupies the whole summit of East Maui, tiful Hilo, attracted alike by the kindliness which is one vast mountain-dome, ten thou- of its most pleasant and friendly inhabsand feet in height, and is connected with itants, and by its many beauties of river, West Maui by a low isthmus, which, as seen sea, and land, especially the richness of its from the sea, presents an aspect of unmiti- tropical vegetation, the disintegrated lava gated and hideous barrenness, while the proving itself the most fertile of soils in mountain itself, presenting a sky-line almost this region of abundant moisture. It is as unbroken as that of Mauna Loa (which only, however, in certain spots, few and always reminds me of the slope of a whale's far between, that Nature unassisted treats back), gives small indication of the marvels us to true bursts of tropical glory. At which lie concealed within it.
Honolulu, the first exclamation of every I had coasted Maui on my way to traveler is, “What a bower of green loveliHawaii and felt repelled by the ghastly des- ness!” Some even complain that the houses olation of its lava-bound shores—vast flows are too much buried. Yet the older inof the roughest, blackest lava, as hard as habitants will tell you that they recollect iron-jutting into the sea and giving hor- when there were but four trees on the setrible suggestions of the fate that would tlement, and one elderly American lady, await any luckless vessel that might be Mrs. Dominis, gave me a graphic account driven on to that cruel coast. Nor, as of how she began to make the very first seen from the sea, did the land beyond ap- garden at Honolulu, by preparing a tiny pear more inviting. It seemed to be one plot before her own window, and there vast cinder-heap, with groups of small cra- attempting to strike some geranium cutters mingling with the black bed of ancient tings—an attempt much discouraged by her lava streams, with small trace of any vege- husband, who assured her it was hopeless tation to soften the dreariness of the scene. to attempt to make anything grow on such What vegetation there was was the pale soil. Yet she lives to see that region of green of the giant cactus or prickly-pear- fine cinders converted into a flourishing a shrub so weird and grotesque as to be well town, where hundreds of happy homes in keeping with the desolate surroundings. are surrounded by beautiful flowers and shaded by tall trees of many different species. | roundings, is simply a paradise—a comfortOf Hilo much the same things may be able New England home in a lovely tropical said, except that in so small a community garden, a true oasis in the midst of the there has been less opportunity for culture, dreary expanse of arid, disintegrated lava, but the immense rain-fall renders the grate- which, however, only needs water to make ful soil even more willing to yield her very it the most bountiful of soils. It took us best.
about an hour to drive from Maalea to The rain fell heavily on the morning of Waikapu, and we began to see some indimy departure, the 14th of November, and cations of the beauty which the inhabitants the surf was so heavy that we had some of Maui ascribe to their beloved isle. The difficulty in getting into boats to go to the mountain mass that seemed shapeless is little coasting steamer. Freight landing rent by a series of deep gorges-each, we was impossible, and had to be left till the were told, a scene of bewildering beauty, return voyage, which, however, proved a both in rock-scenery and foliage. The wild good deal worse than this! Once beyond waste of unproductive lava has been parthe surf, we found the sea very calm, and tially irrigated, and the barren wilderness were able to admire the wonderful coast now yields rich fields of sugar-cane. Very lying between Hilo and Laupahoehoe-a lovely were these green fields, with their distance of thirty miles intersected by eighty- tassels at once rosy and silvery, resembling five streams, each in a deep gulch and all the blossom of some giant grass. The fields in flood. One can imagine that riders may are hedged with the prickly-pear, which sometimes meet with unpleasant adventures, here attains a great size, with stems upward when overtaken by sudden storm between of a foot in diameter, and becomes a very these two points. Many of these streams handsome though grotesque shrub. fall over one or more precipitous cliffs, as Next day I moved on to Wailuku, where they enter the sea; and the view obtained I received cordial welcome from Mr. and from the little steamer, which runs pretty Mrs. Alexander, two of the early missionclose inshore, is unique and beautiful. aries. “Father" Alexander-as he is comFrom one point I counted twenty water-monly called—is a noble old man of about falls simultaneously in sight, and none of seventy-five, hale and hearty, ready to turn them seemed more than a quarter of a mile his kind hand helpfully to whatever work from its neighbor.
may be required, from tracing a map to On the following day the steamer touched harnessing a carriage. From him, as from at Kawaihai, a point from which we ob- my friends in Hilo, I heard much that tained an excellent view of the three great was intensely interesting concerning the volcanic mountains of Hawaii—Mauna Kea, early years in these islands; but one subMauna Loa, and Mauna Hualalai. So far ject which, on Hawaii, is forever cropping as the picturesque is concerned, it would be up-namely, the wayward actions of the voldifficult to conceive a less attractive scene than cano—is here utterly lacking, for on Maui the combination of these three dull curves. there is not the faintest suggestion of any In spite of all efforts of imagination to real living fire—no active crater, no solfataras, ize that the two first were nearly four- no mineral or warm springs, no steam jets. teen thousand feet in height, and one of Indeed, the commonly accepted theory is them a living volcano, the idea that would that more than two thousand years have force itself uppermost was that of three elapsed since the mighty outburst which stranded whales-not poetic, I admit. shattered the huge mountain of Haleakala,
A sail of twenty-four hours by steam-boat blowing off its entire summit as the steam brought us back to the uninviting shores of might blow off the lid of a kettle. And West Maui, and here we landed on Maalea such a lid! For the mighty cauldron in Bay, the dreariest and most repulsive-look- which such forces worked is, by the lowest ing spot of all. The unpromising aspect of estimate, twenty miles in circumference, and things brightened considerably when I found upward of two thousand feet deep. It is a kind friends waiting to welcome me, and a vast pit ten thousand feet above sea level. choice of two pleasant homes as head-quar- Looking up from the coast to the summit of ters. In such cases, selection is embarrass-that huge dome, we failed to discern the ing, and the easiest solution seemed to be slightest dent which should betray the site to devote a day to each. So my first night of this vast crater. was spent with Mr. Cornwall, at Waikapu, Anxiously we watched the weather, dreadin a house which, by contrast with its sur- ing a renewal of last week's rain, and great
was our delight when the morning dawned | which is one of the essentials in ascendclear and beautiful, revealing the summit of ing this mountain, as, soon after sunrise, the mountain without a cloud. My com- dense mists are apt to rise, which blot out panion on the expedition was a stalwart the whole landscape. For this reason the Yorkshireman-a man to whom all lands wiser travelers are those who, ascending are familiar, and all forms of campaigning, from Makawao, make their arrangements from Crimean winters to Kaffrarian summers. for a night of camping out, which means A third friend accompanied us across the sleeping in a large lava bubble that forms isthmus, a drive of ten or twelve miles, in a cave, less than a mile from the summit. an open carriage with a capital express team, Those who prefer starting from Olinda which we hired at Wailuku. The weather endeavor to be in the saddle by about was greatly in our favor, for here the slightest two A. M., so as to reach the summit before breath of wind raises such clouds of blinding sunrise, but we were far too weary to sand as usually to make this part of the dream of such a thing. About six A. M. expedition a matter of dread. To-day all it suddenly cleared, and we hastened to was calm. Our route lay partly along the prepare for the ascent. Fortunately, it is sea-beach, the sea and distant hills were of so gradual that there is not the slightest a heavenly blue, while the near sand-hills difficulty in riding the whole way. were of every shade of vivid orange. On passed a belt of pretty timber, and then our way we crossed a great level plain of rode over immense fields of wild strawrichest lava soil, which hitherto has been berries, which unluckily were not in season. useless for lack of water, but now has been Ohelos and Cape gooseberries also abound. taken in hand by a sugar-growing company Three hours' steady ascent brought us to under the management of Mr. Spreckles. the lava bubble, where we saw evident Already they have dug great ditches, and are traces of previous camping parties, and carrying on irrigation on a large scale, and where our guide left us, while we filled our soon the plain will become one vast sugar- water-bottle at a spring a little further along field. There is no regular road across the the mountain-side. One mile more brought isthmus, so we followed devious cart-tracks, us to the summit. Alas! the whole crater and prolonged our distance considerably by was veiled with one dense sheet of white going to Haiku, the plantation of Mr. S. T. mist; nothing was visible save the rockAlexander, some miles out of the direct wall, on the summit of which we stood. course, Makawao being the nearest starting Hour after hour we sat patiently watching point for the ascent. Both are sugar dis- that fleecy white sea, curling and writhingtricts—indeed, the cane appears to be the now opening a break which gave us a one object of cultivation in all this region. glimpse of the far-distant mountains of At Haiku we found a native with horses to Hawaii, and then of the coast ten thousand hire, and a store where we were able to lay feet below us. Anon, as if a curtain were in provisions, with which we filled saddle- drawn aside, we had a momentary glimpse bags lent us for the purpose. Two natives of a group of the cones, or rather secondary accompanied us as guides and helpers. craters, rising from the bed of the great
The sky had become overcast, and dark, crater which lay extended at a depth of lowering clouds told of the coming rain- nearly half a mile below us one, at least, storm. Indeed, heavy drops were falling of these cones attaining a height of seven before we started. However, there was noth- hundred and fifty feet. There are sixteen ing for it but to push on, and make the best of these minor craters, which elsewhere of it. Soon the rain fell in torrents; the would pass as average hills, but which here roads were so heavy and so slippery that the seem mere hillocks. Most of them are of horses could make no way, and the sun had very red lava, which has quite a fiery apset before we reached Olinda-a pleasant pearance in contrast with the blue-gray lava mountain-house in summer, but now closed which forms the bed of the crater, and for the winter. The house had, however, which is here and there tinged with vegetabeen kindly placed at our disposal by Mr. tion. Indeed, we could discern tiny dots Alexander, and the key committed to our which we were assured were quite large care, so it was not long before we had trees, and at the further side there is fair kindled a fire and commenced the task of camping-ground in the bed of the crater, drying our saturated garments—a process with two springs of good fresh water, where which occupied us all till midnight. This Professor W. D. Alexander told me he had was a bad preparation for the early start, I spent a considerable time, while preparing his admirable map of the crater. At certain are carried down from the upper grounds spots is found a beautiful plant, known as in fumes, which float them right into the the silver sword, which has the appearance crushing-mill; and occasionally the workof being made of finely wrought silver, and men themselves take passage in this strange bears a blossom like a purple sunflower. water-carriage, letting the stream carry them
I had brought my largest sketching-block, down. I heard of one young couple who determined to secure a careful drawing of thus made their wedding trip to the coast. this unique scene; but for hours my hopes After luncheon we started on our return seemed doomed to disappointment. All I drive across the isthmus to Wailuku, halting could do was to sit with the paper before to eat prickly-pears, gathered and prepared me, and, having outlined the near cliffs, fill | by a handsome young native, who skillfully in the rest of the scene, piecemeal, as it re- tossed the finest fruit from the upper branches. vealed itself, keeping a sheet of water-proof The natives are wonderfully expert in peeling thrown over my paper to protect it from the this most thorny fruit, which no inexperienced mist. Thus patiently I watched for six hand dare venture to touch. Once opened, long hours, and it was not till just before the interior is luscious and juicy, full of seeds the moment which we had decided must be like the guava, and of a rich magenta color. that of our return, that a kindly breeze The fruit is most agreeable when scarcely sprang up, and revealed the scene more ripe. completely than during all the previous We reached Wailuka in a soaking rain, hours. It was scant time for work, but I which continued all the following day. The made the most of it, and succeeded in car- next was fine; so, despite all warning about rying away a very fair suggestion of this, the danger of the fords, I determined to the vastest crater in the known world. explore the far-famed Wailuku Valley, the Having thus delayed till the last moment, beauty of which has been the theme of every we had to hurry on our downward road, visitor. The stream was much swollen, but the track being very rough and unsafe the horses being strong and country bred, we after dark. Happily, we made such good managed to get safely over the first ford. The time that we reached the strawberry-fields second ford we found altogether impassable, by daylight, and were able to cross them at a so swift a current, rolling down great stones, hard canter, and so reached Olinda by dark. that it would have been dangerous even to
The following morning was clear and attempt to swim the horses, so I was most beautiful, and, from the high ground where reluctantly obliged to relinquish the attempt. we stood, we overlooked the broad isthmus Even what I did see of the valley was very outspread below us, already showing patches lovely, but I was assured that it did not of bright green on the new sugar-lands, and begin to be beautiful till we had passed the with the bluest sea on either side; more- third ford, where vegetation seems to float over, we could distinguish every detail of in hanging mists of greenery, amid rockthe hills beyond, as well as the further isles. | castles and pinnacles of endless variety and A very lovely three hours' ride brought us grandeur. to Makawao, where the governor of the Once more we stood on the black lava island was awaiting our return
coast at Maalea, and reëmbarked on the cordially welcomed by one of the principal little steamer Like-Like (so named after the sugar-planters, who showed us all over his king's sister). A few days later, at Honolulu, sugar-mill, and explained all the details of a crowd of most kind friends assembled on manufacture, including carrying, crushing, board the great steamer Australia, to bid me boiling, refining, cooling the sirup in great farewell. The Queen Kapiolani had sent tanks, --in short, all the processes by which, gifts of flowers and fruit, and Queen Emma in one day, the growing cane is transformed Kaleliokalaui had sent her ladies with leisinto pure white sugar. The refuse molasses i. e., necklaces of bright blossoms—to wear is then boiled again, but a longer time is around my hat and shoulders. Laden required to reduce to second sugar, and still with these, and other keepsakes from the longer to obtain a third quality. The crushed isles, and carrying away thence impressions cane is left dry as tinder, and is used as fuel of unbounded kindliness and many defor the great oven.
Whenever water is lightful memories, I bade, I fear, a long available on these plantations, the canes farewell to these sunny isles.