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The Confederate force was largely increased by troops from South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Texas. On the night after the battle, President Davis sent a despatch to Richmond by telegraph, saying: "The battle was mainly fought on our left. Our force was 15,000; that of the enemy estimated at 35,000. General McDowell in his official report says: "We crossed Bull Run with about 18,000 men, of all arms." "The numbers opposed to us have been variously estimated. I may safely say and avoid even the appearance of exaggeration, that the enemy brought up all he could, which were not kept engaged elsewhere."

The force under Gen. McDowell, on the 8th of July, was organized into five divisions. The first division, under Brig.-Gen. Tyler, consisted of four brigades. The regiments in each brigade were as follows: First brigade, under Col. Keyes, First, Second, Third, Connecticut; Fourth Maine; Varian's battery, and Company B, Second Cavalry. In the second brigade, under Col. Schenck, the regiments were as follows: First, Second, Ohio; Second New York, and Company E, Second Artillery. In the third brigade, under Colonel W. T. Sherman, were the Thirteenth, Sixty-ninth, Seventy-ninth, New York; Second Wisconsin; and Company E, Third Artillery. In the fourth brigade, under Colonel Richardson, Second, Third, Michigan; First Massachusetts; Twelfth New York.

In the second division, under Col. David Hunter, were two brigades. These contained the following regiments: In the first brigade, under Col. Porter, were the Eighth, Fourteenth, New York; battalion of regular infantry; Companies G and L, Second Cavalry; Company, Fifth Artillery. In the second brigade, under Col. Burnside were the First, Second, Rhode Island; Seventy-first New York; Second New Hampshire; battery of Light Artillery, R. I.

In the third division, under Col. Heintzelman, were three brigades with the following regiments: In the first brigade, under Col. Franklin, were the Fourth Pennsylvania; Fifth Massachusetts; First Minnesota; Company E, Second Cavalry; Company I, First Artillery. In the second brigade, under Col. Wilcox, were the First Michigan; Eleventh New York; Company D, Second Artillery. In the third brigade, under Col. Howard, were the Second, Fourth, Fifth, Maine; Second Vermont.

In the fourth division, under Brig.-Gen. Runyon, as a reserve, were the following regiments: First, Second, Third, Fourth, New Jersey threemonths volunteers, and First, Second, Third, New Jersey three-years volunteers.

In the fifth division, under Col. Miles, were two brigades. In the first brigade were the following volunteers: Col. Blenker commanding, Eighth, Twenty-ninth, New York; Garibaldi Guard, and Twenty-fourth Pennsylvania. In the second brigade under Col. Davies, were the Sixteenth, Eighteenth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second, New York; Company G, Second Artillery.

The movement of troops to attack the centre of the Confederate army commenced on the 16th of July. It was first made known to the inhabitants of Washington by their sudden disappearance from the opposite or Virginia side of the Potomac. The force comprised in this movement consisted of five divisions, as above mentioned, but a few of the details were altered. A body of five hundred marines was also added. On the 17th, the advance of Gen. McDowell's entire command was begun. It was made by four different routes. The right wing, composed of the first division of four brigades under Gen. Tyler, moved by the Georgetown road. The centre, composed of the second division of two brigades under Col. Hunter, advanced by the Leesburg and Centreville road. The left wing, consisting of the third division of three brigades, under Col. Heintzelman, moved by the Little River turnpike, and the other part of the wing, consisting of the fifth division of two brigades, under Col. Miles, proceeded by the old Braddock road. The reserve consisted of the fourth division of New Jersey troops, under Gen. Runyon.

The following order, issued by General McDowell from his head-quarters at Arlington on July 5th, shows the condition of the men when ready to march :

When troops are paraded in light marching order, they will be equipped as follows: Their arms, accoutrements, and ammunition-the cartridge-boxes tions; their blankets in a roll, with the ends tied to filled. Their haversacks, with three days' cooked raeach other, across the shoulder; and where it is possible, a pair of stockings inside of the blanket. Their canteens and cups; knapsacks will be packed and left of those men least able to march, and to the number in the tent under a guard of the regiment, consisting to be specially designated for each corps. Knapsacks should be numbered or marked in such way as will enable them to be readily claimed by their owners. Commanding officers of brigades will take measures to diminish as quickly as possible the baggage of the regiments under their commands, by sending away every thing not absolutely necessary. This will apply to the personal effects of the officers and men, as well as to military property.

Near Fairfax Court House obstructions had been placed by the Confederate troops upon all the roads upon which the divisions advanced. The division of the centre marched with the left brigade in front. This placed the Rhode Island troops, under Colonel Burnside, in advance. The Second Regiment was employed as skirmishers in front of the division. Their lines extended from half a mile to two miles on each side of the road. The Confederate troops retired as fast as the head of the advancing column made its appearance. Within three miles of the Court House, the division encountered the first barricade, consisting of trees felled and thrown across the road. The second was of a similar character. They occasioned only a few moments' delay. The third barricade was more formidable. It was at the entrance of a deep cut, about half way up a steep hill, crowned on one side by a thick wood, and on the other by an open field. A road was made through the field, and the

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Germantown is a small village on the road from Fairfax Court House to Centreville, and about one-fourth of the distance beyond the former.

The order to move forward was first given to all divisions of the army on the 15th. Gen. Tyler, of the right wing, communicated it to his troops that evening, with orders to be ready to move at 2 P. M. on the 16th, provided with cooked rations for three days. Precisely at that hour, the right wing began to move forward, and reached Vienna, and encamped for the night.

At 5 o'clock the next morning, the onward march was renewed. It was necessarily slow, owing to the obstructions placed by the Confederate troops in the road. These troops, although constantly seen during the day, rapidly retreated upon the approach of the Federal army. Germantown was reached soon after noon. Col. Miles' division of the left wing was at the crossing of the old Braddock road with the road from Fairfax Court House to Fairfax Station, on the railroad, when ordered to halt. On the 18th it was ordered forward to Centreville by the old Braddock road. The other brigades of this wing halted at Fairfax Station and below. Eleven of the enemy's force were made prisoners at this Station.

A few buildings were burned a short distance from Fairfax Court House, on account of a rumor that a soldier had been fired on from them. In Fairfax, the soldiers, under excitement, had seized many things in and about the houses, some of which were deserted by their owners. These acts caused General McDowell to issue the following orders from his head-quarters at Fairfax Court House, on the morning of the 18th:

General Orders, No. 18.-It is with the deepest mortification the General commanding finds it necessary to reiterate his orders for the preservation of the property of the inhabitants of the district occupied by the troops under his command. Hardly had we arrived at this place, when, to the horror of every right-minded person, several houses were broken open, and others were in flames, by the act of some of those who, it has been the boast of the loyal, come here to protect the oppressed, and free the country from the domination of a hated party. The property of this people is at the mercy of troops who, we rightly say, are the most intelligent, best educated, and most law-abiding of any that ever were under arms. But do not, therefore, the acts of yesterday cast the deepest stain upon them? It was claimed by some that their particular corps were not engaged in these acts. This is of but little

moment; since the individuals are not found out, we

are all alike disgraced. Commanders of regiments will select a commissioned officer as a provost-marshal, and ten men as a police force under him, whose special and sole duty it shall be to preserve the property from depredations, and to arrest all wrong-doers of whatever regiment or corps they may be. Any one found tommitting the slightest depredations, killing pigs or

poultry, or trespassing on the property of the inhabi tants, will be reported to head-quarters, and the least that will be done to them will be to send them to the Alexandria jail. It is again ordered that no one shall arrest, or attempt to arrest, any citizen not in arms at the time, or search or attempt to search any house, or even to enter the same without permission. The troops and propriety as if they were at their own homes. must behave themselves with as much forbearance

They are here to fight the enemies of the country, not to judge and punish the unarmed and defenceless, however guilty they may be. When necessary, that will be done by the proper person.

The right wing, Gen. Tyler, resumed its march from Germantown to Centreville at 7 o'clock on the morning of the next day, the 18th. Upon coming in sight of Centreville, the town proved to have been evacuated, Part of the division proceeded through the village, and turning into a by-road to the right, advanced a short distance towards Bull Run, a valley trav ersed by a creek about three miles from Centreville. A halt was then commanded, and the whole division encamped on both sides of the road.

About 11 o'clock, General Tyler proceeded to make a reconnoissance in force. He took the fourth brigade of his division, composed of the Second and Third Michigan, First Massachusetts, and Twelfth New York, under Colonel Richardson, together with Ayres' battery, and four companies of cavalry. Advancing south on the road from Centreville to Manassas, which crosses Bull Run at Blackburn's Ford through a long stretch of timber, for about two miles, they came to an opening, when sight was caught of a strong body of the enemy. Ayres' battery was ordered to advance and open on them from a commanding elevation. Hardly had the fir ing well commenced, when it was replied to by a battery which had not been seen, at a dis tance down the road. Some of the grape shot from this battery killed two horses of the cav alry drawn up in a body on a hill, and wounded two of the men. A vigorous response being kept up by Ayres' battery, the enemy soon retired into the woods, when the firing ceased. The Second Michigan was then ordered to deploy as skirmishers on the left of the road, and advance into the wood. They briskly moved for ward, and entered the timber, and quickly after their disappearance a lively exchange of rifle shots took place for a few minutes. This was soon followed by a succession of volleys, evidently discharged by large bodies of men. The Third Michigan, the First Massachusetts, and the Twelfth New York, composing the remainder of the brigade, were then ordered to advance tow ards the wood. This was promptly done. They then drew up in battle array in front and on the right of the timber. All this time the firing in the woods went on in the liveliest style. Companies G and H of the First Massachusetts, and some companies of the New York Twelfth and of the First Massachusetts, were then ordered into the woods as skirmishers, at the same time the cavalry and two howitzers advanced to their edge. Meanwhile the firing within was

kept up. The howitzers then threw some grape shot into the timber, when a terrific series of volleys of musketry was discharged from the woods upon the troops outside. At the same time a battery opened from an elevation in the rear, and poured a storm of grape and canister at the Federal troops. Fortunately the fire was aimed too high, and few outside the woods were hit. A retreat was now ordered, and the whole brigade retired, and formed behind their battery on the hill. In doing this, the Twelfth New York and a portion of the First Massachusetts broke ranks and scattered in different directions for some distance on their retreat. At this time the third brigade, under Colonel Sherman, came up, headed by the Sixty-ninth New York. The fire was now reopened from the battery, and continued about an hour, to which the enemy's battery vigorously replied. Their shot and shells struck the houses in front of the

battery, and raked the woods in the rear for a considerable distance. A retreat was then ordered by General McDowell, who had come up, and the entire force fell back, having suffered a loss of one hundred killed and wounded.

This reconnoissance developed a degree of strength and preparation on the part of the enemy, greater than had been anticipated. During the day the centre and left wings came up, and the whole force was concentrated at Centreville.

The next two days were passed by the Federal force in strengthening its position. Meantime the Commander-in-Chief was occupied in obtaining more accurate knowledge of the position and strength of the enemy, and arranging his plans for an attack. The result of these reconnoitrings is shown in the order of battle subsequently issued.

Meanwhile it would appear that an attack upon the Federal forces was contemplated by the Commander of the Confederate army. Probably he was anticipated by the attack of General McDowell. This appears from documents found in the camp at Manassas, after its evacuation by the Confederate force early in 1862. One of these papers contains the plan of battle, and shows by the details that the Confederate force was not inferior to that of the Federal army. It is as follows:




The following order is published for the information of division and brigade commanders:

1. Brigadier-General Ewell's brigade, supported by General Holmes' brigade, will march via Union Mills Ford and place itself in position of attack upon the ene my. It will be held in readiness either to support the attack upon Centreville, or to move in the direction of Santer's Cross Roads, according to circumstances. The order to advance will be given by the Commanderin-Chief.

2. Brigadier-General Jones' brigade, supported by Colonel Earl's brigade, will march via McLane's Ford to place itself in position of attack upon the enemy on or about the Union Mills and Centreville road. It will be held in readiness either to support the attack

on Centreville, or to move in the direction of Fairfax Station, according to circumstances, with its right less distant, according to the nature of the country and flank towards the left of Ewell's command, more or attack. The order to advance will be given by the Commander-in-Chief.

3. Brigadier-General Longstreet's brigade, supported by Brigadier-General Jackson's brigade, will march via McLane's Ford to place itself in position of attack upon the enemy on or about the Union Mills and Centreville roads. It will be held in readiness either to support the attack on Centreville or to move in the direction of Fairfax Court House, according to circumstances, with its right flank towards the left of Jones' command, more or less distant, according to the nature of the country. The order to advance will be given by the Commander-in-Chief.

4. Brigadier-General Bonham's brigade, supported by Colonel Bartow's brigade, will march via Mitchell's the left of the third division, more or less distant, acFord to the attack of Centreville. The right wing to cording to the nature of the country and of the attack. The order to advance will be given by the Commander


Elzy's brigade, will march, via Stone Bridge and the 5. Colonel Cooke's brigade, supported by Colonel fords on the right thereof, to the attack of Centreville. The right wing to the left of the fourth division, more or less distant, according to the nature of the country and of the attack. The order to advance will be given by the Commander-in-Chief.

6. Brigadier-General Bee's brigade, supported by Colonel Wilcox's brigade, Colonel Stuart's regiment of cavalry, and the whole of Walton's battery, will form the reserve, and will march via Mitchell's Ford, to be used according to circumstances.

The light batteries will be distributed as follows: 1. To Brigadier-General Ewell's command-Captain Walker, six pieces.

2. To Brigadier-General Jones'-Captains Albertis'

and Stanwood's batteries, eight pieces.

dleton's and Captain Imboden's batteries, eight pieces. 3. To Brigadier-General Longstreet's-Colonel Pen4. To Brigadier-General Bonham's-Captains Kemper's and Shields' batteries, eight pieces.

5. To Colonel Cooke's-Colonel Hemton's and Captains Latham's and Beckwith's batteries, twelve pieces. report immediately, as follows: Colonel Radford, commanding cavalry, will detail to

To Brigadier-General Ewell, two companies cavalry. To Brigadier-General Jones, two companies cavalry. To Brigadier-General Longstreet, two companies cavalry.

To Brigadier-General Bonham, three companies cavalry.

To Colonel Cooke, the remaining companies of cavalry, except those in special service.

Centreville, will advance to the attack of Fairfax Court House via the Braddock and Turnpike roads, to the north of the latter. The first, second, and third divisions will, if necessary, support the fourth and fifth divisions.

9. The fourth and fifth divisions, after the fall of

10. In this movement the first, second, and third divisions will form the command of Brigadier-General Holmes. The fourth and fifth divisions, that of the second in command.

The reserve will move upon the plains between Mitchell's Ford and Stone Bridge, and, together with the fourth and fifth divisions, will be under the immediate direction of General Beauregard.

By command of General BEAUREGARD. THOMAS JORDAN, A. A. Adjutant-General.

SPECIAL ORDER NO. -. HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, July 20, 1861. The plan of attack given by Brigadier-General Beauregard, in the above order, is approved, and will be executed accordingly.

J. E. JOHNSTON, General C. S. A.

Mitchell's Ford, spoken of in the above orders, is a short distance above Blackburn's Ford. McLane's Ford is about the same distance below Blackburn's Ford. Union Mills is still further below, near the crossing of the Alexandria and Orange Railroad. The Stone Bridge is the crossing for the Warrenton turnpike.

The result of observations on the part of General McDowell convinced him that the mass of the Confederate force had not been advanced from Manassas to the back of the creek called Bull Run. This tortuous stream runs from northwest to southeast, through the entire field of battle. At the extreme part on the northwest, is Sudley's Spring, where it is fordable; three miles lower down is a crossing known as the Stone Bridge, and still lower is Blackburn's Ford; further down is Union Mills, mentioned in General Beauregard's order. Centreville is a village of a few houses, mostly on the west side of a ridge running nearly north and south. The road from Centreville to Manassas Junction was along this ridge, and crossed Bull Run about three miles from the former place. Through Centreville, running nearly east and west, passes the Warrenton turnpike, and crosses Bull Run about four miles distant.

The conviction of General McDowell was that the mass of the Confederate force was at Manassas. He says in his report: "On the evening of the 20th, my command was mostly at or near Centreville. The enemy was at or near Manassas, distant from Centreville about seven miles to the southwest." He was looking to the intrenchments at Manassas to find the body of the Confederate army; and there, it was anticipated, would be fought, in one or two days after crossing Bull Run, the great battle, or the enemy would retire. Every effort was made by the Confederate officers to conceal their strength at Bull Run. In the reconnoissance of the 18th, they did not appear outside the wood. On the 19th, when a flag of truce was sent by General McDowell to the Confederate lines, in order to recover the dead and wounded of the day previous, admission was refused to it. Thus conceiving the mass of the Confederate army to be at Manassas, the order of battle was prepared accordingly, and issued on the night of the 20th, to be executed the next day. It was manifest that the crossing of Bull Run would be disputed; but the greatest contest, anticipated the next day, was expected to come when the attempt should be made to destroy the railroad leading from Manassas to the valley of Virginia. The orders for the 21st were as follows:

HEAD-Quarters, Department Army EASTERN VA., CENTREVILLE, July 20, 1861. The enemy has planted a battery on the Warrenton turnpike to defend the passage of Bull Run; has seized the Stone Bridge and made a heavy abatis on the right bank, to oppose our advance in that direction. The ford above the bridge is also guarded, whether with artillery or not is not positively known, but every indication favors the belief that he proposes to defend the passage of the stream.

It is intended to turn the position, force the enemy from the road, that it may be reopened, and, if possi ble, destroy the railroad leading from Manassas to the valley of Virginia, where the enemy has a large force. As this may be resisted by all the force of the enemy, the troops will be disposed as follows:

The first division, (General Tyler's,) with the excep tion of Richardson's brigade, will, at half-past two o'clock in the morning precisely, be on the Warrenton turnpike to threaten the passage of the bridge, but will not open fire until full daybreak.

The second division (Hunter's) will move from its camp at two o'clock in the morning precisely, and, led by Captain Woodbury, of the Engineers, will, after Run stream above the ford at Sudley's Spring, and passing Cub Run, turn to the right and pass the Bull then turning down to the left, descend the stream and clear away the enemy who may be guarding the lower ford and bridge. It will then bear off to the right and make room for the succeeding division. The third division (Heintzelman's) will march st half-past two o'clock in the morning, and follow the road taken by the second division, but will cross st the lower ford after it has been turned as above, and then, going to the left, take place between the stream and second division.

The fifth division (Miles') will take position on the Centreville Heights, (Richardson's brigade will, for the time, form part of the fifth division, and will conthe village, and one near the present station of Richtinue in its present position.) One brigade will be in ardson's brigade. This division will threaten the Blackburn Ford, and remain in reserve at Centreville. The commander will open fire with artillery only, and will bear in mind that it is a demonstration only he is earthworks, &c., to be thrown up as will strengthen to make. He will cause such defensive works, abatis, his position. Lieutenant Prime, of the Engineers, will be charged with this duty.

These movements may lead to the gravest results, in mind the immense consequences involved. There and commanders of divisions and brigades should bear must be no failure, and every effort must be made to prevent straggling.

No one must be allowed to leave the ranks without ordered, the troops must be held in order of battle, as special authority. After completing the movements they may be attacked at any moment. By command of

Brigadier General MCDOWELL JAMES B. FRY, Adjutant-General.

The position of the Federal forces on the night previous to the battle can be briefly told. The first division, which had been the right wing thus far, was stationed on the north side of the Warrenton turnpike and on the eastern slope of the Centreville ridge, two brigades on the same road and a mile and a half in advance, to the west of the ridge, and one brigade on the road from Centreville to Manassas, where it crosses Bull Run at Blackburn's Ford, where the engagement on the 18th was. The second division was on the Warrenton turnpike, one mile east of Centreville. The third division was about a mile and a half out on the old Braddock road, which comes into Centreville from the southeast. The fifth division was on the same road as the third division, and between it and Centreville. The orders given to the respective divisions are thus described by General McDowell in his report:

"On Friday night a train of subsistence arrived, and on Saturday its contents were or dered to be issued to the command, and the men required to have three days' rations in

their haversacks. On Saturday orders were issued for the available force to march. As reported to you in my letter of the 19th ultimo, my personal reconnoissance of the roads to the south had shown that it was not practicable to carry out the original plan of turning the enemy's position on his right. The affair of the 18th at Blackburn's Ford showed he was too strong at that point for us to force a passage there without great loss, and if we did, that it would bring us in front of his strong position at Manassas, which was not desired. Our information was that the StoneBridge, over which the Warrenton road crossed Bull Run, to the west of Centreville, was defended by a battery in position, and the road on his side of the stream impeded by a heavy abatis. The alternative was, therefore, to turn the extreme left of his position. Reliable information was obtained of an undefended ford about three miles above the bridge, there being another ford between it and the bridge, which was defended. It was therefore determined to take the road to the upper ford, and after crossing, to get behind the forces guarding the lower ford and the bridge, and after occupying the Warrenton road west of the bridge, to send out a force to destroy the railroad at or near Gainesville, and thus break up the communication between the enemy's forces at Manassas and those in the valley of Virginia, before Winchester, which had been held in check by Major-General Patterson. "Brigadier-General Tyler was directed to move with three of his brigades on the Warrenton road, and commence cannonading the enemy's batteries, while Hunter's division, moving after him, should, after passing a little stream called Cub Run, turn to the right and north, and move around to the upper ford, and there turn south and get behind the enemy. Colonel Heintzelman's division was to follow Hunter's as far as the turning-off place to the lower ford, where he was to cross after the enemy should have been driven out by Hunter's division; the fifth division (Miles') to be in reserve on the Centreville ridge.

"I had felt anxious about the road from Manassas by Blackburn's Ford to Centreville, along the ridge, fearing that whilst we should be in force to the front, and endeavoring to turn the enemy's position, we ourselves should be turned by him by this road; for if he should once obtain possession of this ridge, which overlooks all the country to the west to the foot of the spurs of the Blue Ridge, we should have been irretrievably cut off and destroyed. I had, therefore, directed this point to be held in force, and sent an engineer to extemporize some field-works to strengthen the position.

"The fourth division (Runyon's) had not been brought to the front further than to guard our communications by way of Vienna and the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. His ad vanced regiment was about seven miles in the rear of Centreville.

"The divisions were ordered to march at

half-past two o'clock A. M., so as to arrive on the ground early in the day, and thus avoid the heat which is to be expected at this season. There was delay in the first division getting out of its camp on the road, and the other divisions were in consequence between two and three hours behind the time appointed—a great misfortune, as events turned out. The wood road leading from the Warrenton turnpike to the upper ford was much longer tlian we counted upon, the general direction of the stream being oblique to the road, and we having the obtuse angle on our side.'

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At half-past two, on the morning of the 21st, the division under General Tyler, which had heretofore been the right wing, moved, with the exception of Richardson's brigade, to threaten the passage of the Warrenton turnpike bridge, or Stone Bridge, on Bull Run. After moving a short distance Col. Keyes' brigade was halted by order of General McDowell, to watch the road coming up from Manassas. This was about two miles from the run. The two remaining brigades of this division, being those of Cols. Schenck and Sherman, with Ayres' and Carlisle's batteries, proceeded on and arrived in front of the bridge about six A. M. An examination of the position was made, and the brigades and artillery got into position. The first gun, as a signal that they were in position, was fired at half-past six o'clock. As the design was to threaten the bridge, Col. Schenck's brigade was formed into a line, with its left resting in the direction of the bridge and the Confederate battery, which had been established to sweep the bridge and its approach, so as to threaten both. Col. Sherman's brigade was posted to the right of the turnpike, so as to be in position to sustain Colonel Schenck or to move across Bull Run, in the direction to be taken by Col. Hunter's division.

A 30-pounder gun attached to Carlisle's battery was posted on the turnpike, with Ayres' battery considerably in its rear, while Carlisle's battery was posted on the left of Col. Sherman's brigade. In this position they were ordered to remain, awaiting the appearance of the divisions of Cols. Hunter and Heintzelman on the other side, until such time that the approach to the bridge could be carried and the bridge rebuilt by the engineers, who had on the spot materials for that purpose.

While this had been going on with the first division, the first brigade of the second division, under Col. Porter, had been silently paraded in light marching order at two o'clock in the morning. Owing to frequent delays in the march of troops in front, it did not reach Centreville until half-past four. It proceeded out on the Warrenton turnpike, and it was an hour after sunrise when its head was turned to the right to commence the flank movement by crossing at Sudley's Spring. The second brigade of the division, which was now in advance, made such slow and intermittent progress through the woods, that it was four hours be

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