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capable of throwing round shot of 425 lbs. weight, and 2 ten-inch rifled guns. They are to rest on wrought-iron shot-proof carriages, each of the 15-inch guns, with its carriage, weighing 60,000 lbs., and each of the 10-inch guns, with its carriage, 40,000 lbs. The weight of broadside thrown by these guns is 2,200 lbs., far exceeding that of any other war vessel in the world. The weight of broadside of all the guns of the Warrior is 1,564 lbs, and of the Minnesota, unprotected by armor, is 1,122 lbs. The original plan was to depend upon the immense weight and strength of these guns for their protection against the shot of the enemy, and it was supposed that they might themselves be sufficient defence to the single man required upon deck to each one for sighting it; but a covering of wrought iron is also devised for their further security in their exposed situation en barbette. The whole arrangement for loading and training them is of an exceedingly novel character, designed to be conducted entirely by men below the deck, and with steam machinery, under the direction of the gunner in charge of each gun. The loading is performed by depressing the muzzle into an opening in the deck at an angle of about 20°. The bore is thus brought in line with the steam cylinder, below which it has, upon the outer and upper extremity of its piston-rod, a compound sponge and rammer. On admitting steam to one side and the other of this piston, the gun is sponged out, and the ammunition being placed in a position near the muzzle, is rammed home by the steam rammer, after which the piece is elevated, trained upon the enemy, and fired. The recoil is received by springs of india rubber disks, making a pile on each side 40 inches long, which throw the piece forward into position again, similar springs in front checking the return movement in that direction.

The total expenditure upon the vessel has been $728,435.87, of which the Governinent has paid $500,000 and Mr. Edwin A. Stevens the remainder. The amount required to complete the vessel is estimated at $554,858.13, making the total cost $1,283,294. The following were the principal objections found by the board in the construction and equipment of the ship: her great length compared with the transverse strength rendering her unsafe in a heavy sea, while for harbor service alone, she would be inconvenient on account of her length and draught of water; the exposure of the quarters of the men and officers to be flooded by shotholes in the unprotected sides near the waterline when the ship is submerged below the 21feet deck; a want of sufficient strength above the 14-feet line for the support of the heavy armor; the inefficiency of the side armor forward and abaft the central protected part; the danger to the light deck when the heavy guns are fired nearly on a line with the keel. This last objection, however, was withdrawn after the board had witnessed some experiments made by Mr. Stevens in firing a 10-inch gun over a deck

temporarily arranged on the same plan. The others also have been ably answered by Mr. Stevens in a memorial he addressed to the Senate and House of Representatives in February, 1862, in which he fully explained the peculiarities in the construction of the vessel, presented the opinions of experts thoroughly acquainted with the construction of iron steamships, who reported unanimously their opinions in favor of the great strength and safety of the vessel, and her great capacity of speed, &c., which is estimated at not less than 17 nautical or 20 statute miles an hour.

This memorial, which forms a large printed pamphlet, contains much valuable information respecting iron-clad ships, the history of their earliest designs, and offers an interesting expla nation of the fact of the French preceding all other European governments in adopting this class of war vessels, their first idea on the subject being derived from an eminent person, who, when an exile, became aware of some of the author's experiments. On the 31st of December Mr. Stevens having made preparations for a series of experiments at Hoboken, upon a large scale, invited the board appointed to examine the battery, together with a large number of gentlemen, officials and others, to witness their results. On the day appointed, Jan. 4, a large company assembled at Hoboken, where they were shown the battery in its incomplete state, and the models and plans according to which it was to be finished. After this the following experiments were made: a 10-inch gun, procured from the Navy Department, weighing 9,883 pounds, was mounted with India rubber buffers behind the trunnions. This gun was loaded with a full service charge, 11 pounds of powder, and a solid spherical ball weighing 124 pounds, and was fired at a target exactly representing a section of the armor of the battery, and anchored in the river, 220 yards from the gun. The target was composed of layers of plate iron from five-eighths to two inches thick, making 64 inches in all. It was 4 feet broad, 8 feet long, and set at an angle of 27 degrees with the horizon.

The iron was backed with two layers of locust timbers seven inches thick each. In the lower layer were imbedded wrought-iron beams six inches high, four feet long, and two feet apart, weighing forty-six pounds to the yard.

Beneath the wood was a half-inch iron plate, making the entire thickness twenty-one and one-fourth inches. The upper and lower plates were fastened to the wood by wood screws fifteen inches apart, and the side edges of the upper plates were battened by iron, one inch thick and three inches wide, and riveted together.

This target rested on a raft, so as to have no support except at the edges, the lower part of it was 18 inches under water.

After a few experimental shots, the gun was pointed at the target, and the first shot struck it 21 inches above the water, and within nine

inches of the right edge of the target. Its effect was to make an indentation and deflection, which together were 113 inches deep in the deepest place, and which ran out to the surface or diminished to nothing in a distance of 13 inches measured on the line of flight without cracking any of the plates. The second shot passed to the right of the target, and the third went over it. The fourth shot struck the target on its left side, 13 inches from the edge, and 11 inches above the water, with the same effect as that of the first shot, except that the depression was 14 inches deep. The figure of this indentation was similar to that of the first. The recoil of the gun was 7 inches, and did no injury to the carriage or buffers.

This gun was loaded by steam-power, the muzzle being depressed so as to bring the bore parallel with a steam cylinder situated below a platform made to represent the deck of the battery. The platform was composed of white pine planks, 2 inches thick, resting on pine beains 5 inches square and 2 feet apart from centre to centre, and caulked and pitched in the usual manner. The piston-rod of this steam cylinder was the ramrod of the gun. Upon the upper end of this ramrod was a swab, which also answered the purpose of a rammer. The cartridge and ball were attached to a sabot and placed on a scoop, arranged so as to lift the ball to its proper position between the rammer and the muzzle of the gun, when steam being admitted to the cylinder, the ball was forced home. The gun was then elevated, sighted, and fired.

The deck above described was 34 feet below the line of fire. Upon examination after the firing, no injury or change could be perceived in the deck or its caulkings.

A Parrott rifled gun having a 6-inch bore, and weighing about 9,300 lbs., was then fired at the target with 10 lbs. of powder and an elongated shell weighing 100 lbs. Several of these shots were fired, and one struck the target 4 feet 6 inches from the water, and 6 inches from the right side, making a depression one inch deep and running out to the surface at a distance of 8 inches without doing other injury to the plates. This shot grazed the edge of the batten, displacing the corner to the depth of half an inch. The mounting of this gun was such that temporary sights had to be used, which accounts for the inaccuracy of its aim.

The experiments of settling and raising a vessel and of turning her on her centre were tried with the iron steamboat Naugatuck. She is 100 feet long by 20 feet beam and 7 feet depth of hold, and is arranged with apartments at the ends and on deck for receiving the water to depress her. The water was pumped into the compartments and on deck, depressing the vessel 2 feet 10 inches, and submerging the deck 6 inches in 15 minutes. The water was then pumped out in 8 minutes, restoring the vessel to her original draft. The vessel was turned end for end in 1 minutes, by reversing one of

her two screw propellers. These experiments were repeated several times with substantially the same results.

On the 11th further experiments were made in the presence of General Scott, General Anderson, Colonel Delafield, and other officers, engineers, and citizens. The 10-inch gun, mounted as before described, was loaded by steam with 11 pounds of powder and a 124pound ball, and fired four times with the same charge; the entire time occupied by the four shots being 139 consecutive seconds, and the average time being 344 seconds. The quickest time was 25 seconds. The average was increased by the failure of a friction primer to go off. A 225-pound elongated shot was afterwards fired with 4 pounds of powder, having been loaded with the same rapidity as the 124-pound shots, and the recoil being less. The raft on which the target was secured, having been carried away by the floating ice in the river, it could not be replaced in time for this experiment.

The energies of the navy were severely tested during the year, in maintaining the blockade of an immense line of sea coast. So successful was this effort that the governments of Europe acknowledged its efficiency, and refrained from any interference. The other operations may be briefly stated. On the 12th of April, upon the receipt of orders from Secretary Welles conveyed by Lieutenant Worden, the commander of the fleet off Pensacola harbor, Captain Adams, prepared to reenforce Fort Pickens, and the same night the troops under Captain Vodges, and the marines under Lieutenant Cash were landed. No opposition was made, and no accident or disorder occurred. The expedition was under the command of Commander Charles H. Poor, assisted by Lieutenants Smith, Lewis, Newman, and Belknap.

On the 31st of May, the gunboat Freeborn, supported by the Anacosta and Resolute, made a serious cannonade upon the Confederate batteries at Aquia Creek. The firing continued for two hours, and the three lower batteries of the enerny were silenced. The action was recommenced on the next day, a higher tier of batteries being engaged, and continued for five hours, from half-past eleven A. M. to half-past four P. M. The gunboat Pawnee was engaged on the second day. Some damage was done to the vessels, but no one was killed.

On the 5th of June, the steamer Harriet Lane opened fire upon the Confederate battery at Pig Point. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the strength of the battery. Thirty rounds of shot and shell were thrown from the steamer, and about fifty from the battery. The vessel was somewhat injured, but no lives were lost. (See PIG POINT.)

On the 3d of June the brig Perry captured the privateer Savannah. (See PRIVATEERS.)

On the 26th of June the Freeborn and Reliance, gunboats, made an attack on the Confederate batteries at Matthias Point, and were

repulsed, with the loss of Commander Ward, killed, and four wounded. (See WARD, and MATTHIAS POINT.)

On the 21st of July, a battalion of marines, under the command of Major John G. Reynolds, was present and took part in the battle of Bull Run. (See BULL RUN.)

On the 25th of July, Lieutenant Crosby, with five launches and four boats from Fortress Monroe, proceeded up Back River, a small stream, not far from the fortress, and destroyed ten vessels. They also brought back a schooner heavily laden with corn, provisions, and other articles.

On the 10th of August, Galveston, in Texas, was bombarded by Commander Alden. (See GALVESTON.)

On the 15th of August, the gunboats Reliance and Resolute were despatched to make a reconnoissance of Matthias Point. A boat was sent with a small party to capture another boat seen on the Virginia shore. As the former approached the shore they were fired on from the bushes, and three of the boat's crew were instantly killed and one wounded. The gunboats opened fire upon the covert and drove the enemy out, when the boat's crew was brought off by assistance from one of the vessels.

On the 26th of August, the naval and military expedition to Hatteras Inlet sailed from Hampton Roads. (See EXPEDITIONS.)

On the 10th of September, the gunboat Conestoga, Lieutenant S. E. Phelps, opened fire on a Confederate battery at Lucas Bend, a few miles below Cairo on the Mississippi River. There were sixteen pieces of field artillery and one heavy piece in the battery. Some of the guns were rifled. In a short time the gunboat Lexington, under Commander Stembel, arrived. The guns of the battery constantly changed their position on the shore, and the boats moved up or down in like manner. As the former were silenced at one spot they reappeared at another until they were finally silenced. Several shots were also fired at a Confederate gunboat, which retired to Columbus. The object of the movement of the gunboats was to accompany a body of troops marching down the Missouri side of the river.

On the 13th of September, the schooner Judah was destroyed as she lay at the Pensacola navy yard. (See PENSACOLA.)

On the 14th of September, the fort on Beacon Island, at Ocrocoke Inlet, was destroyed and twenty-two guns disabled.

On the 16th of September, a naval force under Commander Melancthon Smith occupied Ship Island.

On the 5th of October, the gunboat Monticello, Lieutenant D. L. Braine, shelled a Confederate force on Hatteras Island and the steamers from which they had landed. (See HATTERAS ISLAND.)

On the 5th of October, an attempt was made to cut off two boats and twenty-three men belonging to the steamer Louisiana, which had

been sent to destroy a schooner at Chincoteague Inlet, Virginia. The schooner was destroyed, and four of the Federal force were wounded. The injury to the Confederates is unknown.

On the 11th of October, a large schooner was destroyed in Quantico (or Dumfries) Creek by a Federal force in two launches under Lieutenant A. D. Harrall. It was dark at the time, and the attacking party was fired upon by a considerable Confederate force on the shore.

On the 11th of October, a Confederate battery at Lynnhaven Bay was silenced by the propeller Daylight, Commander Samuel Lockwood. The battery had opened fire upon an American ship, which, during a gale, had dragged within reach of its guns.

On the 13th of October, the affair at the Passes of the Mississippi took place. (See LouISIANA.)

On the 21st of October, a skirmish at long range took place between the steamer Massachusetts, Captain Smith, and a Confederate steamer of light draft and great speed, in Mississippi Sound. The Massachusetts was struck by a 68-pounder shell, but continued the engagement until her ammunition was exhausted.

On the night of October 27, a boat expedition from the steamer Louisiana destroyed a schooner at Swan's Bug Creek, near Chincoteague Inlet, Virginia.

About October 30, Lieutenant Phelps with three companies of an Illinois regiment in the gunboat Conestoga, attacked a Confederate force at Eddyville, up the Tennessee River, 62 miles from Paducah. Forty-four prisoners were taken, and also stores.

On the 7th of November, the batteries at Port Royal were captured. (See EXPEDITIONS.)

On the 9th of November, the gunboats Taylor, Commander Walke, and Lexington, Commander Stembel, participated in a disastrous attack on the batteries at Belmont on the Mississippi River. On the same day a schooner was burned at Curritowan Creek, Va., by a force from the gunboat Cambridge, Commander W. A. Parker.

On the 14th of November, the gunboat Corwin had a conflict with a Confederate steamer at Hatteras Inlet.

A number of exploits were performed before the close of the year by the gunboats of the


NEW HAMPSHIRE is one of the New Eng land States, and one of the original members of the Confederation. It is situated between lat. 42° 41′ and 45° 11' N., and long. 70° 40′ and 72° 28′ W. from Greenwich. Its length from north to south is 176 miles; extreme breadth, 90 miles; average breadth, 45 miles; area, 9,280 square miles, or 5,939,200 acres. The population in 1860 was-whites, 325, 622; free colored, 450; total, 326,072. It is bounded north by Lower Canada, east by Maine and the Atlantic, south by Massachusetts, and west by Vermont, from which it is separated by the Connecticut River. It is divided into ten counties.

The valuation of the real and personal property of its citizens in 1850, was $103,652,835; in 1860, $156,310,860. The vote at the presidential election in the same year was as follows: Lincoln, 37,519; Douglas, 25,881; Breckinridge 2,112; Bell, 441. At the presidential election in 1856 the vote was as follows: Fremont, 38,345; Buchanan, 32,789; Fillmore, 422. The State had, on the 1st of January, 1862, 684 miles of railway completed and in progress, of which 658 miles, constructed and equipped at a cost of $22,676,234, were open for traffic.

The State responded promptly to the call for troops in April, and the Governor issued the following proclamation:

CONCORD, April 16, 1861. SIR: The President of the United States having, in pursuance of the act of Congress approved February 28, 1795, called upon the State of New Hampshire for a regiment of militia, consisting of ten companies of infantry, to be held in readiness to be mustered into the service of the United States for the purpose of quelling an insurrection and supporting the Government, I, Ichabod Goodwin, Governor of New Hampshire, command you to make proclamation, calling for volunteers from the enrolled militia of this State to the number required, and to issue from time to time all necessary orders and instructions for enrolling and holding in readiness to be mustered into service said volunteer corps, agreeable to the aforesaid requisition. ICHABOD GOODWIN. To the Adjutant-General N. H. Militia.

On the 8th of May the first regiment was ready, and it left Concord for the seat of war on the 25th of May.

The election for State officers had taken place on the second Tuesday of March, and the republican candidate, Nathaniel S. Berry, was elected, receiving a majority of 4,496 votes over his opponent, George Stark. The new Governor was not inaugurated till the session of the Legislature on the 5th of June. In his Message delivered the next day, he urged immediate attention to such measures as were necessary to aid the General Government in the war which was made upon it by a portion of the States, and trusted that New Hampshire would be behind none of her sister States in the appropriation of men and money for the purpose. He recommended the organization of at least one regiment for every county in the State, to be thoroughly drilled and equipped for service at the call of the Legislature.

To these recommendations the Legislature responded most cordially. During the session of thirty days, resolutions were reported declaring the war now in progress to be solely for the maintenance of the Government and the suppression of rebellion; declaring against the right of secession; asserting that neither the President nor Congress can constitutionally entertain any proposition which had for its object the dismemberment of the Government or the dissolution of the Union; and finally declaring that the State of New Hampshire pledged her resources for the integrity of the Union, the support of the Constitution, and the enforcement of the laws of the General Government. When

these resolutions were put to the vote, the members all rose and gave a unanimous aye. A militia bill was passed, authorizing the Governor to raise three regiments, to each of which he might add a company of artillery, cavalry, and riflemen. One million of dollars was also appropriated for recruiting, arming, and equipping troops for the service of the United States. Eight regiments were raised and sent forward during the year: one for three months, mustered into service on the 7th of May, 1861; which returned and was mustered out of the service on the 9th of August, 1861; and seven regiments for three years or during the war; and one battery of artillery, three companies of sharpshooters, and four companies of cavalry. The whole number of enlistments, since the first requisition by the President, was 9,197 men. The sums paid for recruiting and equipping the several regiments and companies amounted to $893,333 26.

In November, the Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Chase, wrote to the Governor as follows: Will you inform me, at the earliest practicable period, whether the authorities of New Hampshire will assume and pay the amount of direct tax appor tioned to that State by the existing law; and also whether, in case of any change in the law by which a different and perhaps larger amount shall be apportioned to the State, the authorities will probably assume and pay it? I am, very respectfully,

S. P. CHASE, Sec. of the Treasury. NATHANIEL S. BERRY, Governor, &c.

To this inquiry the Governor replied as follows:

In answer, I would say that, in order that our State may avail itself of the advantages of said act, you are hereby notified and assured that it is the intention of the authorities of this State to assume and pay such direct tax into the Treasury of the United States, agreeably to the provisions of said act. And, in case of any change by which even a larger amount shall be apportioned to this State, it will probably be assumed and paid, as aforesaid.

I respectfully suggest that it may be the wish of our State, if agreeable to the Department, to allow, in the such just debts and claims as may be due and owing form of a just and reasonable set-off against said tax, from the General Government to the Treasurer of this State, lawfully created and advanced, to furnish troops, agreeably to the acts of Congress on that subject. We also with pleasure assure you that New Hampshire will, by her men and money, furnish her full proportion of the means requisite to crush out this unholy rebellion, at such times and occasions as the General Government shall demand.

Very respectfully,

NATHANIEL S. BERRY. To S. P. CHASE, Secretary of Treasury.

The banking capital in the State is $5,131,000, which was reduced during the year by $102,000, on the part of some of the banks. There are twenty-seven savings institutions in the State, with an aggregate of assets amounting to $5,860,229; the amount due to depositors was $5,653,585, and the surplus $206,943. The State debt on the 1st of June, 1861, was $31,668, which was considerably reduced during the remainder of the year.

NEW JERSEY. The State of New Jersey was one of the original thirteen, and is one of the Middle States. It is almost entirely surrounded by navigable waters, being separated from Pennsylvania and Delaware on the west and south by the river and bay of Delaware, and on the east having the Atlantic Ocean, Staten Island Sound, the Kills, and the Hudson River. The northeastern boundary, which separates it from New York, is a line drawn from 40° on the Hudson, to a point on the Delaware 41° 21' north latitude. The greatest length of the State, from Cape May to Carpenter's Point, is 166 miles. Its breadth varies from 40 to 75 miles, and the surface is 7,276 square miles. The population of the State of New Jersey is, by the census of 1860, 672,024. In 1850, it was 489,319 whites, and 236 slaves. A number of legal slaves still exist in the State; but being mostly the attached servants of old families, are not regarded in the light of slaves. The progress of population in the State has been very rapid in the last ten years by accessions from New York. The soil of New Jersey is good, and, by the valuation of the census, it ranks higher than that of any other State.

The number of the electoral votes of the State is seven, and it was the only Northern vote not given entirely to Mr. Lincoln. There were cast three for Mr. Douglas.

The Governor is elected for three years. The Senate consists of twenty-one members, elected for three years; and the House of sixty, elected for one year. The Governor is Chas. S. Olden. The city of Newark has a population of 72,000; and the census shows its annual manufactures at $23,264,313, of which $18,000,000 found a market at the South.

The people of New Jersey were apparently alive to the dangers which threatened the country through the course of events. A State Union Convention was called to meet at Trenton on the 11th of December, 1860, the same day on which the South Carolina Senators withdrew from Congress.

The following is the call for the Convention: The undersigned respectfully invite the people of New Jersey to assemble in mass Convention at Trenton on Tuesday, the 11th instant, at 12 o'clock, at the State House, to consider the condition of national affairs, and to concert such measures as may be deemed advisable under the present crisis of our Republic. All national men in favor of constitutional Union measures are invited to attend.

The call was signed by representatives of all the national parties in the State by thousands. The Convention assembled on the day appointed, amidst a vast concourse of people at Trenton.

The following preamble and resolutions were adopted:

Whereas, history records that to New Jersey is due the credit of having given such instructions to her Commissioners, which met at Annapolis in 1786, to adopt measures for a more perfect union of the States, which led to the assembling of the Convention of 1787,

which formed that admirable Constitution that, under the blessing of God, has conferred such inestimable

benefits on the people of the United States; and whereas, New Jersey has always faithfully abided by when she accepted and adopted the Constitution of the compacts and agreements to which she assented the United States; and whereas, that Constitution was the result of generous and magnanimous concession and compromise, and New Jersey is now, as formerly, willing to make any proper concession, or and patriotism may require for its promotion; and give any proper additional guarantees which wisdom whereas, from the foregoing consideration, it is evidently proper that New Jersey should interpose, and by her conservative voice invite her sister States, as well as all extremists of all parties and sections, to pause and deliberate, and consent to make one more patriotic effort in the preservation of the Union which Washington pronounced the "palladium of our liberty;" therefore be it

solution of the United States. Resolved, That there is imminent danger of the dis

Resolved, That the cause of the present portentous crisis is the actual and threatened interference on the part of the Northern agitators with the rights and property of the people of fifteen States of this Union. Resolved, That we see no remedy for this deplorable state of public affairs unless the North, in the most prompt and explicit manner, shall avow its determination to remove all political agitation for the abolition embarrass the faithful execution of the fugitive slave of slavery shall repeal all acts designed to nullify or law; shall consent to the citizen of the South enjoy. ing the services of his domestic while temporarily sojourning here on business or pleasure; and shall accord to the South all the rights of property guaran. teed by the Constitution and the laws, and the deci sions of the Supreme Court in pursuance thereof. Resolved, That it is no valid objection to the concession or compromises which we have suggested that they are compromises of political principles; for the Constitution was only made by concession and compromise of political principles, and in all its parts we trace the evidence of the mutual surrender and compromise of political principles.

Resolved, That five delegates from this Convention be appointed to confer with our sister States, and urge upon them the necessity of the measures which we Lave between the States and the preservation of the Union. suggested as indispensable to the restoration of amity

The following extracts, from letters addressed to friends in Washington, by two among the distinguished Jerseymen who participated in the proceedings of the Convention, give an idea of the prevailing sentiment:

From Commodore Stockton.-If the South will only give us time, we will bring the North in entire and honorable fraternity with the South. We will save the Union if they (the South) will postpone action unul the spring. I have no doubt that the sentiment of the North will be practically in accord with our address

From Samuel J. Bayard.-We had a great Convention yesterday in Trenton. A more respectable or im posing body of men for character, property, gravity, and every element of importance, never assembled in New Jersey. The public mind is becoming much make light of current events. alarmed in New Jersey in spite of all attempts to

The Legislature assembled January 8th, and the conservative feeling was strong. A spirit of conciliation and compromise, blended with anxiety for the Union and national honor, was paramount among the people of the State, and was strongly reflected in the tone of the Message of the Governor. He remarked: "Unwilling to abandon the cause, and clinging to the hope that the Committee of Congress, appointed for that purpose, will agree on measures of com

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