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TABLE I.

The Combined Mortuary Experience of all the Life Insurance Companies doing business in Massachusetts for the three years ending Nov. 1, 1861, compared with what was to be expected from the rate of Mortality, adopted by the Insurance Commissioners, derived from the experience of Seventeen English Offices.

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Totals... 89,482.75 1,006 1,825.83 52,910.14 253 557.53 12,202.36 105

134.94

TABLE III.

Mortuary Experience and other discontinuances of
Whole-Life Policies divided among the years of the
Policy, showing the effect of selection.

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Other Discontinu

ances.

Ratio of Discontinuances to y'rs

of Life exposed.

.2299

13,483.88
22,995.67 120 .5219 4,146 18.08
16,431.50 102 .6208 1,933 11.76
253

.4782 6,079 11.49

114 .9668 87 .9074 7,651.83 82 1.0716 7,289.00 74 1.0152 6,382.25 59 .9244 6,796.25 66 .9726 7,334.83 106 1.4453

favorable influence of selection to have nearly, if not quite, ceased, gives a mortality which is to that of the English Experience table, which included the benefit of selection-though of course not to so great a degree, because their business was not increasing so fast-as 100 to 131.74.

IOWA, one of the interior or Western States, was admitted into the American Union, in 1845. It is situated between lat. 40° 20′ and 43° SU N., and long. 90° 12' and 96° 53′ W. from Greenwich. Its extent from N. to S. is 209 miles, and from E. to W. about 300 miles; its area is 50,914 square miles, or 32,584,960 acres. Population in 1860, 674,948. It is bounded N. 1,269 10.76 by Minnesota, E. by the Mississippi, which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois, S. by Mssouri, and partly by the Des Moines River, and W. by the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers, which separate it from Nebraska and Dakotah. It is divided into 99 counties. The valuation of the real and personal property of its citizens in 1850 was $23,714,638; in 1860, $247,338,265.

860 8.96

666 8.70 541 7.42 428 6.71 893 5.79 887 5.28

Second..

Third...

Total of first 8 years. 52,911.00

Fourth.

11,791.00

Fifth..

9,588.25

Sixth.

Seventh..

Eighth..

Ninth

Tenth..

Eleventh..

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Twelfth..

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278 8.80
269 3.64
205 8.44
143 3.22
186 4.26
56 2.89
2.65
14 4.40
8 2.68

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three years..... Grand total......... From tables I. and II. it is also apparent that the mortality in our own companies has pressed more heavily, compared with that of the English, on the ages below 40 than on those above it. For example, the average age of the whole 154,761 years of life exposed was 41.51 years, and the average age of those dying from it was 45.27 years; while the average age of the 2,019 that should have died from the same amount of life exposed at the same ages by the English Combined Experience table would have been 46.20 years, or about one year older. Again, in table II., the life policies from which the first three years are excluded give the average age of the living 44 years, and the average of the dying 47.98 years; while the average age of the dying by the Combined Experience table on the same life at the same ages would have been 50.06 years. It is quite remarkable that this amount of 89,428 years of exposed life, from which we must suppose the

There will be noticed a deficiency of five deaths in this table, as compared with Tables I. and II. Four of these are accounted for by the omission from this table of the experi ence of the Massachusetts Hospital Company, which included four deaths occurring in the 19th, 22d, 25th, and 34th years of the policy respectively. The other probably proves an error in Tables I. and II., which there has not been time to correct by going over the voluminous tallies employed to classify more than 150,000 years of policy by the ages. It will be noticed by comparison of footings that a rigid exactness of multiplication and division has not been obtained, but great confidence is felt that no inaccuracy has been committed sufficient to impair the practical value of the re sults. It is to be remarked that in this table the life exposed is grouped in "years of policy," as they stand on the Registry, from November to November. Hence a polley may be counted in its second year which has existed but a day, and all the policies of the first year average only six months from entry, of the second year eighteen months, and

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Great zeal has been manifested by the State in the prosecution of internal improvements. On the 1st of Jan., 1862, it had 2,087 miles of railway completed and in progress, of which 8v2 miles were open for traffic. These 892 miles cost, for construction and equipment, the sum of $21,382,557.

The vote of the State for President in 1550 was as follows: Lincoln, 70,409; Douglas, 55,111; Breckinridge, 1,048; Bell, 1,763. The population of the State at the same time was: white, 673,925; free colored, 1,023. The Governor is elected for four years. The Senate consists of thirty members, elected for four years, and the House of fifty members, chosen for two years.

The State Bank of Iowa, the only authorized or chartered bank of issue for the State, at the commencement of the year 1861, made the foilowing statement of its condition:

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During the year 1861, the prospective scarcity of cotton led to the increased culture of flax, and the introduction of machinery for the production of flax cotton. Extensive establishments supplied with the patent brakes for preparing the flax cotton were erected at various points in the State. The soil of Iowa is admirably adapted to the culture of flax, and it is very probable that it may become one of its most important crops.

At the commencement of the war, Gov. Kirkwood exerted himself to the utmost of his ability to raise troops for the defence of the State, and for the purpose of complying with the calls of the U. S. Government a task of considerable difficulty, for Missouri, on the southern border of the State, was not then loyal, and Nebraska, at the West, though loyal, had too few inhabitants to be able to oppose much resistance to an armed invasion. He summoned the Legislature of the State to meet in extra session on the 15th of May, and on the 16th of that month delivered his Message, in which he made use of the following language:

"In this emergency, Iowa must not and does not occupy a doubtful position. For the Union, as our fathers formed it, and for the Government they formed so wisely and so well, the people of Iowa are ready to pledge every fighting man in the State, and every dollar of her money and credit; and I have called you together in extraordinary session for the purpose of making that pledge formal and effective.

"The procuring of a liberal supply of arms for the use of the State is a matter that I earnestly recommend to your early aud serious consideration. The last four weeks have taught us a lesson which I trust we may never forget that peace is the proper time in which to prepare for war.

"I feel assured the State can readily raise the means necessary to place her in a position consistent alike with her honor and her safety. Her territory, of great extent and unsurpassed fertility, inviting and constantly receiving a desirable emigration; her population of nearly three-quarters of a million of intelligent, industrious, energetic, and liberty-loving people; her very rapid past and prospective growth; her present financial condition, having a debt of only about one-quarter of a million of dollars, unite to make her bonds among the most desirable investments that our country affords."

In June the Legislature voted a war loan of $600,000. The State of Iowa made a small debt, but its constitution provides that "the credit of the State shall not be given in any manner for any purpose. To meet casual deficits in the revenue, the State may borrow not exceeding $250,000, at any one time, and the State may contract debt to repel invasion or suppress insurrection." Under the latter clause, a debt was contracted of about $800,000, 7 per cent. interest, making the present State debt about $1,000,000. The progress of secession was watched with

much solicitude in Iowa, and upon the call of the President for a military force, the troops of the State were among the earliest in the field. The full number furnished during the year exceeded twenty thousand men, who were generally among the bravest in the field.

ITALY, a kingdom of southern Europe, comprising the whole of the Italian peninsula except Venetia and a portion of the former "States of the Church," and including also the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, and the Cisalpine provinces of Piedmont and Lombardy. It is bounded N. by Switzerland, N. E. by Tyrol, Venetia, and the Adriatic, S. E. by the Ionian Sea, S. W. by the Mediterranean, and N. W. by France. Population in 1861, 21,728,452.

At the commencement of the year 1861, Italy was in a transition state. Tuscany, Modena, Parma, Umbria, and the Marches, which, after the war of 1859, had sought to annex themselves to Sardinia, had, by solemn vote, in popular suffrage, resolved on their annexation, and, in accordance with the royal order of Jan, 3, 1861, elected deputies to the Sardinian parliament at Turin, which was to assemble on the 18th of February. The kingdom of the Two Sicilies had, under the energetic management of Garibaldi, been completely revolutionized, and on the 26th of Nov. 1860, that chief had delivered it into the hands of Victor Emanuel, king of Sardinia. Three cities only, Gaeta, Messina, and Civitella, remained to their former king, Francis II., and these were besieged by the Sardinian forces. A popular suffrage had ratified the union of this kingdom to that of Sardinia, and delegates were elected from it to the parliament of Turin, in January, 1861.

On the 1st of January, the King of Sardinia issued an address to the people of Italy, recommending prudence, patience, and, above all, harmony. The election of deputies ordered resulted in a triumph of the Liberal party, in opposition to the clergy, who, except in the old kingdom of Sardinia, had reviled and resisted the annexation, and the measures which would be likely to follow it.

The speech of the King at the opening of the session, on the 18th of February, was well adapted to promote harmony and judicious action.

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To your wisdom," he said to the deputies, "I commit the concerns of a free and almost wholly united Italy." After enumerating the claims of England and France to their grateful remembrance, he added, "In the consciousness of its power, the kingdom of Italy can follow the counsels of prudence. I have hitherto raised my voice for acts of daring, and even rashness; but it is as wise to wait at the proper moment, as to dare at the proper moment. Devoted to Italy, I have risked for her my life and my crown, but no one has a right to put at hazard the existence and the destinies of a nation." Count Cavour, the prime minister, (see CAVOUR,) sustained the pacific policy of the King in the parliament, and asked that the title of "King of Italy " should be conferred on Vic

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