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ing from shore having been rapidly kept up by them until so silenced, and having been recommenced from the new batteries on the heights back, which reached us in volleys, dropping the shot on board and about us like hail for nearly an hour, but fortunately wounding but one man, I hauled the vessel off, as the heights proved wholly above the reach of our elevation. "Judging from the explosion of our ten-second shells in the sand-batteries, two of which were thrown by the Anacostia, it is hardly possible the enemy can have escaped considerable loss. Several others of the Anacostia's shells dropped in the vicinity of the battery."

Another attack was made on the batteries on the 1st of June, by the Freeborn and Pawnee, gunboats.

Just as the firing opened the men at the batteries burnt the depot houses at the end of the wharf, probably to prevent them from being in the way of their shot. They continued burning throughout the whole engagement, as it was not safe for any one to leave the batteries to extinguish the fire. It also burnt the entire wharf to the water's edge.

A slight affair had taken place on the 29th of May, previous to these two attacks, which was the first hostile collision on the waters of the Potomac.

ARCHITECTURE. New York City has long been famous for her stores, excelling those of any other city either in this country or abroad, in their size, expense of construction, ornamentation, and their conveniences for the purposes of the trade to which they are to be adapted. The war has, during the past year, materially interfered with new enterprises of this kind; but a few, undertaken in the previous year, have been completed, and are superior to any stores before constructed. Of these, the largest is the store and warehouse of Messrs Claflin, Mellen & Co., extending from Church street to West Broadway, with a façade on one side of these streets of 80 ft., and 375 on Worth street. The façades are of the green tinted Nova Scotia stone, with pediments on the three streets. The first story is of iron, painted and sanded to the same color as the stone. The style may be called Italian, with no excess of ornamentation, but the whole is in good taste. Like most of the later stores in this city, there are five stories above the sidewalk on Church street, and two beneath, viz.: basement and sub-cellar. Owing to the descent in Anthony street, the basement becomes on West Broadway, a full story above the side walk at this end, most of the goods are delivered. The whole store is appropriated to the business of one firm, for the jobbing of dry goods. At the corner of White street and Broadway, a store has been erected by Wm. B. Astor, 75 feet on Broadway, and 175 on White street. The façades are of white marble, with the first story of iron. The roof is finished, a la mansard, with a balcony at the top of galvanized wrought iron, of which material the cornice of the build

ing is also composed. This store differs in style from those usually constructed here. Heavy pilasters ornament the front above the first story on Broadway, which are supported, each on two columns of iron. The caps of the windows, and all the ornamentation are extremely bold, and by their depth of shadow on the material of which they are constructed, give a character to the building uncommon to the class. On Broadway, between 9th and 10th streets, a store is building for A. T. Stewart, probably for the retail dry goods trade. The façades are entirely of iron; not distinctive in character as to style, they strike one rather by their extent than by their architectural beauty.

In Boston, a few dry goods warehouses have been finished, which, in boldness and originality in their façades, are equal, if not superior to those in New York; but they do not equal them in capacity. Some private dwellings have also been built on the land reclaimed from the Back Bay, which are deserving of notice architecturally. They are mostly in the French style of architecture, with mansard roofs. Their façades are of Nova Scotia stone, and of brick; and they ornament a part of the city which has been heretofore a low-tide reservoir.

At Washington, the work on the Capitol has been in a measure suspended. Piece by piece is still slowly added to the ribbed skeleton of the dome. Each piece is raised by a steam derrick, placed on the roof at the base of the dome, and instead of steadying the load by a guy, a man rides up on the piece as it is hoisted, to preserve its balance, and returns resting on a small iron ball above the hook. In the interior, Leutze is maturing his design for the ornamentation of the stair-case of the House of Representatives. The bronze doors, designed and modelled at Rome by Rogers, have lately been cast at the Munich foundry. Each doorthe whole forms a folding-door-is divided into four panels. Thus, with a semicircular space above, there are nine divisions, in each of which an important moment of Columbus' life is represented. The figures stand out in full relief. The crowning event of the discoverer's career occupies the commanding spot over the top of the doors. Here Columbus, standing on a mound, forms the central figure. He has just landed from a boat, and with the standard of Arragon and Castile planted upon the new soil, and with sword upraised in his right hand, he takes possession of the land in the name of his sovereigns. Some boatmen are still in the skiff, others are kneeling on the shore, while a group of Indians, peeping from behind a tree on the opposite side, look on in wondering astonishment. In one compartment is represented the triumphal entry of Columbus into Madrid, on his first return from America, amid crowds of gazers at him, the hero of the triumph, and at the Indians, who precede the procession, with paroquets on their upraised arms. The next panel is occupied with a sadder story. Here, Columbus in chains, surrounded

by a sorrowing population, is about to embark for Europe. Then, the "last scene of all," accomplishing his "strange eventful history," we see him on his death-bed, attended only by a nun and some priests, who administer to him the consolations of religion. His son stands beside him. In the thickness of the door itself niches are formed at certain intervals, and in these are small whole-length figures of the great contemporaries of Columbus-kings, statesmen, ecclesiastics, and warriors. In the centre, close to each other, are two such lines of niches, while on both sides a single row of figures, one above the other, fills up the intermediate space between the outer edge of the panels and the door post. The large bosses, so often seen on doors, are here the heads of those historians who have written on the discovery of America. The ornaments below each niche are heads of animals indigenous to the country, with fruits and flowers entwined.

In London, a new building for the International Exhibition of 1862, is being hurried to completion. From the published view, architecturally, it cannot be considered a success; but the immensity of the space occupied, and the dimensions of some particular parts of the buildings, may produce an effect which cannot be even suggested by a drawing.

The following statistics are from the official


The buildings cover in the whole more than 26 acres. The principal picture gallery, which is in Cromwell road, is 1,150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 50 feet high above the ground-floor; being about as long as the gallery at the Louvre in Paris. The construction of this is of brickwork. The walls are lined with wood, and pictures may be hung, if desired, to a height of 30 feet. The entrance to this gallery is through three very large recessed arcades, each 20 feet wide, and 50 feet high. The visitor enters a vestibule and hall, 150 feet long, and together 110 feet wide, which leads to the Industrial Halls and Galleries; whilst two flights of steps, 20 feet wide, lead on either side up to the picture galleries. The auxiliary picture galleries are 25 feet wide, and about 30 feet high, and jointly, 1,200 feet long.

The industrial buildings, constructed chiefly of iron, timber, and glass, consist of the following parts: two duodecagonal domes, which will be 160 feet in diameter, and 250 feet high, -the largest of ancient and modern times. The dome of the Pantheon is 142 feet in diameter, and 70 feet high; the dome in the Baths of Caracalla was 111 feet; Brunelleschi's, at Florence, is 139 feet in diameter, and 133 feet high; the dome of St. Peter's is 158 feet in diameter, and 263 feet high from the external plinth; the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral is 112 feet in diameter, and 215 feet high. The domes will be of glass, with an outer and inner gallery. The vista froin dome to dome, through the nave, is 1,070 feet. Each of the domes springs from the intersections of the nave with the two

transepts. The nave and transepts are 100 feet high, and 85 feet wide; the nave is 800 feet long, and the transepts are each about 635 feet long, including the domes. They are lighted on both sides by clerestory windows, 25 feet high. At 25 feet from the ground, a gallery runs at each side of the nave and transepts. There is more than a mile and a half of upper galleries, some 50 feet, and some 25 feet wide; two courts, each 250 feet by 86 feet; two courts, each 250 feet by 200 feet; two central courts, that at the north, 150 feet by 86; that at the south, 150 feet by 150 feet. All these glass courts are 50 feet high, and lighted from above. The entrances to the industrial buildings are constructed in brick, and each entrance is 55 feet wide. The iron castings are estimated to weigh nearly 4,000 tons; the wrought-iron used chiefly in the great domes, and for the roofs, about 1,200 tons.

For the top lighting of the galleries, 45,000 feet superficial of frames and glass are in preparation. For the clerestory lights of the nave and transepts, nearly a mile length of frames, 25 feet high, is preparing; and for the courts, upwards of 30 miles of sash-bars and glass.

The roofs are covered with slates for the great picture galleries, and elsewhere with felt, except in parts, to show how ornamental roofing may be hereafter applied. The contract is of a threefold character: for the use and waste of the buildings, a sum of 200,0007. is to be paid absolutely; if the receipts exceed 400,000l., then the contractors are to take up to a further sum of 100,000l.; and if this sum is fully paid, then the centre acre of the great picture galleries is to be left as the property of the Society of Arts, who will pay the "1851" Commissioners a ground-rent calculated at the rate of 2407. per acre, per annum. Lastly, the contractors are bound to sell, absolutely, the remaining rights over the buildings, for a further sum of 130,0007., which may possibly be paid by the surplus receipts of the Exhibition, if the success be great.

Comparing the extent of the present building with that of 1851,-the latter occupied nearly 23 acres; that now erecting covers a little over 26. The flooring space in 1851 was just short of a million feet. In the new building there will be 1,140,000; but as it is intended to exhibit machinery and agricultural implements in a wing especially built for the purpose, practically there will be some 500,000 feet of flooring more in 1862, than in 1851. The greatest height in 1851 was 160 feet, and the main nave 60 feet high by 72 wide. The greatest height of the new building will be 260 feet, and the nave 85 feet wide and 100 feet high. The total length of the first exhibition building was 1,800 feet by 400 wide. The present one, 1,200 long by 700 broad, exclusive of the space set aside for the display of agricultural implements, which is, in rough numbers, 1,000 feet long by 220 broad.


ARKANSAS, in its location, is one of the Western States, but its productions are similar to those of the Southern States, It is bounded on the north by Missouri, on the east by the Mississippi River, which separates it from the States of Tennessee and Mississippi, on the south by Louisiana and Texas, and on the west by Texas and the Indian Territory. The Governor is elected by the people once in four years. The Senate consists of twenty-five members elected for five years, and the House consists of seventyfive members elected for two years. The Legislature meets on the first Monday in November. The population of the State in 1860 was 435,427, of whom 137 were free colored, and 111,104 slaves. The views of the people of the State were strongly in favor of the Union, and no movement aiming at secession took place in the State until the 20th of December, when David Hubbard, a Commissioner from the State of Alabama, addressed the Legislature of Arkansas at Little Rock. He argued that Alabama would secede from the Union whether other States did or not.

The largest meeting ever held at Van Buren took place on the 5th of January. The resolutions adopted with great unanimity, opposed separate State action, and were in favor of cooperation. The election of Mr. Lincoln was regarded as not in itself a sufficient cause for a dissolution of the Union-reasonable time should be allowed to the non-slaveholding States to retrace their steps. A large majority of the people of all former party associations were considered, at this time, as in favor of making all honorable efforts to preserve the Union. The demonstrations to the contrary, thus far made, were looked upon as reflecting only a small fraction of the public sentiment.

On the 16th of January the Legislature unanimously passed a bill submitting the Convention question to the people on the 18th of February. If a majority were in favor of a Convention, the Governor should appoint the time for its election. On the day appointed an election was held throughout the State, and the vote in favor of holding a Convention was 27,412; against it, 15,826. Majority for a Convention, 11,586. The vote of the State at the Presidential election in November was, for Douglas, 5,227; Breckinridge, 28,732; Bell, 20,094.

At the election of delegates to the Convention, the Union vote was 23,626; Secession, 17,927; Union majority, 5,699.

The Convention assembled on the 4th of March, and organized by the election of Union officers, by a majority of six. On the 6th, the inaugural of President Lincoln was received, and produced an unfavorable impression on the minds of the people. Secession was strongly urged upon the Convention, which had been regarded as containing forty members opposed to it, and thirty-five in favor of it.

Various resolutions were offered and referred to appropriate committees, looking to an endorsement, on the one hand, of the doctrine of

secession, and the right and duty of Arkansa to secede, and on the other to a clear definition of the position Arkansas should take, stopping short of secession, with a view to the security of her rights in the Union.

A conditional ordinance of secession was debated, with a clause referring it back to the people for ratification or rejection. This was defeated by a vote of ayes, 35; noes, 39. The Convention was disposed to pass resolutions approving the propositions of Missouri and Virginia for a conference of the border slave States, and providing for sending five delegates to said Conference or Convention, and agreeing with Virginia to hold said Conference at Frankfort, Kentucky, on the 27th of May.

At Van Buren a salute of thirty-nine guns was fired in honor of the thirty-nine members of the Convention who voted against the secession ordinance. The same number of guns were fired at Fort Smith.

On the 17th, an ordinance was reported by a self-constituted committee composed of seven secessionists, and seven coöperationists, as a compromise measure between the two parties. It was adopted as reported, unanimously, in the Convention. It provided for an election to be held on the first Monday of August, at which the legal voters of the State were to cast their ballots for "secession," or for "coöperation." If on that day a majority of the votes were cast for secession, that fact was to be considered in the light of instructions to the Convention to pass an ordinance severing the connection of Arkansas with the Union. If, on the other hand, a majority of the votes of the State were cast for cooperation, that fact would be an instruction to the Convention immediately to take all necessary steps for cooperation with the border or unseceded slave States, to secure a satisfactory adjustment of all sectional controversies disturbing the country.

The next session of the Convention was to be held on the 17th of August; and to secure the return of all the votes of each county, each delegate was made a special returning officer of the Convention to bring the vote of his county to the Capitol.

Besides this ordinance submitting the proposition of "secession" or "coöperation" to the vote of the people, resolutions were passed providing for the election of five delegates to the border slave State Convention, proposed by the States of Virginia and Missouri, to be held some time during the month of May. Thus the proceedings of that Convention would be before the people, amply canvassed and understood, when the vote of the State was cast on the first Monday of August.

The result of the labors of the Convention, although not exactly what either party desired, was regarded as probably more nearly satisfac tory to the public than any other action which could have been taken by that body. Time was given for investigation and deliberation as to consequences.


Affairs remained quiet; the friends of the Union were hopeful; those who sympathized with the seceded States were sanguine that Arkansas would be one of them. The capture of Fort Sumter, and the subsequent events, roused Arkansas to take a stand either with the North or with the South. Together with the news of the fall of the fort, there came also the President's Proclamation, and the requisition of the Secretary of War for a quota of troops from Arkansas. The reply of the Governor to this requisition, was dated the 22d of April. It proved him to be decided in his friendship to the secession movement. He wrote to the Secretary of War thus: "In answer to your requisition for troops from Arkansas, to subjugate the Southern States, I have to say that none will be furnished. The demand is only adding insult to injury. The people of this Commonwealth are freemen, not slaves, and will defend to the last extremity, their honor, lives, and property, against Northern mendacity and usurpation." The President of the State Convention, entertaining similar views, immediately issued a call requiring it to reassemble on the 6th of May. The call was dated on the 20th of April.

On the 6th of May the State Convention met, and immediately took the necessary steps to prepare an ordinance to sever the relations existing between the State and the other States united with her under the Constitution of the United States. The ordinance was prepared and reported to the Convention at three o'clock in the afternoon, and was passed immediately, with only one dissenting vote. There were sixty-nine votes in the affirmative, and one in the negative. An eye-witness describes the passage of the ordinance as "a solemn scene." Every member seemed impressed with the importance of the vote he was giving. The hall of the House of Representatives was crowded almost to suffocation. The lobby, the gallery, and the floor of the chamber were full, and the vast crowd seemed excited to the highest pitch. A profound stillness prevailed all the time as vote after vote was taken and recorded, except occasionally, when some well-known Union member would rise and preface his vote with expressions of stirring patriotic Southern sentiments, the crowd would give token of its approbation; but the announcement of the adoption of the ordinance was the signal for one general acclamation that shook the building.

A weight seemed suddenly to have been lifted off the hearts of all present, and manifestations of the most intense satisfaction prevailed on all sides. Immediate steps were taken by the Convention to unite with the Confederate States. The ordinance was as follows:

Whereas, in addition to the well-founded causes of complaint set forth by this Convention, in resolutions adopted on the 11th March, A. D. 1861, against the sectional party now in power at Washington City, headed by Abraham Lincoln, he has, in the face of resolutions passed by this Convention, pledging the State of Arkansas to resist to the last extremity any attempt on the part of such power to coerce any State that seceded

from the old Union, proclaimed to the world that war should be waged against such States until they should be compelled to submit to their rule, and large forces out, and are now being marshalled to carry out this to accomplish this have by this same power been called inhuman design, and to longer submit to such rule or remain in the old Union of the United States would be disgraceful and ruinous to the State of Arkansas; in Convention assembled, do hereby declare and or Therefore, we, the people of the State of Arkansas, dain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the "ordinance and acceptance of compact," passed and approved by the General Assembly of the State of Ar kansas, on the 18th day of October, A. D. 1836, whereby it was by said General Assembly ordained that, by virtue of the authority vested in said General Assembly, by the provisions of the ordinance adopted by the convention of delegates assembled at Little Rock, for the purpose of forming a constitution and system of government for said State, the propositions set forth in "an act supplementary to an act entitled an act for the admission of the State of Arkansas into the Union, and to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States within the same, and for other purposes, firmed articles of compact and union between the were freely accepted, ratified and irrevocably conState of Arkansas and the United States," and all other laws and every other law and ordinance, whereby the State of Arkansas became a member of the Federal Union be, and the same are hereby in all respects and for every purpose herewith consistent repealed, abrogated, and fully set aside; and the union now subsisting between the State of Arkansas and the other States, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby forever dissolved.

And we do further hereby declare and ordain, that the State of Arkansas hereby resumes to herself all rights and powers heretofore delegated to the Government of the United States of America-that her citizens are absolved from all allegiance to said Government of the United States, and that she is in full

possession and exercise of all the rights and sovereignty which appertain to a free and independent State.

We do further ordain and declare, that all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution of the United States of America, or of any act or acts of Congress, or treaty, or under any law of this State, and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall remain in full force and effect, in nowise altered or impaired, and have the same effect as if this ordinance had not been passed.

The Convention also passed a resolution authorizing the Governor to call out 60,000 men, if necessary. The State was divided into two grand divisions, eastern and western, and one brigadier-general from each appointed. Gen. Bradley was elected to the command of the eastern, and Gen. Pearce, late of the U. S. Army, to the western.

Among the other acts passed by the Convention, was an ordinance confiscating debts due persons residing in the non-slaveholding States of the United States, and also all the personal property belonging to such persons in Arkansas, on the 6th of May, 1861. All moneys collected for persons residing in any one of the nonslaveholding States of the United States were likewise confiscated to the State. By the provisions of this ordinance, it was made the duty of persons owing such debts to report them under oath to the Auditor of Public Accounts within sixty days from the passage of the ordinance. Failing to do this, or making a false report, they were subject to a heavy pecuniary fine and

imprisonment in the penitentiary. Persons throughout the State were required to give information of delinquencies, and judges were required to give the matter specially in charge to grand juries at each term of the Circuit Court. The Governor was authorized to call out the military force, and two millions of dollars in bonds were ordered to be issued in sums of five dollars and upwards.

The first movement after the secession of the State, was to get possession of the property of the United States. The United States arsenal, located at Little Rock, became the first object for seizure. On the morning of February 5th, that city was thrown into high excitement by the unexpected arrival of a steamboat with a body of troops from Helena, with the avowed purpose of taking the arsenal. In a few hours another boat arrived with more troops, and on the next day others arrived, until a force of four hundred men was collected. The City Council was assembled, and on application to the Governor, it was informed that the troops were not there by his orders. The troops themselves were of a different opinion, and came there, as they thought, at his command; but whether so or not, they were there to take the arsenal, and they determined to accomplish that object before leaving. The Governor was then requested to assume the responsibility of the movement, and in the name of the State to demand the arsenal of the officer in command of it. It was believed that Captain Totten would surrender to the authorities of the State rather than have a collision, but would not to a body of men disavowed by the Governor and acting in violation of law, and that as the troops were determined on taking the arsenal at all hazards, there would of course be a collision, and probably much sacrifice of life. Consequently, the Governor consented to act, and immediately made a formal demand upon Capt. Totten.

To the Governor's demand for the surrender of the arsenal, Capt. Totten asked until three o'clock the next day to consider the matter, which was agreed to. At the time appointed, Capt. Totten made known his readiness to evacuate the arsenal, and, after the details were finally agreed upon, it was arranged that, at twelve o'clock the next day, the arsenal should be delivered to the authorities of the State, which was done.

About the same time, the public property at Fort Smith was seized in behalf of the State. (See FORTS.)

On the 18th of May, Arkansas was admitted as one of the Confederate States, and her delegates took their seats in Congress. They were R. W. Johnson, A. Rust, A. W. Garland, W. H. Watkins, and W. F. Thomason.

The military operations within the limits of the State during the year were fruitless in results. A difficulty early occurred between the Governor and Legislature on one side, and the State Convention on the other. It was charged upon the latter body that they had

overstepped their authority in an attempt to regulate the military affairs of the State by the appointment of a Military Board. The Governor, in his message to the Legislature at its session in November, said, that on the 10th of May, Gen. McCulloch was put in command of the Indian Territory west of Arkansas, and had with him two regiments, one from Louisiana and one from Arkansas. Before he could prepare for any offensive operations, Gen. Lyon, in pursuit of Jackson, approached near the south boundary line of Missouri, and the Military Board of Arkansas called out ten regiments for defensive purposes. On the 21st of June the Board despatched a messenger to Richmond, proposing to transfer the entire State force, with their arms, to the Confederate Government, making a condition precedent, however, that the arms were to be used for the protection of Arkansas. The Secretary of State was willing to receive the men and arms, but would make no promise as to their future disposition, and so the transfer was not then effected.

On the 4th of July the effort was again essayed, one of the members of the Board visiting Gen. Hardee, then recently appointed to the command of the northern border of Arkansas, and an agreement was made whereby a vote should be taken among the Arkansas troops, and if a majority of each company consented to be transferred, those consenting were to be turned over as a company; if, however, a majority declined, the company was to be dis banded altogether. One company of General Yell's division disbanded, and two or three hundred others, "from various motives, returned home." This was from the eastern division of the army.

The western division, under Gen. Pearce, however, was not so easily transferred. After the battle of Springfield, the Military Board despatched an agent to General Pearce to turn over his troops to Gen. Hardee. The agent proposed to submit the question of the transfer, but Gen. Pearce became angry, and refused to allow it to be done, following this insubordinate conduct up by writing a most abusive letter to the Board. Not content with this, Gen. Pearce separated his troops from McCulloch's command, and marched them back to Arkansas, where they were informally disbanded and sent home. Gov. Rector says, that without General Pearce's command, "General McCulloch was left too weak for any thing but passive inaction."

As soon as Gen. Pearce's return to Arkansas was known, the Military Board, fearing a disbandment, directed him to suspend all action in reference to the transfer, but the despatches were received too late, and only "in time to stay the waste of public property scattered in all directions."

His narrative showed that the Arkansas forces, claimed to be twenty-two thousand in number, were in a complete state of demoralization at that time.

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