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THE WAR WITH THE SOUTH: :
A HISTORY OF TIL
GREAT AMERICAN REBELLION.
The Condition of Vicksburg after the Surrender.--Comparatively little Ruins. – Marks of the Bombardment. The
Hospitals.- Persistence of the Defenders of Vicksburg.-Starved out.-Mule Meat.-A Soldier's Bill of Fare. — The Efforts made by the Enemy to relieve Vicksburg.-Proofs of Weakness.- Determination of General Pemberton.-- Fighting to the “last dog."-Effects throughout Mississippi. Retreat of Johnston.-General Sherman in Pursuit. --Jackson evacuated.---Sherman occupies Jackson. – Destruction of Railroad Property: -“Nothing goes well in the Southwest."- Mississippi abandoned by Johnston.-Sherman's return to Vicksburg.-Surrender of Port Hudson.--Operations of General Banks in Louisiana.-Operations in the Teche Region.--Capture of the Diana. – Battle of Beasland. - Advance of Banks to Franklin.-Co-operation of the Navy.- The Queen of the West burned. -The Diana blown up.-A Fleet of Transports destroyed.–Fort Butte La Rose captured.—General Grover forms a junction with Banks.-- Banks at New Iberia.-At Martinsville.—At Opelousas.-At Alexandria.
The condition of the city of Vicks- / which once so greatly adorned the pic
burg and its defences, when entered turesque Vicksburg, presented a scene 1863.
by the victorious army of General of confused ruin. Grant, was such, notwithstanding the With a daring mockery of the cruel tremendous fire to which they had been spirit of war, the people had ornamented so long exposed, as to surprise every their houses with the missiles of destrucobserver. It was natural to expect a tion. general scene of ruin, yet few of the * Nearly every gate in the city,” buildings were demolished, and most of writes a visitor, * "is adorned with unthe houses were so little injured as to exploded thirteen-inch shells placed atop be easily rendered habitable. The shot of each post. The porches and piazzas and shell which had been poured so (nearly every house has one) are also continually into the city had, however, adorned with curious collections of shot left their marks everywhere. The streets and shells that have fallen in the yards.” were ploughed up, the pavements shat- He adds: “It is said that there are tered, and the yards, gardens, and other some houses in the city that have inclosed spaces, pitted with great holes. escaped unscathed; but in my rambles The shrubberies and cultivated grounds
o New York Tribune.
through the streets I could not find firing was very severe.
The excavations them.
branch out in various directions after “I entered perhaps twenty buildings passing the entrance. I should not in all, and found frightful-looking holes imagine them very desirable bed-chamin the walls and floors of every one. bers, but they seem to have answered a The house occupied by General Pem- very good purpose. In one or two berton as his headquarters, has a hole instances shells entered them, and two in the first room you enter on the left women and a number of children were side of the hall, which a mule could thus killed during the siege.” crawl through without difficulty. The The inhabitants and the soldiers of publisher of the Vicksburg Citizen invited the garrison, though they had suffered me into his residence, and interspersed severely, as the hospitals indicated, which his remarks while showing me around were filled with from four to five thouwith frequent cautions not to tread here sand sick and wounded, persisted in deand there, for fear a shattered piece of claring that they would have still held its flooring would let me through into out if there had been any hopes of the cellar. And so it is all over the relief. place. The northern portion of the city
" There is but one reason," says the suffered most, and I cannot convey any observer already quoted, "given by the idea of the damage sustained better rebels for their surrender. They say than by saying it has been smashed. they discovered that they would be
“Notwithstanding the evidences every starved out before it would be possible where visible of the terrible ordeal for Johnston or anybody else to raise through which the people and city have the siege ; and although they could have passed, the Vicksburgers persistently held out six or seven days longer, they assert that they have not been much would have gained nothing thereby, the damaged ; that shells are comparatively prospect being that at the end of that innocent things— nothing when you get time Johnston would be as far off as he used to them ;' that they could have held is now. They repel the suggestion that out a year if they had had provisions, they were afraid of an assault in column etc. They also claim to have learned on the 4th of July, and say that they how to dodge shells, and say that those would have been able to repel any such fired from the mortars had become fa- assault. However this may be, the fact vorites with the people. Shots from that they were brought to desperate Parrott guns were not so popular. straits for something to eat is indispu
" The most noticeable feature of the table. All prejudices against mule meat city is the group of caves in every hill-were thoroughly conquered by hunger. side. In these caves the women and and the army was using it freely, eschildren were sheltered during the night, teeming it better food than the blue and occasionally in day-time when the beef and rancid pork upon which they
formerly subsisted. The little remnant money enough to buy them is a fact of breadstuff which they have on hand beyond all dispute. That those who also attests the extremity to which they did not pay them suffered much, is were reduced, and their soldiers are this equally true. The victims are loud and moment praising the 'hard tack' or bitter in their denunciations of the expilot bread given them by our men, as tortioners, who were protected by the if it were the most delicious bread ever military authorities from robbery or baked.
interference. One of the first things "A rebel staff officer informed me, done after the surrender was the break· while making inquiries on this subject, ing open and sacking of a few of the that they have frequently communicated most obnoxious Jew stores. The outwith Johnston, and that their last hope break was promptly suppressed, but I of relief was destroyed by a communi- would gladly have seen them emptied cation from him.
of all their contents." “ The citizens of Vicksburg were in Notwithstanding the failure of the much worse plight than the army in enemy to relieve the beleaguered city, many respects. No food was issued to great efforts were made.
That they them from the army stores, and specu- were unsuccessful, proved not only the lators had run up the prices upon them skilful disposition by General Grant to a most prodigious extent. A man of his great resources to render them could not procure a good meal of victuals abortive, but the weakness to which the for one thousand dollars. The following enemy had been reduced. With a full list of prices was made out for me by the consciousness of the importance to their publisher of the Citizen, who assures me cause of holding Vicksburg, they made that he has not over-priced anything : the most desperate attempts to defend “ Flour, $5 per lb., equal to $1,000 per bbl.
and relieve it. General Pemberton, who “ Beef, $1 to $1 25 per lb., supply exhausted.
commanded the place, was stimulated to “Pork, $2 50 to $3 per lb., supply exhausted. “Butter sold five weeks ago at $2 50 to $3 per lb., almost superhuman effort, for the sake since which time there has been none in market. of his own good name, which had been “ Rice, 75 to 80 cents per lb.
tarnished by his failure to prevent the Sugar, 70 cents per lb. "Molasses or treacle, $10 per gallon.
approach of General Grant. Every “Corn meal, $40 per bushel, supply exhausted.
word he uttered proved the passionate “ Tea, $15 to $20 per lb.; none on hand for four weeks past.
resolve of a man who had but one Coffee, $7 50 to $10 per lb. ; none on hand for four throw of the dice left to retrieve himweeks. “Mule meat, $1 per lb.
self, and upon which he was determined “Louisiana rum (only liquor in market), $40 to $100 to risk his all. per gallon. “Clothing beyond all price, a man refusing $100 for an
While retiring before the victorious ordinary white shirt.
troops of Grant, he uttered this passion" That these stunning prices were ate appeal to his soldiers : freely paid by all who could produce
"The hour of trial has come. The
enemy who has so long threatened " You have heard that I was incomVicksburg in front, has at last effected petent, and a traitor, and that it was my a landing in this department, and his intention to sell Vicksburg. Follow me, march into the interior of Mississippi and you will see the cost at which I will has been marked by the devastation of sell Vicksburg. When the last pound one of the fairest portions of the State. of beef, bacon, and flour; the last grain He seeks to break communication be- of corn ; the last cow, and hog, and tween the members of the Confederacy, horse, and dog, shall have been conand to control the navigation of the sumed, and the last man shall have Mississippi River. The issue involves perished in the trenches, then, and only .. everything endeared to a free people. then, will I sell Vicksburg." The enemy fight for the privilege of Throughout Mississippi and its border plunder and oppression. You fight for States, great efforts were made to arouse your country, homes, wives, children, citizens of all ages to rally under Genand the birthrights of freemen. Your eral Johnston, who strove, but in vain, to Commanding-General, believing in the recruit a force of sufficient strength to truth and sacredness of this cause, has attack Grant's large army, and compel cast his lot with you, and stands ready it to raise the siege of Vicksburg. When to peril his life and all he holds dear for Pemberton, at last hopeless of relief and the triumph of the right. God, who reduced to starvation, surrendered the rules in the affairs of men and nations, place, Johnston, who had been hovering loves justice and hates wickedness. He in the neighborhood in impotent menace, will not allow a cause so just to be was obliged to retreat hastily with his trampled in the dust. In the day of meagre and ill-conditioned army. Genconflict let each man, appealing .to Him eral Sherman was at once sent out with for strength, strike home for victory, a strong force in pursuit. At Bolton, and our triumph is at once assured. on the 5th of July, the enemy's rearA grateful country will hail us as de- guard was overtaken, surrounded, and liverers, and cherish the memory of forced to surrender. Johnston succeedthose who may fall as martyrs in her ed, however, in escaping with his main defence.
body to Jackson, the capital of Missis“Soldiers ! be vigilant, brave, and sippi. Here, within the intrenchments, active ; let there be no cowards, nor he made a brief stand, but Sherman laggards, nor stragglers from the ranks ; coming up and attacking him briskly, and the God of battles will certainly he was forced to evacuate during the crown our efforts with success."
night. On the next morning, July 16th, Again, while at bay, within the closely General Sherman occupied Jackson, and beleaguered walls of Vicksburg, the un- thus obtained, although much had been fortunate Pemberton is said to have destroyed by Johnston before his reexclaimed to his soldiers :
treat, a large quantity of the enemy's