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ADDENDA TO "NOTES ON NEW YORK."*

Had this article been brought down to the present time, it would have shown that the progress of our state has continued, in a signal manner, onward in all that relates to population, arts, manufactures, literature, science, internal improvement, and mechanical discovery.

Among the triumphant exhibitions of science in these, our own times, in behalf of the progress of nations in commerce and humanity, might be cited the application of steam to land-carriages and railroads, now so widely adopted by different nations, both in Europe and America. This vast application reflects perpetual honor on its discoverer, the late John Stevens, a native of the city of New York, who, at a time when not a locomotive existed in the world, devised the plan of this now so successful method of travelling and conveyance. The fact is indubitable, that this philosophic and benevolent man, so early as in 1812, had worked out in his own mind, the theory of such an application of steam. In a pamphlet which he published in that year, entitled “Documents tending to prove the Superior Advantages of Railways and Steam-carriages over Canal Navigation,” published in New York, by T. & J. Swords, we find the most satisfactory details of his views and results. This valuable tract of some forty pages excited little attention at the time, and Stevens like Fulton, was pronounced a visionary projector; yet, with his illustrious friend, he lived to see the realization of his noble projects. The distinguished president of Columbia College, Charles King, LL.D., in his “Progress of the City of New York” during the last fifty years, has, with such patriotic feeling, set forth the claims of Stevens, that a short extract from his discourses may not inappropriately be here inserted.

"Next in succession among the operative causes of our growth as connected with steam,” says Dr. King, “was its application to land-carriage, and soon the railroad and the locomotive were constructed to soothe and to satisfy, as far as that can be done, our national go-ahead spirit. And here again, New York was the point whence proceeded the first railroad enterprise, which was to connect this city with Philadelphia, by the Camden and Amboy railroad, in 1831; and here again Colonel John Stevens claims our admiration and gratitude. He had clearly marked out, in his own mind, long before any locomotive was constructed in Europe, the theory of such an application of steam, and the actual form in which it could be advantageously made, as well as the cost of constructing and working a railway for the use of locomotives. Long before any experience existed to justify his anticipation, he said and published, that there was no limit to the speed of a locomotive on a rail, but the strength of the materials; that it might be easily made to run as fast as a pigeon could fly, and it is one of the striking incidents connected with the opening, or the early use of the Cam. den and Amboy railway, that a flock of pigeons which had settled on the track, being

* Notes on the application of steam to locomotives, on Morse's magnetic telegraph, and Hoe's printingpress, were furnished by John W. Francis, M. D., LL. D.

disturbed in its approach by the rapid engine, took wing in the direction of the track, and that one of them, attempting to cross in front of the car, was struck down by it, thus most literally verifying the prediction, that the locomotive would equal in velocity the 'pigeon's flight.' Among the prophetic views which Colonel Stevens entertained in relation to locomotives, is the following: can see nothing,' says he, 'to binder a steam-carriage from moving, on these ways, with a velocity of one hundred miles an hour.'” Stevens was born in 1749, and died in 1838, at the advanced age of eightynine years.

Among other most conspicuous occurrences which characterize the present period of active advancement in practical and commercial science, is to be recorded the great discovery of the magnetic telegraph. SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE seems justly to have the claims of the great discovery, and it is worthy of note, that after much study, reflection, and labor, he, in 1835, demonstrated the practicability of his invention, by completing and putting is operation, in the New York University, a. model of his “Recording Electric Telegraph,” the whole apparatus, with the exception of a wooden clock, which formed part of it, having been made by himself. From the history of the progress of his invention, as published on substantial authority, it would appear that Professor Morse, while on his return from Europe in 1832, in the packet-ship Sully, a gentleman on board, in describing the experiments that had just been made in Paris with the electro-magnet, a question arose as to the time occupied by the electric fluid in passing through the wire, stated to be about one hundred feet in length. On the reply that it was instantaneous (recollecting the experiments of Franklin), he suggested, that it might be carried to any distance, and that the electric spark could be made a means of conveying and recording intelligence. This suggestion, which drew some casual observation of assent from the party, took deep hold of Professor Morse, who undertook to develop the idea which he had originated, and before the end of the voyage, he had drawn out and written the general plan of the invention with which his name will be inseparably connected. In 1840, Morse perfected his patent at Washington, and set about getting his telegraph into practical operation. In 1844 the first electric telegraph was completed in the United States, between Baltimore and Washington, and the first intelligence of a public character which passed over the wires, was the announcement of the nomination of James K. Polk as the democratic candidate for the presidency, by the Baltimore convention. Since then, says the writer from whom this statement is taken, he has seen wires extended all over the country, to the length of more than fifteen thousand miles, an extent unknown elsewhere in the civilized world. *

The type-revolving, fast-printing machine, which, in its results, constitutes a new era in the progress of the typographic art might here also be dwelt on, as reflecting additional lustre on the genius and enterprise of the metropolitan city, New York. R. Hoe and Brother, are the acknowledged inventors of this vast improvement of the printing-press. The detailed account of this extraordinary machine for the diffusion of knowledge, would require space not now at command. Suffice it to say, that four impression cylinders are capable of printing ten thousand impressions per hour. Four persons are required to feed in the sheets, which are thrown out and laid in heaps by self-acting flyers, as in the ordinary cylinder press. A press with eight impression cylinders will print sixteen thousand or more impressions per hour. The Hoes are natives of New York: their mammoth press has found both indigenous and foreign patronage, and its adoption abroad testifies to its value.

* See “Men of the Time.” New York. Redfield. 1852.

INDEX TO VOL. II.

PAGE

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PAGE
A.

Canals and Albert Gallatin...... 89
Abolition of Slavery (see Emancipa-

And the General Government... 89

And James W. Wilkin....
tion).

96
And Erastus Root..
347

96
Abuses in the Prisons.
Academies, the Albany...

166
And Martin Van Buren.

101

101
Clinton, Dutchess, Erasmus Hall,

Votes on, in Legislature.
Farmers' Hall, Montgomery,

Do. in Assembly... . 101-105
North Salem, Union Hall. 17

Ayes and Nays in Senate on. . 102-106
Number of..

17
And De Witt Clinton...

.102, 113
Female....

17

Tolls

on,
in !822...

112
African Slave-Trade in 1688.

55

Cost of Erie and Champlain. 117
Suffrage.

.9,72

Their Financial Condition in
124

1839.
Agriculture, Notes on.

.184, 199
Board of, recommended..

210
In 1840..

233
Interest of, commended. . 209, 273, 304

In 1841.

.263, 281
130

In 1842...
Agricultural Journals..

.310, 332
Aliens, the Children of..
374

334

Work on suspended..
Allen, Mrs Eliza C., Letter to... 646

CANAL, Cayuga and Seneca, proposed. 116
Antiquities of New York..
147

107
Chittenango, authorized
Black River, proposed.

116
Anti-Rent Troubles. 219, 266, 301, 352, 354

119
Appointments to Office....

commenced.

.589, 591
Aqueduct, the Croton, Notes on. 134

116

Genesee Valley, proposed.
Completed...

328

commenced.. 119

116
Architecture, Notes on.

Oswego, proposed....

143
Arts, the Fine, Notes on.
160

95

CHAMPLAIN Canal, Origin of..
Aesembly, General, of 1737..

57
Progress of.....

109, 111

113
Votes in, first recorded...

Completed
58

187
Attorney-Generals since 1777.

259
Attorney-General of U. S., Letter to. 586

Children of Aliens, veto.

374
B.
Cholera, Asiatic, Notes on.

48
Churches, Notes on..

38
Banks, Free, recommended. ...195, 225

Of various Sects first established 39
Bankrupt Law.
..272, 370 Citizen-Soldiers, Letter.

599
Baylis, Ald., Letter to...
605 Clergy, Notes on, the..

41
Bills, Small, Prohibition of..

194

Clinton, De Witt, Notes on. .91, 97, 102
Boundary, Northeastern, Message.... 345 Removed from Office..

113
Burns, Samuel, Case of.

113
British Clemency Invoked, Letter... 613 Memory.

74 Charitable Institutions commended {

619

Elected Governor.

.210, 296
C.

Clinton, George, Notes on.
Colden, Cadwallader, Notes on. .....

85
CANALS (see also Erie and Champlain Colonial History, Notes on.

149
Canals), their History.
87 Message..

344
Notes on.....

87 Colored Seamen of New York in
And Gouverneur Morris.

88 South Carolina, Letter.... 590

.64, 86

PAGE

PAGE.

206

Colleges, Notes on.....

13 Erie Canal Notes on, its History,
Colleges and Schools con mended.

Gouverneur Morris...... 88
Columbia College, Notes on..

13

Jesse Hawley, James Geddes.... 89
Colt, John C., Case of, Pardon.. 649 General Government.

90
Colver, Daniel, Letter to....
620 De Witt Clinton...

.91, 117
COMMON SCHOOLS, Notes on...

19
Thomas Eddy..

92
Fund created, established, num-

Robt. R. Livingston and Robert
ber in 1798....

19
Fulton

93
Number in 1842 and in 1850. 21 Jas. W. Wilkin and Erastus Root 96
System of...
20 Ground broken for.

106
Statistics of.
21 Completed ..

117
District Libraries for..
22 Enlargement Proposed..

118
And Children of Adopted Citizens W. L Marcy

119
and Foreigners.
.215, 278

229, 263
Condolence, Letter of, to Mrs. Harrison 603

Enlargement of, urged...

281, 313
Congress, Colonial, at Albany, in 1754 60 Enlargement Suspended..... 334

Relative Strength of States in... 61 Executive, Rights of the, Message... 411

A rebellious, in 1765..... 61 Executive of Georgia, Letters to.519 to 541
Constitution, First, and John Jay. 64

“ Virginia, .449 to 516
Of 1821 framed.....

79
Controversy, Religious, Notes on..... 41

F.
The Virginia

221, 266, 298, 330, 385

390, 413, 432, 449–516 Federal Government, the........227, 267
The Georgia..

.519 to 541 Female Academies, Notes on.. .17, 18
The M‘Leod.

..547 to 586 Female Convicts, Separate Prison for. 270
Convention, the, of 1821, Notes on... 79 Fever, Yellow, Notes on.

46
Conway, Patrick, the Case of, Pardon. 617

184, 199
CORRESPONDENCE, OFFICIAL (see letters) 449 Finances, the State, Statement of 258, 263
Council of Revision Abolished... 80

281
Courts of the Colony, Notes on......

55 Foreigners, Children of Education
Chancery, Notes on.

53
of...

...215, 278
Criminal Jurisdiction, Veto..... 422 Francis, John W., M. D., Letter to... 644
Currency, the, considered...223, 272, 299 Friends, Yearly Meeting of, Letter to. 610
Credit, State, Letter on....... 608 Fugitives from Justice (see also Vir-
Croton Aqueduct, Notes on......... 134 ginia Controversy, and Georgia
Completed....

328
do)....

...73, 221, 612
Fuller, Jabez, the Case of, Pardon.... 628
D.

Fulton, Robert, and Erie Canal. 93
Steamboats.....

144
Death Penalty considered.......... 262
Death of President Harrison, Message. 394

G.
Of Stephen Van Rensselaer, do.. 343
Debt, the State, amount, &c.....232, 265 Gallatin, Albert, Notes on.....
Imprisoment for.
.272, 606 Geddes, James, Surveyor.

91
Delinquents

, Juvenile, Pardon of..... 620 General Herkimer's Nemory.. 418
D'Hautville's, Madame, Case, Message 374 Geology, Notes on...

168
Discipline, Prison, considered....270, 347 Geological Survey..

.)70, 329
Douglass, Rev. James, Letter to ..... 636 Georgia Controversy... ..519 to 541
Duane, James, Notes on....

65 Gilbride, Rev. Michael, Letter to.... 626

Gilson, Thomas D., Letter to.. 589
E.

Grosvenor, Godfrey J., Letter to. 591
Economy, Political, considered...... 273

H.
Education, Notes on...

12
Universal, considered..

| 206, 215 Hamilton, Alexander, Notes on.....62, 66

278, 305 | Harrison, W. H., elected President... 294
Elective Franchises considered...... 276 Death of..

.394, 603
EMANCIPATION, Notes on, Dawning of,

Widow of, Letter to.

603
John Jay..

72 Harpers’ District Library commend.
Defeated in 1795 and 1797; suc-

ed..

24, 605
cessful in 1798, complete in Hautville, Madame D', Case of, Veto. 374
1817, and Daniel D. Tompkins. 73 Hawley, Gideon, Notes on.

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