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for its government, enacted by the legislature. It thus partakes of the character partly of a private, though mainly of a public institution; while it has been one of very eminent utility for the rescue of thousands from a career of crime and ruin. Jt is conducted for the most part on the general plan of the Auburn establishment, though moderated in severity, and adapted to the different class of subjects embraced within its action: children of both sexes are received in it under the age of sixteen. It is a just subject of pride to both the state and the city, as well as of gratitude to its founders and supporters.*

* The following is an extract from a report made to the British government, in 1835, by William Crawford, on the penitentiaries of the United States :

“ The House of Refiige of New York was established by an act of incorporation in March, 1824. The idea originated with Professor Griscom, a gentleman of great respectability, who at that period resided in the city of New York. Mr. Griscom had lately returned from England, the charitable institutions of which had occupied a large share of his attention. He was particularly struck with the beneficial effects arising from the Refuge for the Destitute" in London, and on his arrival in New York, lost no time in making public its meritorious ob with a vicw to the establishment of similar institution in that city. For this purpose he communicated with a society, which had recently been formed, and of which he was a member, for the preventiou of pauperism. An address earnestly recommending the measure was immediately issued by that society. Public benevolence spontaneously answered the appeal, and in a few weeks funds were collected to the annount of $15,000." Another and similar institution was established, for the western part of the state, at Rochester, in 1846.-ED.




JANUARY 1, 1839.


In the annals of our country, no year has been more signally distinguished by unmerited blessings than that which has just reached its close. The seasons have been genially tempered for the health of man, and the earth has abundantly rewarded his labors. Relations of peace, of reciprocal advantage and of benevolent intercourse, have been maintained with foreign states. The sway of the laws has been uninterrupted; and all the circumstances affecting our social condition have been auspicious. Our state has abundantly participated in the general prosperity and happiness. Our schools and other seminaries have discharged their beneficent functions with increased efficiency. The worship and instructions of the Christian religion have been enjoyed by our citizens with freedom of conscience as to faith and forms, and without compulsory support. The gloom which had spread over our country, in a period of commercial embarrassment, has passed away; and the enterprise of our people is resuming suspended employments in every department of social industry. The angry passions which availed themselves of that disastrous time to subvert public confidence in some of our institutions; to disseminate pernicious opinions, and to bring forward measures of rash and intemperate legislation, have subsided, under a prevalent convictiou that it is wiser to preserve than to destroy-and better to cherish a spirit of conciliation, harmony, and generous emulation, than to indulge jealousies and contentions. The zeal and patriotism manifested in our elections, prove that vigilance, the guardian of liberty, is yet unsleeping; while the peaceful and discriminating vindication of right principles, has given renewed confirmation of the excellence of republican institutions. These manifestations of favor imperatively demand our gratitude to Almighty God. Happy will it be for our country, and thrice happy for us, upon whom the responsibilities of legislation have fallen, if they shall inspire us with submissive obedience to his will, and a sense of constant dependence upon his protection and support.

The scrupulous good faith which the federal government owes to the several states, and the mutual confidence necessary to secure the successful operation of our complex system, alike demand the reimbursement to this state of the funds advanced to our citizens, upon a pledge which that government, with unlimited resources and credit, for reasons most inconclusive, refused to redeem. And the occasion seems proper to assert and maintain, temperately but firmly, that the return to the people of the surplus funds drawn from them by indirect taxation, and accumulated from the sale of lands, of which the national government was their trustee, ought to be immediately deprived of the character of a loan, and be declared an absolute distribution. No policy can be more unsound than to relieve that government of direct responsibility in regard to its finances. It has disclaimed the power, as well as the policy, of internal improvements. It will have abundant ability to provide for any exigency of public defence which may occur. It is unnecessary and dangerous to the liberties of the people to allow the national government to retain a lien on the states for forty millions as a contingent resource, stimulating to extravagant expenditure and improvident legislation.

The aggregate of tolls, including rents of surplus water, collected on all the canals during the last fiscal year, was $1,481,602 41. The cost of repairs and of the collection of tolls on all the canals was $639,714 32, which, deducted from the receipts, leaves the

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