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17. It was a delightful in the month of The sụn rising above the had gilded the tops of the The birds fearing the heat had in the The cattle, having
their thirst in the were browsing on the and the peasant had his labours in the field. All things seemed to of a lovely day. But suddenly the began to the - began to look dark, the darted through the sky, the
rolled, and a noise, as if all the artillery of heaven was discharged at once, spread
and around. 18. Our eyes are dazzled by the
of light. 19. Children are
When they are older they become i but when they have arrived at the state of manhood they lay aside the of youth, and apply themselves to the which belong to their
in life. 20. How many persons when they are young expect that life will afford them and ; but how frequently, alas, are they The from which they expected to
their ruin. The from which they thought to derive the greatest satisfaction, often deceive them, or prove a source of bitter disappointment.
21. The only real and solid enjoyment of life is derived from
The only thing which we have real cause to dread is
A school room is a place where children assemble to and The duties of the teacher are to and his pupils; and the pupils themselves should be and
in order that they may be benefitted by his instructions. They should not
; but listen to what is told them; and try to show by their and that they know how to estimate the privileges which they in being allowed
Variety of Arrangement. Sentences consisting of parts and members, and sometimes very simple sentences, can be variously arranged, the sense remaining unaltered. The following sen
tences are to be written (or read) in as great a variety of arrangement as the pupil can invent. He may afterwards take the same words and express different ideas with them.
MODEL. On the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy, I ascended the high hills of Bagdad, in order to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer.
Same sentence, with the members differently arranged. On the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy, in oraer to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer, I ascended the high hills of Bagdad.
Same again varied. I ascended the high hills of Bagdad, in order to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer, on the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy.
Again. In order to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer, I ascended the high hills of Bagdad, on the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy.
Again. In order to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer, on the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy, I ascended the high hills of Bagdad.
Again. I ascended the high hills of Bagdad, on the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy, in order to pass the rest of the day in med. itation and prayer.
N. B. It is recommended to Teachers to require the pupil to tell which arrangement of the sentence he thinks the best.
EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.
1. John was buried here. This simple sentence may be read in twenty-four different ways, six of which will be questions.
2. The farmer Peter ardently loves the beautiful shephordess Mary.
3. The highwayman by force (or forcibly) took a watch from a gentleman's servant on the turnpike-road.
4. Such unusual moderation in the exercise of supreme power, such singular and unheard of clemency, and such remarkable mildness, cannot possibly be passed over by me (or I cannot possibly pass over) in silence.
N. B The longest members of a sentence ought generally to be placed last.
5. Some gentle spirit glides with glassy foot over yon melodious wave, still pervades the spot, keeps silence in the cave, or sighs in the gale; although thou, the Muses' seat, art now their grave, and Apollo no more delights to dwell in his favourite grotto.
6. I survey thee, Oh Parnassus, neither with the frenzy of a dreamer, nor the ravings of a madman; but as thou appearest, in the wild pomp of thy mountain majesty.
7. Who with rosy light filled thy countenance, sank thy sunless pillars in the earth, and made thee the father of perpetual streams.
8. Bleached linen, the pride of the matron, the toil of many a winter night, the housewife's stores, whiter than snow, are laid up with fragrant herbs.
9. Softened by prosperity, the rich pity the poor; disciplined into order, the poor respect the rich.
10. When April and May reign in sweet vicissitude, I, like Horace, perceive my whole system excited by the potent stimulus of sun-shine, and give care to the winds.
11. Early one summer morning before the farnily was stirring, an old clock, that, without giving its owner any cause of complaint, had stood for fifty years in a farmer's kitchen, suddenly stopped.
12. Thy skies are as blue, thy groves are as sweet, thy fields are as verdant, thine olive is as ripe, thy crags are as wild, as they were in those early days when Minerva herself graced the scene.
13. A horseman, with an oath, rudely demanding a dram for his trouble, came galloping to the door, while they were at their sılent meal, and, with a loud voice, called out that with a letter he had been sent express to Gilbert Ainslie.
14._By violent persecution, compelled to quit his native land, Rabbi Akiba wandered over barren wastes and dreary deserts. At last he came fatigued and almost exhausted, near a village.
15. As the threatening clouds obscured the moon, and the post boy drove furiously through the road, suddenly I heard a lamentable sound. 16. It
appears that during the night a band of robbers had entered the village, plundered the houses, and killed the inhabitants.
17. From the result of my own personal observation, I am fully convinced that there has formerly been a population much more numerous than exists here at present.
18. Leaving it entirely to the imagination to descend further into the depths of time beyond, we can trace these remains of Indian workmanship, back six hundred years, from the ages of the trees on them, and from other data.
19. In inverted order, as well as that in which they are arranged, the various kinds of exercises should be practised, from the highest to the lowest, to effect the purpose for which they were designed.
20. To vindicate the religion of their God, to defend the justice of their country, to save us from ruin, I call on this most learned, this right reverend bench. To maintain your own dignity, and to reverence that of your ancestors, I call upon the honour of your lordships. I call upon the humanity and the spirit of my country, to vindicate the national character.
21. In the treasury belonging to the Cathedral, in this city, a dish, supposed to be made of emerald, has been preserved for upwards of six hundred years.
22. Contented and thankful, after having visited London, we returned to our retired and peaceful habitations.
23, When the Romans were pressed with a foreign enemy, the women voluntarily contributed all their rings and jewels, to assist the government.
24. He had ploughed, sowed, and reaped his often scanty harvest with his own hands, assisted by three sons, who, even in boyhood, were happy to work with their father in the fields.
25. The little bleak farm, sad and affecting in its lone and extreme simplicity, smiled like the paradise of poverty, when the lark, lured thither by some green barley field, rose ringing over the solitude; and among the rushes and heath, the little brown moorland birds were singing their short songs.
26. At every step he advanced, his heart became more and more elated, having with difficulty found his way to the street where his decent mansion had formerly stood.
27. Looking eagerly around he proceeded with joy, but of the objects with which he had formerly been conversant, he observed but few.
28. He hastened to the palace, overwhelmed with anguish, and casting himself at the feet of the Emperor, he cried, Great prince, I have survived my family and friends, and even in the midst of this populous city I find myself in a dreary solitude; to that prison from which mistaken mercy has delivered me, graciously send me back.
VARIETY OF EXPRESSION.
A very common error of pupils just commencing composition, is the frequent and unnecessary use of the conjunction and. The following examples will show, that the use of the present or perfect participle will correct this fault.
MODEL, with the present participle. He descended from his throne, and ascended the scaffold, and said, “ Live, incomparable pair.”
- Better thus : Descending from his throne, and ascending the scaffold, he said, “ Live, incomparable pair.”
Or thus : He descended from his throne, and ascending the scaf fold, said, " Live, incomparable pair.”
Or thus : He descended from his throne, and ascended the scaf. fold, saying, “ Live, incomparable pair.”
MODEL, with the perfect participle. She was deprived of all but her innocence, and lived in a retired collage with her widowed mother, and was concealed more by her modesty than by solitude.
Better thus : Deprived of all but her innocence, and concealed more by her modesty than by solitude, she lived with her widowed mother in a retired cottage.
Or thus: Deprived of all but her innocence, and living in a retired cottage with her widowed mother, she was concealed more by her modesty than by solitude.
EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.
1. The beauties of nature are before us, and invite us to contemplate the power, the wisdom, and the benevolence of that great and good Being at whose word they sprang up, and presented themselves as proper objects of our admiration, and our gratitude/
2. The elephant took the child up with his trunk, and placed it upon his back, and would never afterward obey any other master,