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in the light of the lucid statement in the when it has rendered just so much of book before us, every serious thinker, it form and movement as shall serve to seems, has been groping his way towards make us recognize that the object is a similar conclusion, but it has remained shaped in such and such a way, or poised for our author to put it in precise and in such and such a position, but only definite terms.

when it has presented us with form and It is the aim of all the arts, Mr. movement in such wise that we shall Berenson says, to be “life-enhancing ; realize them more readily than we do that is to say, to stimulate that healthy in actuality. Now, in real life, most of functioning of the organism which is the us who are not painters or sculptors oursource of most of our normal pleasures. selves realize but vaguely the forms and Each one of the arts has, as we all know, movements of the objects our eyes rest its own method of attaining this effectupon. To us, a person is rather a cause but painting, being specifically concerned of transitive emotion, a social factor, with form and movement, if it is capa- than a form; and thus it is with everyble of enhancing life in a unique way, thing we see. We are content with the must do it by these two means. And in mere recognition of properties in so far what way can the representation of form as they practically concern

The and movement directly enhance life? visual world has come to be, to most The answer, according to Mr. Berenson, people, only a set of symbols, signifyis bound up with the fact that such re- ing emotion, action, cause and effect, or presentation “stimulates to an unwonted what-not. But painting, whose peculiar activity psychical processes which are in task, we remember, is to be concerned themselves the source of most of our with the visible qualities of form and pleasures, and which here, free from dis- movement, recalls to our consciousness turbing physical sensations, never tend the ancient means by which the race and to pass over into pain.”

every individual learned to realize the But is this so? Do represented form outer universe; reminds us that things and movement rouse greater psychical are not merely symbols of dynamic activity than form and movement in ac- forces, but objects to be dwelt on in and tual life ? Art, it is true, isolates the for themselves. If painting representobject represented from anything that ed things, as photography does, only as in real life might tend to diminish our they are in nature, our habit of taking enjoyment of it; allowing us, for exam- them as symbols would receive no corple, to enjoy the artistic elements in a rective. Painting must, therefore, select race or a wrestling-match, which, if we or invent those surfaces and those artictook part in either, would tire us, or, ulations which shall startle our ideated even if we merely watched them, would sense of touch and muscular tension into pass too quickly to allow us to note all unwonted activity. It must, in Mr. the energetic and graceful movements. Berenson's words, “extract the tactile But if this were all, instantaneous pho- and muscular values of retinal imprestography would give us everything, ex- sions, and present to us the significant in cept color, that painting can offer. In the visible world, so that we realize the what way, then, does the representation representation more quickly and more of form and movement in art differ from completely than we should realize the that registered by the photographic ca- things themselves.” mera ?

We have already pointed out that the To answer this question we need not pleasure consequent upon this heightgo far afield. According to Mr. Beren- ened realization may be connected with son, the task of painting is not fulfilled the familiar evolutionary theory that

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pleasure inevitably accompanies an in- should make us feel “as if the elixir of crease of healthy functioning. Mr. Be- life, not our own sluggish blood, were renson expresses this view in unequivo- coursing through our veins.” Few of cal terms in a passage which we quote us, unaided, would be able to analyze the as a summary of the sources of our en- ultimate why and wherefore of the lifejoyment of the specifically artistic ele- stimulating effect of great art, even ments in painting : “I am in the habit when we feel it. Many, indeed, influof realizing a given object with an in- enced by æsthetic theories based on no tensity that we shall value as 2. If I practical acquaintance with art, or, more suddenly realize this familiar object misleading still, by theories that mix up with an intensity of 4, I receive the the art with the artist, and pronounce the immediate pleasure which accompanies picture or the poem insane and diseased a doubling of my mental activity. But because the painter or poet was physicalthe pleasure rarely stops there. Those ly degenerate, will be inclined to dispute who are capable of receiving direct plea- these conclusions. Such recalcitrants sure from a work of art are generally we must refer to Mr. Berenson's conled on to the further pleasures of self- crete application of the theory to the consciousness. The fact that the psychi- whole body of Florentine art, and we cal process of recognition goes forward must ask them if they can find another with the unusual intensity of 4 to 2 which so perfectly explains the greatness overwhelms them with the sense of hav- of the Florentine school, or yields so ing twice the capacity they had credited satisfactory a classification of the masters themselves with : their whole personal- within that school. Nor can we doubt ity is enhanced, and, being aware that that the theory, although treated here this enhancement is connected with the only in connection with Florentine paintobject in question, they for some time ing, will apply equally to every school in after not only take an increased interest which the living figure is the preoccupy. in it, but continue to realize it with the ing interest. Indeed, Mr. Berenson's new intensity. Precisely this is what references to Greek art, to Rembrandt, form does in painting : it lends a higher to Velasquez, to Degas, to the Japanese, coefficient of reality to the object repre- hint to a thoroughgoing application of sented, with the consequent enjoyment the theory on the author's own part. of accelerated psychical processes, and If this theory is logical and consistthe exhilarating sense of increased ca- ent, as we have endeavored to show it pacity in the observer.”

to be, and if it explains the facts as no Thus, the final test of the work of other existing hypothesis, we are justi. art is that it should be “ life-enhancing,' fied in yielding ourselves enthusiastically should “confirm our hold on life,” to the brave doctrine that art is one of should “ reinforce our personality ;” the great tonic forces of civilization, that that it should give us a hyperæsthesia it can never be immoral except when it not bought with drugs, and not paid for is unhealthy, and that it can never be with checks drawn on our vitality," and unhealthy except when it is bad.

1 Nor does the author for a moment sug- so far as clear definition helps us precisely to gest that such analysis is in any way essential define our own sensations, and so to strengthen to the enjoyment of art, except, of course, in them.

COMMENT ON NEW BOOKS.

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History and Biography. Life, Letters, and are given in the volume, together with a Works of Louis Agassiz, by Jules Marcou. portrait of the artist, after Rowlandson. With Illustrations. In two volumes. (Mac- William the Silent, Prince of Orange, the millan.) Mr. Marcou has passed in review Moderate Man of the Sixteenth Century ; the career of Agassiz, and has brought to the Story of his Life as told from his own his task the advantage of nationality and Letters, from those of his Friends and Enescientific training. He has also stood to- mies, and from Official Documents. By ward the great naturalist and his associates Ruth Putnam. (Putnams.) We suppose that in the attitude of a critic, though his crit- this work was begun with the intention that icism is less formal and systematic than it should form a volume of the Heroes of what might be called temperamental and the Nations Series, and that it grew in the personal. One needs to be somewhat on author's hands till it was thought better one's guard in reading, if he is to form not to try to confine it to the rather strait sound judgments as to the relationships limits of the original design, - a decision for which existed between Agassiz and his as

which its readers have reason to be gratesociates, or to reckon with accuracy the part ful. Of course, the writer, to her manifest which each played. Nevertheless, with this advantage, and naturally to her disadvancaution, the reader will find himself thread- tage as well, must follow in the footsteps of ing some intricate and interesting paths in Motley, and she at once acknowledges that recent scientific history. An air of minute through the labyrinth of partisan opinion knowledge and positive judgment pervades ... I have patiently followed his inspiring the work. George Morland, Painter, Lon- lead, with growing admiration for the undon, 1763–1804, by Ralph Richardson. (El- tiring industry of his laborious researches, liot Stock, London.) In the three years after and for the accuracy and skill of his adapMorland's death no less than four lives of tations from the enormous mass of matter him appeared, all practically unattainable that he examined,” - no idle tribute, comto-day; the best, on the whole, being that of ing from so fair-minded, painstaking, and George Dawe, R. A., which Mr. Richardson intelligent a student. In her aim to tell her has wisely elected to follow, for the most story, so far as may be, in the very

words part, in compiling this biography, - a book of her hero and his contemporaries, she has for which there certainly is a place, consid- selected liberally and judiciously from the ering that the works of the artist it com- great mass of William's correspondence, givmemorates, those matchless studies of late ing many letters never before published in eighteenth-century English rural life in its English. She has been particularly successmost prosperous and smiling estate, are ful in illustrating the domestic annals of found quite as admirable at the century's the Nassau family, and her conclusions reend as they were at its beginning. The garding different aspects of the character writer makes a brave plea for leniency in and conduct of its head are so carefully judging the errors of his hero, but an over- considered that they will be received with strict education or the convivial habits of respect, if not always with entire assent. his time can hardly be held entirely respon- Her style, if quite without distinction, is sible for his shortcomings. Under any cir- unaffected, clear, and straightforward, but cumstances, it is doubtful if this reckless, it is sometimes unduly and even ungracefulwasteful “good fellow," with his taste for ly colloquial, and it is to be wished that occa“sport” in its lowest forms, would have led sional allusions to supposed American hisa very reputable life. The marvel of his ca- torical parallels had been omitted. Though reer is the amount of work he accomplished in certain chapters she shows that she has in his few, ill-governed years. A great deal not mastered the rare art of smoothly flowof carefully collated information regard- ing and effective condensation, her narraing Morland's pictures and the engravings tive is steadily interesting, and is always therefrom is contained in an appendix. A the result of genuine study and research. few reproductions from these engravings The work is abundantly and well illustrated.

VOL. LXXVII. — NO. 464. 54

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- Memories and Studies of War and Peace, closing volumes of the Messrs. Roberts's by Archibald Forbes. With Portrait of the edition of Balzac, in Miss Wormeley's alAuthor. (Imported by Scribners.) The ways admirable translation, follow each veteran war-correspondent's reminiscences other in quick succession. A late issue conmake delightful reading, and there is not a tains two of the minor tales, both belonging dull page in his book. Besides the narra- to Scenes from Provincial Life: The Gallery tives of his professional experiences in the of Antiquities, and An Old Maid. - Four Franco - Prussian, Servian, Russo - Turkish, more numbers of the neat little Tennyson and Zulu wars, and other papers of a more have reached us: Maud, In Memoriam, The general character relating to military af- Brook and Other Poems, the first number of fairs, Mr. Forbes gives us some genuine Idylls of the King. (Macmillan.) – Amiel's romances in miniature, which, since we are Journal, translated by Mrs. Humphry bound to believe them true stories, go to Ward, forms two volumes of Macmillan's show that truth is indeed stranger than (paper) Miniature Series.

Notes of a fiction. — The Rule of the Turk, a Revised Professional Exile, by E. S. Nadal. (Centuand Enlarged Edition of The Armenian ry Co.) The exile is an expatriated AmeriCrisis, by Frederick Davis Greene, M. A. can, who talks about American women and (Putnams.) – Echoes of Battle, by Bush- some other, less important topics. It is a rod Washington James. (H. T. Coates & pretty little volume, bound in embossed Co., Philadelphia.) — Life and Speeches of leather. – Old-World Japan, Legends of Thomas Corwin, Orator, Lawyer, and States- the Land of the Gods, retold by Frank man, edited by Josiah Morrow. (W. H. Rinder. With Illustrations by T. H. RobinAnderson & Co., Cincinnati.) — Lucius Q. son. (Macmillan.) The legends are mostly C. Lamar, his Life, Times, and Speeches, rambling and incoherent; and presented as by Edward Mayes, LL. D. (Barbee & they are, without explanatory notes or any Smith, Nashville, Tenn.)

attempt to show the relations they bear to Literature. The seventh volume of the the myths of other peoples, they contain complete edition of Pepys's Diary (Bell, little that will interest Occidental readers. London ; Macmillan, New York) begins in The illustrations are rather effective as July, 1667, that time of humiliation in pieces of decorative work, but are too diswhich the diarist records that “everybody tinctly English to illustrate properly a Jado now-a-days reflect upon Oliver and commend him, what brave things he did, and Religion, Theology, and Ethics. Responmade all the neighbor princes fear him ;” sive Readings, selected from the Bible and and ends in April, 1668, with public affairs arranged under subjects for Common Worin no better state, for “we are all poor, and ship, by Henry Van Dyke. (Ginn.) Dr. Van in pieces - God help us !” Still, Mr. Pepys, Dyke compiled this book for use in the in spite of much hard (and very efficient) chapel of Harvard, and we hope it may office work and serious worries connected come into general collegiate use, both betherewith, manages to be “mighty merry cause it is admirably arranged, and because, as frequently as usual, – how cheerfully he by its inclusion of other passages besides and his friends take their pleasure ; in- the psalter, it will enrich the service and deed, even that ever-to-be-deplored malady add to the value of what always is in danof the eyes which has come upon him gives ger of being a formal operation. — Readhim an excuse for a careless keeping of his ings from the Bible. Selected for Schools vows in the matter of play-going. But it is and to be read in Unison. Under Superviwith a pang of sympathy, as well as with sion of the Chicago Woman's Educational selfish regrets, that the book-lover comes Union. (Scott, Foresman & Co., Chicaupon ejaculations such as this : “My eyes go.) A small volume, with short selections very bad, and I know not how in the world judiciously chosen from narrative, poem, to abstain from reading.” The volume con- prophecy, epistle. There is no obvious tains five illustrations, including a portrait order, but the matter is taken topically, so of Lord Brouncker, after Lely, and views that under such a head as Glorious in Howithout and within of St. Olave's, Hart liness there are excerpts from Revelation, Street, where on so many Lord's Days Mr. Matthew, Chronicles, Isaiah, and Exodus. Mills preached sermous, dull or lazy. — The Something is lost by this arbitrary group

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ing, and we wish the compilers had borne Heredity and Christian Problems, by Amory more in inind the continuity of passages ;

H. Bradford. (Macmillan.) the arrangement emphasizes too much the Fiction and the Drama. A Monk of Fife, textual scheme of the Bible. It was need- by Andrew Lang (Longmans.) Mr. less, also, to preserve the old italicization of Lang's readers do not learn for the first the King James version. But the book is time from this chronicle that he is one of a step in the right direction, and Mr. Moul- the most earnest and sincere of the latterton's suggestions as to literary form have day devotees of Jeanne la Pucelle. With been of excellent service. We do not see an admirable assumption of the manner and why this little volume should not solve some feeling of the time, he tells by the pen of of the perplexities growing out of the exclu- Norman Leslie, a Benedictine monk of Dunsion of Bible-reading in schools. — Dogmatic fermline, who in his youth had been one of Theology, by William G. T. Shedd, D. D. the French king's Scottish Archers, of the Volume III. Supplement. (Scribners.) - adventures that befell the narrator on first St. Paul's Conception of Christianity, by coming into France, and especially of his Alexander Balmain Bruce, D. D., Professor intercourse with the Maid, from the gloriof New Testament Exegesis in the Free ous beginning to the tragic ending of her Church College, Glasgow. (Scribners.) career. Though her name and fame perFallen Angels : A Disquisition upon Hu- vade the story, by a wise art she is not too man Existence. An Attempt to elucidate often brought upon the stage ; but her charSome of its Mysteries, especially those of acter is clearly conceived, and, even in its Evil and of Suffering. By One of Them. aloofness, is drawn with firmness as well as (Gay & Bird, London.) — The Power of an grace. For the rest, there is a genuine Endless Life, by Thomas C. Hall. (Mc- black-browed villain, a charming, goldenClurg.) — William B. Hayden, for Forty- haired Scots lass, many men-at-arms, much Two Years a Minister of the New-Jeru- fighting, and thrilling hairbreadth escapes, salem Church. Selected Essays and Dis- all set forth with an abundance of clerkly courses, with Memorials of his Life and skill. The X Jewel, by the Hon. FredServices. (Mass. New-Church Union, Bos- erick Moncreiff. (Harpers.) There is no ton.) — The Church and Secular Life, by present lack of either Scottish or historiFrederick William Hamilton. (Universal- cal fiction, and this romance combines both ist Publishing House, Boston and Chicago.) qualities, being a tale of the days when

The Law of Service, a Study in Chris- James VI. was yet a lad. The author has tian Altruism, by James P. Kelley. (Put- a good working knowledge of the turbulent nams.) — The Leisure of God, and Other politics of the time, and can reasonably well Studies in the Spiritual Evolution, by John adopt its manner of speech ; but if he himColeman Adams. (Universalist Publishing self thoroughly understands the convoluHouse.) – A Creedless Gospel and the Gos- tions of his plot, he will hardly find many pel Creed, by Henry Y. Satterlee, D. D., readers acute enough to share the knowRector of Calvary Church, New York. ledge with him. For ourselves, we very (Scribners.) — Light on Current Topics. early in the narrative gave up trying to Bennett Lectures for 1895. (Mass. New- really comprehend the motives for the acChurch Union.) — The Religious Training tions of Andrew Eviot and his friends or of Children, by Abby Morton Diaz. Re- enemies, though, as we recognized in him printed from the Metaphysical Review by a hero predestined to success, we take his Special Request. (The Metaphysical Pub- final triumph for granted ; for even this, as lishing Co., New York.) Metaphors, well as the last disposition of the X Jewel, Similes, and other Characteristic Sayings of remains a little obscure. — In the Smoke of Henry Ward Beecher. Compiled from War, by Walter Raymond. (Macmillan.) Discourses reported by T. J. Ellinwood, A contrast to the author's idyllic tales of with Introduction by Homer B. Sprague, peaceful country life is this story of civil Ph. D. (Andrew J. Graham & Co., New strife ; but the villagers, who hardly know York.) - Progress in Spiritual Knowledge, whether they are for king or Parliament, by the Rev. Chauncey Giles. A Memorial though they suffer sorely in person or in Volume. (American New-Church Tract goods when war comes to their doors, are and Publication Society, Philadelphia.) – drawn with the same true and sympathetic

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