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pected, and in a moment I knew, the a flit of wings. The singer tried to lead

The nest was empty. Where, me away, but I was serious and not to then, could be those youngsters, less than be coaxed, and all his manæuvres failed. a week old, who four days before were I seated myself on the ground, for now blind and bare of feathers ? They could I heard low, soft baby calls, and deternot have flown ; they must have been mined to stay there till the crack of doom, hurried out of the nest as soon as they or till I had solved the mystery of those could stand. Could it be because I knew calls. their secret? I felt myself a monster, But I did not stay so long, and I did and I tried to make amends by hunting not see the babies. An hour or two of them up and replacing them. But the watching weakened my determination, canny parents, as usual, outwitted me. and slowly and sadly I wended my way Not only had they removed their infants, homeward; admiring, while I execrated, but they had hidden them so securely the too, too clever tactics of the chat. that I could not find them, and I was But I did make one discovery, — that sure, from their movements, that they a sound which had puzzled me, like the were not bereaved.

distant blow of an axe against a tree, I began my search by trying to follow must be added to the répertoire of the the wily singer, who appeared to under- chat mother. I saw her utter it, and stand, and regard it as a joke. First saw the strange movement of the throat he led me up the lane, then I had to fol- in doing so. The sound seemed to come low down the lane ; the next minute he up in bubbles, which distended her throat shouted from the blackberry patch, and on the outside, exactly as if they had been I had to go around the wall to reach beads as big as shoe buttons. him. Alas, the race between wings and I was not to be wholly disappointed. feet is hopeless! I abandoned that plan, Fate had one crumb of consolation for and resolved to go to a grove not here- me, for I saw at last a chat baby. He tofore invaded, being absolutely impene- was a quiet, well - behaved little fellow, trable from undergrowth. My way led with streaks on throat and breast, and

a cornfield, over stone walls, dull yellow underparts. His manners through thickets and bushes everywhere. were subdued, and gave no hint of the Many other birds I startled, and at last bumptious acrobat he might live to be. came a chat’s “ mew” from a wild jun- While the vagaries of chat life had gle of ailantus and brambles, which no- been drawing me down toward the lane, thing less effective than an axe could the feathered world on the other side of pass through. But on I went around the house had not been idle, and glad the edge, the chat's call accompanying now to avoid the ruined lane and the me, and at the point where it sounded deserted berry patch, I turned my attenloudest I dropped to a humble position, tion to a bird drama nearer home, the hoping that eyes might enter further than story of which must have a chapter to feet. Nothing to be seen or heard but itself.

Olive Thorne Miller.



THERE is a more radical difference present the ignorance of the country. between the Republican party and the The Democrat has a strong feeling for Democratic party than appears at first what he regards as his personal rights, sight. Their political opinions, indeed, the Republican a greater regard for inare not sharply discriminated. In each stitutions and for the strength of the party we find some protectionists and government. The Republican has more some free-traders, gold men and silver money, and he occupies a position which men, civil service reformers and adher- is thought to be higher in the social scale. ents of the spoils doctrine. Upon for. There is a corresponding difference beeign affairs, as we have learned by recent tween the Democratic and the Republiexperience, political opinion does not run can ideals of a public man; and these in anything like strict accordance with ideals are usually realized. Politicians party lines. The real distinction between may pull and haul as they will, but in the two parties lies in, or perhaps we the long run, so far as the highest elecshould say, rather, springs from, the ele- tive offices are concerned, the voters get ments of which they are composed. The their own way; they elect the kind of average or typical Democrat is a very man that they like. different kind of man from the average

Now, if it be inquired what kind of or typical Republican; and this difference a candidate the Democratic masses natis recognized by everybody in a general urally choose, we could hardly give a way. Thus, if a person at all familiar better or more definite answer than is with American politics were walking furnished by the name of Richard Olney. down Broadway, in the city of New Democrats prefer a man of the masterYork, he would certainly assume that ful, commanding, straightforward type. the laborer digging up the street with a They have no desire to dictate to their pickaxe was a Democrat; and so of the leaders, they want to be dictated to; policeman at the crossing, of the fireman they want to be led, not to drive. We rushing past on his engine, of the 'bus need not now inquire very curiously into driver, of the motor-man on the electric the origin and nature of this Democratic car. But as to the shopkeepers along submission to authority. Some people the street, both Jew and Gentile, both call it subservience; others call it loyalty; wholesaler and retailer, he would set them others, again, attribute it to the simple down as Republicans. When he reached fact that the Democratic voters have the lower part of Broadway, where law- nothing to gain from legislation. Not yers and bankers abound, there would being predominantly engaged in trade, be more uncertainty in his calculations; in manufactures, or in mining, they are still, by far the greater number of lawyers not applicants for protection, or for and bankers would be Republicans. And bounties, or for any other form of pawhat is true of New York, in this matter, ternal assistance. Consequently, they is true, though of course with many va- are willing to leave questions of policy riations and exceptions, of the whole and of legislation to be settled by their country, saving the Southern States. It leaders. But whatever the explanation, is a frequent saying among Republicans the fact is perfectly obvious that the that the great body of uneducated voters Democratic voter has an instinctive likare found in the ranks of their oppo- ing for a real leader, for a dominating nents; the Democrats, they declare, re- person. He elects a man of that kind,


and, having put him in office, gives him whose daughter he married in 1861, and a free rein. Mr. Cleveland is notori- he continued to be the friend and partner ously of this nature, and Mr. Olney re- of Judge Thomas until the death of the sembles him in this respect. The two latter, which occurred in 1879. When men are of similar origin, for they both he was admitted to the bar, and indeed come of sturdy New England fighting for twenty years afterward, the practice and preaching stock.

of the law was not specialized, as it has Mr. Olney is in the direct line of de- since become. In those days, a lawyer scent from Thomas Olney, who emigrat- in good practice would be found now in ed from England in 1635, and settled in the criminal court, now in the court of Salem. Being a Baptist, he was excom- law or of equity; he might act as a conmunicated and expelled from Massachu- veyancer to - day, and as a counselor in setts, two years after his arrival in this the Admiralty Court tomorrow. This country, along with Roger Williams, variety of employment probably tendwhom he assisted in founding Rhode ed to develop a more practical and wellIsland and the Providence Plantations. rounded man than is produced under the His descendants have been among the present system of specialization. It is inhabitants of Rhode Island ever since. on record that Mr. Olney once defended Richard Olney's father was Wilson a man accused of murder, and obtained Olney, who moved from Providence to his acquittal. From an early period in Oxford, Massachusetts, in 1819, and his career, however, he has been conthere became a woolen manufacturer and cerned chiefly with trust estates and with a banker. He was a man of perfect in- corporations. In fact, his long employtegrity and of great energy. He died ment as counsel for railroad corporations in 1874, leaving three sons, of whom doubtless tends to diminish what is called Richard was the oldest. Wilson Olney's his " availability” as a candidate for the wife was the daughter of Peter Butler, presidency. of Oxford, and granddaughter of Mary From the beginning of his apprenticeSigourney, who was descended from An- ship to the law, Mr. Olney has labored drew Sigourney, a Huguenot, and the at it with such industry as only a robust leader of a small band of Huguenots who physique could have enabled him to supsettled at Oxford in 1687. Mr. Olney, port. He is noted for deep and accurate therefore, in addition to his good Anglo- knowledge of the law, and for the logic, Saxon descent, has a strain of that Hu- skill, and pertinacity with which that guenot blood which, as we are informed knowledge has been applied. The only by the researches of Mr. Henry Cabot political offices which he has ever held Lodge, has contributed a greater propor

are those of selectman in the town of tionate number of distinguished men to West Roxbury, where he used to live, American life than any other except the and of representative in the Massachunative stock.

setts legislature, of which he was a memRichard Olney was born September ber in 1874. It will be seen, therefore, 15, 1835, at Oxford. He was educated that the story of his life, with the excepat the academy in Leicester, near Ox- tion of the past two or three years, is ford, and at Brown University in Pro- that of a lawyer, pure and simple. He vidence, where he was graduated with was known in Boston merely as a very high honors in 1856. In the autumn of able, honest, accurate, well-read member that year he entered the Harvard Law of the bar. He had, to be sure, a rather School, and in 1859 he was admitted to unusual reputation for firmness and pug--the Boston bar. He immediately became nacity. So little, indeed, had he been associated with the late Judge Thomas, considered as a figure in public life or


as a possible subject of political honors States. He promptly decided that he that he was not even thought of by those had authority to act. He applied to the leading Democrats in Massachusetts who, United States Circuit Court for the at Mr. Cleveland's invitation, suggested Northern District of Illinois for an inthe names of persons whom they thought junction to restrain the leaders of the suitable for a place in his Cabinet. The strike from interfering, and from incitnames thus suggested were passed over, ing others to interfere, with the trans

and the President offered the post of portation of United States mails or with | Attorney-General to Mr. Olney. The interstate commerce ; that is, with the

office was directly in the line of his pro- movement of freight en route from one fession, and he accepted it. It was thus State to another. The injunction was purely as a lawyer that he entered polit- granted, and the strike came to an end. ical life, and we may add that it is en- As one of the defendants testified af. tirely from the manner in which he has terward: “ The strike was broken up, dealt with certain questions of national not by the army and not by any and of international law that he has be- other power, but simply and solely by come a prominent figure in the country, the action of the United States courts and a possible candidate for the presi- in restraining us from discharging our deney. He is known to the general pub- duties as officers and representatives of lic only by the part which he played in the workmen.” suppressing the Chicago railroad riots of The strike was ended, but not the con1894, and by his conduct of the Vene- cern of Mr. Olney with it; that remained zuelan controversy.

to be passed upon by the Supreme Court, It will be remembered that in the lat- to which the defendants (who were subter part of June, 1894, a general railroad sequently imprisoned for contempt of strike was in progress at the West, the court in violating the injunction) had apcentre of the disturbance being at Chica- pealed. go. Very great injury had already been A strong argument was made in their inflicted upon the business of the coun- behalf. “No case can be cited,” was try: passengers were detained in unin- said, and said truly, by counsel for the dehabited places without food ; cattle and fendants, — “no case can be cited where sheep in course of transportation were such a bill in behalf of the sovereign has dying of thirst and hunger; whole com- been entertained against riot and mob munities were cut off from their ordi- violence, though occurring on the highnary supplies of food and fuel. The way. . . . The strong hand of executive state authorities made but feeble efforts power is required to deal with such lawto cope with the difficulty, and matters less demonstrations. The courts should were hourly going from bad to worse. stand aloof from them, and not in. Had the United States courts any au- vade executive prerogative, nor even at thority to interfere ? It was a very the behest or request of the executive doubtful question ; there was no prece- travel out of the beaten path of well-setdent for it whatever. Such a jurisdic- tled judicial authority.” The Supreme tion never had been exercised by any Court, however, after great deliberation, court in England or in America. There and with the assistance of the elaborate was no time to consult authorities or briefs filed upon each side, arrived at the to ponder the nice legal questions in- same conclusion reached by Mr. Olney volved; and the responsibility of mov- in those few hours, one might almost say ing or not moving in the matter rested minutes, in which he was obliged to dewholly upon a single person, Richard

Richard cide whether or not he should take acOlney, Attorney-General of the United tion. This decision must be accepted as

a vindication of his action. The prece- by their counsel, and the employees by dent which he thus had a hand in estab- theirs, and neither the Attorney-General lishing is one of the utmost importance, nor his assistants were engaged on either

, and its results will be felt for many side. But the action of the receivers years to come.

In fact, it is quite con- was a gross interference with the liberty ceivable that the very existence of the of the individual ; and Mr. Olney, of his government of the United States might own motion and by special leave of the depend upon or might be destroyed by court, filed a brief upon the side of the the power of the United States courts to petitioners. From this brief we quote interfere in every strike which involves the following passage : « Whatever else the stoppage

of the mails or of interstate may remain for the future to determine, commerce. Certainly no railroad strike it must now be regarded as substantially upon a great scale can ever be carried settled that the mass of wage-earners can out so long as this power is exercised. no longer be dealt with by capital as so Thus a great safeguard is thrown about many isolated units. The time has passed the business of the country.

when the individual workman is called But there is another side to the mat- upon to pit his feeble strength against ter. Railroad employees deprived, prac- the might of organized capital. Organtically, of the right to strike are deprived ized labor now confronts organized capiof their only weapon of self - defense. tal. They are the best off when friends, Unless they are protected by some new but are inevitably often at variance. As legislation from the possible rapacity and antagonists, neither can afford to despise injustice of their employers, this power the other; and the burning question of of interference by the Federal courts, modern times is, How shall the ever-renow settled by the decision of the Su- curring controversies between them be preme Court, may give rise to evils far adjusted and terminated ?” It remains worse than those which it was designed only to add that the circuit judge refused to prevent. That Mr. Olney himself is the petition, leaving the receivers at libnot blind to such considerations, that he erty to pursue the course upon which they aims at justice to the workman as well had entered. This decision was perfectas protection to the public, is plain from ly honest, but it is doubtful if one more one of his subsequent acts, not as Attor- unjust was ever made by any tribunal in ney-General, but as a private individual. a civilized country. The case was as follows : The receivers By his public acts, therefore, Mr. Olof the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad ney has proved himself not only an able issued an edict that none of their em- lawyer, with a capacity for original acployees should join the Brotherhood of tion, but a courageous man; and not only Railroad Trainmen, and that those who a courageous man, but a just one. The had joined it should leave the Brother- same fortune

one hardly knows whehood on pain of immediate dismissal from ther to call it good or bad which atthe service of the company. Some of tended him as Attorney-General has folthe employees who were members of the lowed him as Secretary of State ; he has Brotherhood petitioned the United States been called upon to decide questions of Circuit Court for the Eastern District of far greater difficulty and importance than Pennsylvania to restrain the receivers fall ordinarily to the lot of a Cabinet of(who, as such, are officers of the court) ficer. It would be impossible, as well as from carrying out this policy of injustice out of place, to attempt here an analysis and oppression. Mr. Olney had no con- of the Venezuelan controversy ; but Mr. nection with this case, one way or the Olney's famous letter upon the subject other. The receivers were represented may be examined briefly, so far as it

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