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Mr. Galton goes on to prove that, could some the fancy that a non-Christian Oriwe raise the average ability to the Athe- ental race may be able to dominate nian level, or two grades higher, the re- Christendom in the future, we have to sult would be that for every six men of face the fact that a non-Christian and extraordinary ability whum England can an Oriental people financially rule Westnow produce, she would then produce ern civilization to - day. The world's thirteen hundred and fifty-five. Per finances are practically in the hands of haps so gifted a race will never again ap- a race persecuted by Christianity for pear upon earth. Yet it has utterly dis- thirteen centuries, - a race undoubtedly appeared. Probably the remark will be modified in the Occident by large intermade that its disappearance was due fusion of Western blood, but neverthechiefly, as Mr. Galton seems to believe, less markedly preserving its Oriental and to moral laxity. Well, the very title of unmistakable characteristics. And the Dr. Pearson's book ought to have indicat recent anti-Semitic manifestations in Eued to those who reviewed it superficially rope represent the modern acknowledgthat he was considering the probable re- ment of Aryan inability to cope with parsults of moral laxity upon modern civi- ticular powers possessed by that race. lization. One of our dangers is to be I might even cite from a remarkable sought in the ever-increasing greed of German study, published about ten years pleasure and the decay of character. The ago, and written to prove that whenever mental and the moral capacities of the the percentage of Hebrews in a Gentile so-called higher races are showing, Dr. population begins to exceed a certain Pearson believed, those signs of exhaust- small figure, then “life becomes intolion which would indicate that the maxi- erable for the Gentiles.” But I wish to mum development of our civilization has call attention to general rather than to almost been reached. The fact is cer- special superiority. The intellectual tainly significant that the most naturally power of the Jew is by no means limited gifted of all European races, the French, to business. The average of Jewish abilis showing itself, like the Athenian race, ity surpasses that of the so-termed Aryan relatively though not normally infertile. in a far greater variety of directions than There are doubtless other causes for this, is commonly known. Out of 100,000 such as those considered by Mr. Spen- Western celebrities, the proportion of cer ;? but the decay of character can Jews to Europeans in philology, for exscarcely be the least. For all Occidental ample, is 123 to 13; in music, it is 71 to civilization this will be one of the perils 11; in medicine, it is 49 to 31 ; in natfrom within. The peril from without ural science, it is 25 to 22. In departwill be the industrial competition of the ments of genius as diverse as those of Far East.

chess-playing and acting, the Jewish suBefore we consider Dr. Pearson's periority is also powerfully marked. It views, another remark may be offered has been said that the Jewish capacity about the exaggerated belief of the West- was developed by Christian persecution ; ern races in their own unparalleled su- but, not to mention the fact that such perperiority. Monstrous as may seem to secution selected its victims rather from

1 Hereditary Genius, “On the Comparative Worth of Different Races," pages 329-332, edition of 1892. Concerning the physical development of the Greek race, I would recommend the reader to glance at Taine's extraordinary grouping of evidence bearing on the question, in his Philosophie de l'Art and in

L'Idéal dans l'Art. Mr. Mahaffy has written a book to prove the English boy superior to the Greek boy; but his argument involves the denial of facts accepted by equally good authority.

2 Principles of Biology, vol. ii. chap. xii.

8 I take the figures accepted by Lombroso. See his Man of Genius.

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the best than from the worst of a Jewish ery worse than any normal experiences population, this explanation would place of savage life. But there are many infewithin comparatively recent times the rior races, both savage and semi-savage, evolution of mental powers which have which thrive under the discipline of the distinguished the race from the most an- higher races, and so multiply after the cient times. Jewish capacity was rather introduction of Occidental order into the cause than the consequence of per- their territory that their multiplication secution. Ages before Christianity (as itself becomes an effective check upon might be inferred even from Genesis and the further growth of the dominating from Exodus, or from the book of Esther) race. Thus the Kaffir has multiplied unthe race had been hated and persecuted der British protection, and the Javanese because of its capacity. That capacity under Dutch. Thus the populations of was restrained by special legal disabili- the Straits Settlements and of British ties in Rome. It provoked murder and India steadily increase. The history of pillage even under the tolerant rule of the various English, French, and Dutch the Arabs in Spain ; and the attitude of colonies yields wide evidence that many Mohammedan races toward the Jews in weaker races, far from vanishing before Africa and in Asia has been, on the whole, the white, greatly increase in number. scarcely more tolerant than that of Chris- Such increase necessarily sets a limit to tian nations.

white multiplication in those regions, So much for the fancied mental su- seeing that all labor needed can be suppremacy of the Western nations. The

plied by natives at rates for which no delusion that other races are providen- white men would work, even supposing tially destined to disappear before the so- the climate were in all cases favorable called Aryan has been attacked by Dr. to Europeans. Pearson with a vast array of systema- Climate, however, is another question tized facts and observations, including in this relation. Climate also sets a limit the results of studies made by himself in - probably a perpetual limit -- to the many parts of the world. Although it expansion of the higher races. The tropis true that some races, unable to bear ics, apparently, can never become their the discipline of our civilization, have al- habitat. In what has been termed the ready disappeared, or are quickly disap- "pyrogenic region " the white races canpearing, — such as the Tasmanian and not maintain themselves without the aid Australian aborigines, certain Maori peo

of other races.

Their domination now, ples, and North American Indian tribes, as in the past, we find to depend upon - Dr. Pearson has shown that these constant supplies of fresh strength from accomplished or threatened extinctions a colder region, and their numbers have illustrate only the exceptions to the gen- never increased beyond an insignificant eral rule of the effect of Western expan- figure. The West Indies, from which sion upon alien races.

Under our social the white race is slowly but surely vanishsystem the condition of being able to live ing, furnish a strong example: the estates is to work hard, to work steadily, and to are passing into the hands of the former work intelligently. Those unable to do slave race. Tropical Africa may be held, this either perish at once, or sink into but never can be peopled by Europeans. the slough of vice and crime which un- Left to themselves for a few generations, derlies all our civilization, or else find the English in Hindustan would vanish themselves reduced to a condition of mis- utterly, like those Greek conquerors who, 1 For particulars of the rising against the

after Alexander, ruled Indian kingdoms. Jews in Spain under the Arabs, see Dozy's his- The state of Spanish and Portuguese tory.

tropical colonies in both hemispheres tells

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eloquently the story of the limits set by of society has changed toward the indusnature to white expansion.'

trial, anti-Semitic feeling has diminished, In the temperate zone, where the West- whereas it is strengthened again by any ern races come into contact with races reverse social tendency. The most esindubitably civilized, though in some re- sentially industrial nations, America and spects less highly organized, the former England, to-day give no exhibitions of can only temporarily gain ground, for anti-Semitic feeling; but with the milithe white races can be most effectually tary expansion of other societies or the underlived by peoples of nearly equal in- marked return to military forms we find telligence in production and in commerce. the sentiment reviving. Russia, Germany,

The Occidentals may conquer and rule, and even republican France have given
but they have even less chance of multi- manifestations of it; those of Russia prov-
plying at the expense of Chinese than of ing absolutely mediæval and ferocious.
multiplying at the expense of Hindus. Now, we must remember, while con-
All the great Oriental races have proved sidering the question of future race com-
themselves able to learn enough of the petition in the Far East, that the evolu-
wisdom of the West to more than hold tion of Occidental civilization from the
their own in matters of manufacture and militant toward the industrial state is yet
trade. Under Occidental government a far from complete, as its propensities to
civilized Oriental race not only grows, aggression bear witness ; while the Chi-
but grows rich. In the matter of labor, nese, however much below our level in
whether common or skilled, the white certain phases of development, are a peo-
artisan has no chance to compete with ple that reached the industrial type of
Orientals upon their own soil, or — society thousands of years ago.
cept in the manufactures wholly depend- In Dr. Pearson's book it is plainly
ing upon the applied sciences

upon

stated that the industrial competition of any other soil.

White labor has never China would be incomparably more danbeen able to compete on equal terms with gerous to Western civilization than that Oriental labor.

of

any other nation, not only because of

its multiformity, but also because it is a Those confessions, which all European competition to which nature has set no nations have made at various epochs of climatic limits. Thrifty and patient and their history, and which some have cunning as Jews, the Chinese can accommade in our own time, - of inability to modate themselves to any climate and to cope with the Jewish people upon equal any environment. They can live in Java terms have other sociological meanings or in Siberia, in Borneo or in Thibet. than such as might be implied by dif- Unlike the modern Jews, however, they ference in average mental ability. They are more to be feared in industry than must also be considered as suggestive of in commerce; for there is scar

arcely any the incapacity of societies not yet emerged form of manual skilled labor at which from the militant stage to compete with they are not capable of killing white coma people essentially commercial from an petition. Their history in Australia has epoch long anterior to the foundation proved this fact. But in commerce also of those societies. It is noteworthy that they are able to hold their own against just in proportion as the militant form the cleverest merchants of other races.

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1 Long before Dr. Pearson, Herbert Spencer (Sociology, vol. ii.) But Mr. Spencer has never had noticed these limits. He had also observed, given detailed attention to the special problems “With social organisms, as with individual or- first studied in detail by the author of National ganisms, the evolution of superior types does Life and Character. not entail the extinction of all inferior ones."

They are adepts at combination, excel- respects, “one of the most horrible that lent financiers, shrewd and daring specu- has ever existed in the world's history" lators. Though not yet rivals of Eu- was certainly more than half right; alropeans in that class of production de- though it is true that we see “ boundless pendent upon the application of modern luxury and self-indulgence at one end of science to manufacture, they have given the scale, and at the other a condition proof of ability to master that science of life as cruel as that of a Roman slave, whenever the study can profit them. and more degraded than that of a SouthThey are learning thoroughly the com- Sea islander;" although our civilizamercial conditions of every country which tion be one which opens the gate of forthey visit; and though the history of their tune to aggressive cunning, and closes it emigration began within recent times, as long as possible against the highest they are already to be found in almost qualities of character and of intellect, — every part of the world. They have nevertheless that civilization enormously swarmed along the coasts of North and multiplies the chances for energy, for South America, and found their way to talent, for practical abilities of almost the West Indies. Every part of the East every description. While crushing and knows them. They do business in the destroying in one direction, it opens a cities of India ; they created Singapore. hundred ways for escape in another. They have multiplied in the Malay pe- Though the feeble, the stupid, and the ninsula, in Sumatra, in Hawaii, in num- vicious are brayed alive, the strong, the bers of islands. They are said to have clever, and the self-controlled are not provoked, by threatening the existence only aided, but are compelled to better of Dutch rule in Java, the massacre in themselves. The condition of success is which nine thousand of their race per- not merely that effort shall be constant, ished. Both Australia and the United but also that the force of the effort itStates have found it necessary to legis- self shall be constantly increased ; and late against their immigration ; and the those able to fulfill that condition without Chinese ability to supplant the Malay mental or a physical break-down are races in the Eastern tropics has produced tolerably certain to win at last what they astonishing results within the memory of wish, — perhaps even more than they men now living.

wish. While the effort exacted is large, What America and Australia have the return is, in the majority of normal been obliged to protect themselves from, cases, more than proportional. Life must all Europe may have cause to fear be- be lived upon a bigger scale than in the fore the close of the next century. Once past ; but the means so to live can be China has been penetrated by the forces earned by the more vigorous. Although, of Western civilization, her population by the law of antagonism between indiwill begin to display new activities, and viduation and genesis, the higher races to expand in all possible directions. Chi- ought to be the less fertile races, other nese competition will have to be faced, conditions being equal, they are not so, probably, very much sooner than had having been able to create for themselves been expected.

conditions unknown in previous eras,

and opportunities still undreamed of by A very significant fact bearing upon races accustomed to simple natural livthis problem has been furnished by the ing. Hence the phenomenon that a noninfluence of Occidental civilization in Aryan race, able and willing to adopt Japan.

Western civilization, or even to submit Although the author who declared the contentedly to its discipline, will begin Western type of society to be, in many to multiply more rapidly under the new

VI.

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conditions, even while those conditions 240.3. In the year 1883 there were 84 entail forms of suffering previously un- manufactories using steam or hydraulic known. Up to a certain stage of de- power. In the year 1893 there were velopment the opportunities of life will 1163; in cotton - spinning the developbe increased even more than the difficul- ment has been enormous, ties; for previous resources will be en- cent in a single decade. larged, and new ones found and devel- I think that the myriad new opportuoped, while countless means of conquer- nities to earn a little more than a good ing natural obstacles will be furnished by living which this immense expansion imscientific knowledge to those capable of plies should suffice of themselves to acusing them.

count for that increase of population Penetrated by the influences of West- which is even now offering a new proern civilization, the population of Japan blem to the Japanese government, and began almost simultaneously to expand. which has been only temporarily met by Within twenty-two years it has increased the acquisition of Formosa and the Pesmore than twenty-five per cent. In the cadores, by the project for a Japanese

year 1872 it was 33,110,825. In 1892 Mexican colony, by the shipment of lait was 41,388,313. It is now over 42,- borers to Hawaii and to other places, 000,000. And this increase has been in and by the overflow into Australia, where despite of repeated epidemics, and great the Japanese labor question threatens to losses of life due to floods and earth- become as unpleasant as was the Chiquakes. Improved sanitation, enforce

nese question in Dr. Pearson's time. ment of hygienic laws, attention given to The whole meaning of this increase of drainage and to systems of water sup- population will best appear when I reply have certainly helped the increase, mind the reader that, in one sense of the but could not alone explain it. The ex- term, the Japanese are by no means a planation is to be sought rather in the fertile race. Large families are greatly widened opportunities of life paratively rare, — a family of nine or

, furnished by the sudden development of ten children being quite uncommon, and the country. During the same period the birth of twins so rare as to be conthe increase in the total volume of the sidered an anomaly. Nevertheless, the export and import trade has been 534 Japanese population has increased over

The total of customs duties 25 per cent, while that of England has has more than quadrupled. Wages are increased only about 7 per cent. This, said to have risen 37 per cent. Among of course, is temporary, and a check facts showing agricultural development must eventually come; but the period of is the increase in the area of cultivated that check is apparently still far off. land. That of land under wheat and Imagine, then, the consequence of a barley is put at 58.5 per cent, and of corresponding commercial and industrial land under rice at 8.4. Improved meth- development upon a Chinese population ods of agriculture may help to account of four or five hundred millions, — profor the increase of rice production by bably more fertile than the Japanese, 25.5 per cent during the last fifteen years declared by the Japanese themselves sualone. In the same period of fifteen perior in all the craft of commerce and years, the increase in silk production has the secrets of finance, matchless as mere been 300.2 per cent, and in that of tea mechanical workers, and capable of liv

com

1 Probably at the open ports only. I take vinces there has been yet practically no rise in these figures from the Japan Daily Mail, which wages worth mentioning. The cost of skilled republished them from the Kokuminno-Tomo. labor in the open ports has increased greatly. I personally know, however, that in some pro

per cent.

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