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stuff of which he is made.

territorial legislature. Before going to there are degrees of conspicuousness in Nebraska he had lived a short time in the Cabinet. Mr. Olney, for instance, Detroit, and there became a protégé of who has been successively Attorney-Gen- General Cass. It was through Cass's ineral and Secretary of State, and had no fluence that President Buchanan appointprominence as a public man before enter- ed Mr. Morton secretary of the Territory ing the Cabinet, would seem to demand in 1858, an office which he held until an inquiry, if we are looking for a suc- 1861; and during a portion of that pe

a cessor to the President in his own po- riod, from September, 1858, till May, litical family; or Mr. Carlisle, who has 1859, he was acting governor. In 1860 been long in public life, and whose office he was a candidate for Congress, and reis most closely connected with concerns ceived a certificate of election from the of national welfare. But we pass these governor ; but in the fast-and-loose game by, and select for our consideration the of that period his opponent contrived to member of the Cabinet whose department secure another certificate, and, reaching was the latest to be created, and who, Washington before him, presented his though well known in his own State of certificate and took his seat. Mr. MorNebraska, may be said to have entered ton, as contestant for a seat in a House upon the arena of national politics when which was overwhelmingly Republican, Mr. Cleveland sent his name to the Sen- had small chance of success, and reate as Secretary of Agriculture. A good turned from Washington to Nebraska, many Congressmen asked then, Who is made up his case, and awaited the reJulius Sterling Morton ? and his personal sult. He was unsuccessful, and this was history is not now so generally known the beginning of a series of defeats. He as to make a brief recital of it here su- was the candidate of the Democratic parperfluous.

ty for governor in 1866 under the first He was born in Jefferson County, New state constitution, and was defeated. He York, in 1832, of parents English on one ran for Congress the same fall, and was side, Scotch on the other. He was edu- defeated again. In the long contest over cated at Union College and the Univer- the question of statehood, he was persity of Michigan, was married soon af- sistently opposed to the erection of the ter graduation, and started in the fall of Territory into a State under the condi1854 for the newly organized Territory tions then existing. Since 1866 he has

. of Nebraska. Omaha was then the out- been three times the candidate of his post of civilization, and the young couple party for the governorship, and has been went about fifty miles to the south, and the standing candidate for a seat in the chose for their homestead a site on the Senate ; but during his entire political second lift of the intervale of the Mis- career the State has been steadfastly souri, two or three miles from what is Republican, and it was not antil 1893 now Nebraska City. They built their log that he came into power as a member cabin in pioneer fashion, and the spot of President Cleveland's Cabinet. has ever since been Mr. Morton's home. Meanwhile, his political activity found His wife died twenty years after their constant expression in writing and speakfirst coming. Four sons have grown to ing. He started the Nebraska City News manhood, and are now heads of families. in 1855, and edited it for many years. Ostensibly a farmer and stock-raiser, the Having formed a connection with Mr. young college graduate had a leaning Wilbur F. Storey, editor of the Detroit toward journalism and public life. He

He Free Press, when Mr. Morton lived in at once took a lively interest in territo- Detroit, he became a contributor to the rial affairs, and became a member of the Chicago Times when Mr. Storey as

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sumed control of that paper, and held a an easy prey to financial quack medicine. semi-editorial position on it.

His writ- Mr. Morton was a member of the Assemings, at first somewhat turgid, though bly, and at once took a position hostile to charged with a rude wit and humor, be- wild-cat banks and fiat money. He was came more direct as he developed in in- made chairman of a special committee to tellectual force, but have always suffered which was referred a bill incorporating from a tendency to diffuseness. The these banks, and brought in a minority subject to which he has given his most report, which was evidently very heartily earnest thought has undoubtedly been condemned by the majority, as it was political economy. He is a straight and denied a place in the house journal, unconditional free-trader of the school though it appeared in the newspapers of Cobden, but he can scarcely be regard- at the time. A period of artificial proed as a mere doctrinaire ; the temper of sperity followed the establishment of the his mind and a strong practical sense for- banks and the neglect of industry, and bid this.

this prosperity was inevitably succeeded Indeed, his entire course of public life, by disastrous hard times. with a single exception, has been charac- apostle of sound finance to a reluctant terized by an uncommon independence community made a speech at the first of merely popular and superficial move- Nebraska Territorial Agricultural Fair, ments in their crude efforts after results September 21, 1859, in which, among at the expense of sound economic laws. other capital things, he delivered himself In a paper on some unpublished letters of this plain truth : “The scheme for obof Thomas Jefferson, in the Transactions taining wealth without labor, prosperity of the Nebraska Historical Society, of without industry, and growing into a which Mr. Morton has been president community of opulence and ease without for many years, he gives his ideal of

effort has been a complete failure. the public servant in these words: “We If there are fortunes to be made in Neneed men of mental and moral courage, braska, they are to be acquired by fruwho shall study what they can do for gality and persevering exertion alone. rather than what they shall get from the The soil is to be tilled and taxed for the commonwealth. Public affairs call

per- support of the dwellers thereon ; and out sistently for public men who shall have of it, and it alone, is all true and substanfixed economic views, for which they are tial independence to be derived." willing to forego offices, in behalf of That was in 1859, and from that time which they are ever ready, with reason to this, save once when, like other men, and fortitude, to face popular clamor, he fell under the fascinating influence and if need be meet popular defeat. of Pendleton and gave his adhesion for Men who esteem it more honorable to a brief period to the greenback heresy, adhere to principle and meet disaster he has never flinched from the maintethan it is to trim, to pander to popular nance of sound financial belief, and that vagaries and compass victory by deceit, in the midst of a perverse and untoward will at last be honored in history." Mr. generation. In Nebraska, in 1892, he Morton applied this characterization to almost alone in the Democratic party reJefferson, but he was thinking under his sisted the efforts of the free coinage elebreath of himself, and he had justifica- ment to stampede the party into the fold

, tion for such thought.

of Populism. How courageous he could It was not long after his settlement be in the support of an unpopular posiin Nebraska that the Territory was at- tion

appears from this incident. Early tacked by one of those fevers of

specu- in January, 1893, just as the new legislation which leave the unhappy sufferer lature of Nebraska was assembling, and

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upon the eve of the election of a United

to promote the agricultural interests of States Senator, there were suggestions his State. The most notable single exmade that a coalition should be formed ploit, and the one of which he never between the Democrats and the Populists wearies in the telling, is the suggestion with a view to electing Morton. A con- of Arbor Day in the schools, and the siderable crowd had gathered in the ro- pursuit of this idea, with the result that tunda of the principal hotel at Lincoln, the movement has extended to every where this talk was going on. Suddenly State in the Union with the possible exMr. Morton stepped out of the crowd, ception of three. At least a billion forest and, ascending two or three steps of the trees and many thousand fruit trees and main stairway, spoke substantially as fol- vines in Nebraska may be said to have lows :

started from the seed which he planted “ It has come to my knowledge that and nourished in the public mind, and there is some discussion as to the possi- what was a treeless waste is dotted with bility of my election as Senator by the vigorous forest growth. vote of a combination of Democrats and It was unquestionably this devotion to Populists ; and as to this it seems to me agriculture and forestry, coupled with proper

that I should now say openly, as his unflinching support of Democratic I do positively, that under no conditions doctrines and his reputation as a man will I accept an election to the office of of character and ability, which led Mr. Senator by the vote of the Populist par- Cleveland to call Mr. Morton to the ty so long as it adheres to its vicious head of the Department of Agriculture financial vagaries." And yet the dream at Washington, in spite of the fact that of this man all his days had been to be Mr. Morton had from the beginning of Senator.

Mr. Cleveland's presidential career been Upon other public questions in which a bitter and unrelenting enemy of the his own State was more definitely in- President; for Mr. Morton, with all volved Mr. Morton has not gone with his heartiness, can be a vehement hater, the crowd. That he should have been and the attitude which Mr. Cleveland at in the employ of the Burlington railway the outset took toward the West could as a pamphleteer, during the popular at readily excite the animosity of a man tack on railways which found expression whose temperament is not unlike Mr. in the Potter laws, does not intimate Cleveland's in respect to positiveness. that he sold his principles, but that he His career at Washington has been was a paid advocate on the side which marked by two notable stands which he he believed to be in the right. From has taken. They are notable as illustratthe time of his speech at the Agricul- ing the courage and the open-mindedness tural Fair, already cited, he has been a

of the man. The first relates to the ecoconsistent supporter of the policy of nomical management of his department. state development through the improve- Out of $5.102,500 appropriated for his ment of its natural resources. Upon branch of the government since July 1, his own farm he has made costly exper- 1893, he had saved and turned back iments, for the purpose of introducing into the treasury, down to July 1, 1895, improved breeds of horses, cattle, and $1,126,000, or over 20 per cent; and this swine into the country. One of the say- had been done while the department had ings quoted from him and current among developed greatly, and the work of all the farmers is, “ A well-bred sow is to its bureaus had been expanded and imthe farmer an inconvertible bond, her proved. There was expended in 1895 porkers the annual coupons," and by for purely scientific work 52 per cent of pen and voice he has untiringly aimed the total amount paid out as against 45 per cent paid out for the same class of death, resignation, or removal. Secrework by his predecessor in 1893. The tary Morton filled five of these places saving has been due to the reduction of by promoting skilled and experienced the cost of carrying on the department, men in this department. The only quesand especially to the stoppage of waste. tion with him has been, Where can the Believing that the promiscuous free dis- best qualified men be found? and other tribution of seeds by Congressmen was things being nearly equal, he has given only a stupid abuse of a law originally the preference to the men already in the passed to provide a new country with service. At the head of the three new

rare, uncommon, and valuable” plants divisions established by him, he has apfor cultivation, the words of the stat- pointed in similar manner three experts ute, — Mr. Morton early set about its who were connected with the department abolition. It was very characteristic of under previous administrations. The the man that, after appealing in vain to same wise and benignant rule has been Congress to drop a wastefulappropriation, followed in filling all minor positions. he went to work to execute the statute, The statistical and animal industry buproviding for the distribution with a reaus, which have been heretofore almost thoroughness and vigor that had never entirely given over to the spoilsmen, have been equaled. For two years he scoured been completely reorganized and brought the known world, through special and under the civil service. As a result of consular agents, for rare and uncom- his steady work for this cause, the whole mon seeds, plants, etc., and purchased department is now subject to civil sereverything that seemed to be of the vice rules, except two positions filled by slightest use to this country. He sup- presidential appointment, and the four plied to Congressmen, it is said, ten mil- clerks of the secretary and assistant secrelion more packages of seed than they tary. had ever received before. Of course Such, in brief, is the public record of the great bulk of them were of no use Secretary Morton, nearly forty years in to our people, but the secretary accom- the opposition in Nebraska, with slight plished his purpose. After advertising experience in political administration, in all known markets, and buying and for three years a member of the Presidistributing in two years all the rare dent's official household in Washington, and uncommon seed left in the world, and an administrator of public business. he stopped the business, and notified It is not surprising that he has acquired Congress there would be no more seed. the habit of mind of one always in the No seed under the terms of the statute opposition, which for a man of courage being found, no seed could be bought. readily takes the form of recklessness of So rural Congressmen must go seedless speech. He has worked out the greater back to their constituents, or buy their problems in a somewhat theoretical fashelectioneering grains and tubers them- ion, so that his convictions are not alselves.

ways based upon large information and The other illustration of character experience; and once possessed of a condrawn from the secretary's official life is viction, he is undeterred by possible conin his attitude toward civil service re- sequences from delivering it with an form. He began with a disbelief in it; uncompromising earnestness. Uncalled he has come to be one of its most sturdy upon during a long career to put his posupporters. During his administration of litical principles into practice, he has had the Department of Agriculture, only six small need to adjust them to existing conout of its twenty-four chiefs of bureaus ditions ; but when he has been required and divisions have been changed by to act, his practical sense has been fortified by his speculative studies. With an the mind of a cautious observer, and active and alert mind, he has been open such an one would not be surprised to to new influences, and would not unlikely, learn that this genial host could nurse if placed in a position of great responsibil- with a vindictive energy a hatred which ity, reason and act too quickly ; but his he had conceived of this or that man. frankness and open-mindedness would The astute politician who wishes to shape not make him an easy follower where Mr. Morton to his own ends will enprinciples which he had reached in his counter a difficulty in the honesty and studies were assailable. No amount of shrewdness of the man. Mr. Morton pressure would move him.

His strong, himself is not an astute politician, and well - set physique impresses one who he never will manage conventions or inmeets him with an agreeable sense of trigue for power. He is not built on the man's vitality and vigor. His hos- those lines, and he will not be wanted pitable nature is evident at once, and he by the Democratic party. Nevertheless, makes friends quickly. Indeed, there is he has in him the sort of stuff out of an outflow of sentiment and cordiality which better Presidents than presidential which may produce a little uneasiness in candidates are made.

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NEW FIGURES IN LITERATURE AND ART.

IV. E. A. MACDOWELL.

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“ Honor the old, but bring a warm heart to design in the so-called civilized countries, the new.” — ROBERT SCHUMANN.

and is adapted to the instruments now Save in one blessed age of the world, in use in those countries. Shoald ennever to come again, the great artist, in tirely new instruments be invented, so whatever line, has nearly always had a constructed as to make available certain hard time in getting recognized at his tones of which our ears are now uncontrue worth, and the composer of music scious; should radically different notions has had a harder time than any of his of design arise and prevail, it is quite brothers. This may be partially attrib- conceivable that a new scale might be utable to the nature of his art materials, required, resulting in altered harmonic which can never be counted upon as relations, and consequently in a totally fixed. How few, in listening to music, changed style of composition, to which realize that the tonal system underlying the ears of coming generations would the harmony of to-day had barely been have to grow accustomed as those of the established two hundred years ago! The past have grown accustomed to each gamut, which is so familiar to us that we fresh development in the musical art. feel it must be coeval with musical man, A second and even more important and which we hold to be the true and only reason why the composer makes slower scale, is one among many scales exist- way than other art workers towards a ent and in actual use, and is, moreover, just and general recognition is that his theoretically, by no means the most per- conceptions need follow no models of fect of them all. The present diatonic anything in the visible, audible, palpable series, major and minor, is retained be- creation, but may be evolved ad libitum cause it suits the present ideal of musical out of his own consciousness, and may

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