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ARKANSAS OVERRUN BY CONFEDERATES.
THE LAST INVASION OF MISSOURI.-EVENTS IN EAST TENNESSEE.-PREPARATIONS FOR
THE ADVANCE OF THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.
HE failure of the Red River expedition, and the expulsion
of Steele from the country below the Arkansas River, by which two-thirds of the State of Arkansas was given up to the Confederates, had a disastrous effect upon the Union cause and people in that State, where the restoration of civil power in loyal hands, amply sustained by
the military, had been, it was believed, made permanent.' The dream of security was now dispelled. Steele was placed on the defensive at the State capital, and the Confederates everywhere showed, by their boldness and activity, a determination to repossess the State, if possible. Their cavalry roamed at will over all the region below the Arkansas, after Steele retreated to Little Rock, plundering and overawing the Unionists. Nor did
they confine themselves to that region. Late in June · Shelby,
with a considerable body of Confederate cavalry, dashed across the Arkansas eastward of Little Rock, and pushed on to the White River, un the eastern border of Arkansas County, where they were attacked and thrown back, in the vicinity of St. Charles, by four regiments under General Carr, with a loss of about four hundred men, of whom two hundred were made prisoners. Carr's loss was about two hundred. Shelby was speedily re-enforced by Marmaduke, when Carr was pushed northward to Clarendon, when he, in turn, was re-enforced, and the Confederates retreated southward.
This bold movement was followed by others in that section of the State. In July about four hundred colored troops, led by Colonel W. S. Brooks,
went up the country a short distance from Helena, when they ) July 26.
were attacked by a heavier force under General Dobbins. Fortunately, Major Carmichael was then passing down the Mississippi on a steamer, with one hundred and fifty of the Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, and
| The occupation of Little Rock by General Steele in the autumn of 1863, and the seeming acquiescence of the Confederates in the necessity of giving up the State to National rule, emboldened the Unionists, who finally
met, by delegates, in a State Constitutional Convention,' at Littio Rock, in which forty-two • Jan. 8. of the fifty-four counties in the State were represented. A State Constitution was framed,
whereby slavery was forever prohibited. Isaac C. Murphy, the only stanch Unionist in the
Secession Convention of that State (see page 474, volume I.), was chosen Provisional Governor, d Jan. 22. and duly inaugurated," with C. C. Bliss Lieutenant-Governor, and R. J. T. White Secretary of
State. The Constitution was ratified by a vote of the people of the State, there being 12,177 • March 14. in favor of it, and only 226 against it. Representatives in Congress and State officers were
chosen under it, and the Legislature elected / United States Senators. By every usual form the April 25. State was restored to its proper situation in the Union, in partial accordance with the terms of
the President's Proclamation. See page 282. Such was its position when the military power of the Government began to wane, at the close of May.
DANGEROUS SECRET ASSOCIATIONS.
► August 23
hearing the tiring, he landed and hastened in the direction of its sounds. lle found Brooks and his men gallantly fighting double their number, so, with his followers, he dashed through the Confederate lines, joined the colored troops, and assisted them in repulsing their assailants. Colonel Brooks was killed, and fifty of his men were slain or wounded. The foe had lost more. The Union troops fell back to Helena, followed some distance by Dobbins. At about the same time fifteen hundred Confederates
• July 27, surprised“ an outpost of Fort Smith, on the border of the Indian country, which was held by two hundred of the Fifth Kansas, under Captain Mefford. After a sharp fight, in which he lost twenty-five men, Captain Mefford was compelled to surrender. The Confederates lost thirty-two killed and wounded. Less than a month later, Shelby, with about two thousand men, struck the line of the railway between Duvall's Bluff and Little Rock, and captured nearly the whole of the Fifty-fourth Illinois, who were guarding it at three points. Guerrillas hovered in large numbers around Little Rock and other places, making communications between the military posts dangerous, and requiring heavy escort duty, which wore down men and horses. Gradually several of these posts were abandoned, and at the close of 1864 only Helena, Pine, and Duvall's Bluffs, Little Rock, Van Buren, Fort Smith, and one or two other posts in that region, were held by the National troops. These being insufficient to protect the Unionists of the Commonwealth, they became disheartened, silent, and inactive, for the guerrillas, who roamed over the State, dealt vengeance upon these “traitors” and “renegades," as they called them.
General Steele, like other old officers of the regular army, was opposed to the emancipation policy of the Government, and his alleged sympathy with the slave-holding Oligarchy of Arkansas made the army under his command a feeble instrument in upholding the National cause in that State. The consequence was, that, at the close of 1864, that Commonwealth was practically surrendered to the Confederates. The disloyal Governor called a session of the Legislature, which met at Washington,' and chose a Senator (A. P. Garland) to represent the State in the “Congress ” at Richmond.
The condition of affairs in Arkansas was favorable to a long-contemplated scheme of invasion of Missouri, by her recreant son, General Sterling Price, which had both a military and political object in view, and, when undertaken, might have been most disastrous to the National cause but for the sleepless vigilance of General Rosecrans, who, late in January, had arrived. at St. Louis as commander of the Department of Missouri. He soon discovered that the State was seriously menaced by openly armed foes on one side, and by hidden and malignant ones on the other, and within its bosom, in the form of secret associations, known as “ Knights of the Golden Circle," and “ American Knights,” or “Sons of Liberty.”! Ile employed competent and trustworthy spies, who reported that these secret organizations were numerous and powerful; that they were preparing to join Price, when he should invade Missouri, in numbers not less than twenty-three thousand strong, each man of whom was sworn to perform
. Sept. 22.
i See page 83.
A CONSPIRACY DISCOVERED.
his part of the drama, which contemplated also an invasion of the Northwest, and a formidable uprising there of the sympathizers with the Confederate cause. They reported that General Price was the Grand Commander of the Missouri and Southern members of these secret leagues, and that C. L. Vallandigham was the Grand Commander of the Northern members, composed of the general and local leaders of the Peace Faction, and their dupes. It was also reported that Vallandigham was to enter Ohio boldly from Canada, to take part in the Democratic Convention for nominating a candidate for President, which was to meet at Chicago. It was also discovered that arms were extensively coming into the State, and distributed secretly among the sympathizers with the rebellion;'and it was evident to the general that over the Union cause in that region great peril was impending.
Rosecrans promptly laid before the Government the information he had gathered, and asked for re-enforcements. Instead of complying with his request, an officer (General Hunt) was sent to Missouri, who made a tour of observation in the State, and reported that Rosecrans was unduly alarmed. The latter continued his investigations, and obtained positive information that danger was great and near. One of his spies visited the lodges of the secret associations, and ascertained that measures had been taken for commencing the revolution in St. Louis by murdering the Provost Marshal, and seizing the Department head-quarters. On the strength of testimony thus obtained, he arrested the Belgian consul at St. Louis, who was the “State commander" of these disloyal citizens, together with his deputy, secretary, " lecturer," and about forty members. The still incredulous Government ordered their release. Rosecrans, satisfied of danger, did not comply, but sent such information to Washington that the Government, convinced that he was right, approved his course, and countermanded the order. No doubt the vigilance and firmness of Rosecrans at that time was of incalculable service to the National cause.
In the mean time Price and his friends, in and out of his army, were preparing to carry out their part of the drama of invasion and revolution. The circumstances were favorable. Missouri had been stripped of troops for seryice elsewhere. The secessionists and guerrillas were bold, especially in the western and the river counties of Missouri. These had been watched with keen eyes,
and the movements of the Confederates in Arkansas were under
the vigilant scrutiny of General Washburne, at Memphis, who • Sept. 8,
gave' Rosecrans the first clear note of warning concerning a com
ing invasion. He informed him that General Shelby was at Batesville, in Northern Arkansas, waiting for Price to join him, whe the invasion would begin. Rosecrans sent the information to Washington, and Halleck telegraphed to Cairo, directing A. J. Smith, then ascending the Mississippi with about six thousand troops, infantry and cavalry, destined to re-enforce Sherman in Northern Georgia, to be halted there, and, with his command, be sent to St. Louis to re-enforce Rosecrans. This strengthening
of the troops in Missouri was timely, for Price soon crossed the Sept. 21
Arkansas River, joined Shelby, and, with nearly twenty thousand men, entered Southeastern Missouri between the Big Black and St. Francis rivers, and pushed on to Pilot Knob, more than half way to St. Louis from the Arkansas border, almost without a show of opposition.
THE LAST INVASION OF MISSOURI.
Rosecrans had only about six thousand five hundred mounted men in his Department when this formidable invasion began, and these were scattered over a country four hundred miles in length and three hundred in breadth, with only a partially organized infantry force and dismounted men, guarding from the swarming guerrillas the greater depots, such as Springfield, Pilot Knob, Jefferson City, Rolla, and St. Louis, and the railway bridges. These were concentrated as quickly as possible after ascertaining the route' and destination of Price, yet so swiftly did that leader move, that when it was seen that St. Louis was probably his first and chief objective, only a single brigade was at Pilot Knob (which is connected with the former place by a railway) to confront him. This was commanded by General Hugh S. Ewing,' who had for defenses only a little fort and some rude earth-works. But he made a bold stand, fought Price and his ten thousand men gallantly, with his little force of twelve hundred, repulsed two assaults, and inflicted on the Confederates a loss of about one thousand men. His own loss was about two hundred. His foe, with his superior force, soon took positions to command his entire post, so Ewing spiked his guns, blew up his magazine, and, finding his chosen line of retreat northward, by way of Potosi, blocked, fled westward during the night toward Rolla, where General McNeil was in command, and had just been re-enforced by cavalry under General Sandborn. At Webster he turned sharply to the north, and, pushing on, struck the Southwestern railway at Harrison, after a march of sixty miles in thirtynine hours, with an accumulating encumbrance of refugees, white and black. There his exhausted troops were struck by a heavy force, under Shelby, which had been chasing him. Ewing's ammunition was short, but he held his ground for thirty hours, when the Seventeenth Illinois Cavalry, under Colonel Beveridge, sent by General McNeil from Rolla, came to his relief. Shelby was driven off, and Ewing and Beveridge marched leisurely to Rolla.
Ewing's bold stand astonished Price, and he was greatly disappointed by the lack of the promised re-enforcements pledged by the “Knights of the Golden Circle," and the “Sons of Liberty.” The hearts of most of these had failed at the critical moment. They were satisfied, by the arrest of their “State Commander," that Rosecrans and the Government were fully informed of their meditated treason, and they were made exceedingly timid. Instead of seeing an uprising of " at least twenty-three thousand Sons of Liberty,” as he was promised, Price received but few recruits, in the stealthiest manner, and, conscious of peril in his farther pathway northward, he moved with great caution. That tardiness, and the check given him by Ewing, gave Rosecrans time to concentrate a considerable force at St. Louis. For a week the Confederate element seemed to have the upper hand, and guerrillas and incendiaries were active everywhere. But these soon showed circumspection, as troops poured into St. Louis. General A. J. Smith's infantry, between four and five thousand strong, were there. Soon eight regiments of the enrolled militia of the State arrived, and these were associated with
· The brigade was composed of the Forty-seventh Missouri Volunteer Infantry, detachments of the Firsta Second, and Third State Militia, and the Fourteenth lowa.
These were the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Tenth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, and Eightieth Regiments.
THE MISSOURI CAPITAL THREATENED.
six regiments of Illinois one hundred days' men,' whose term of service had expired, but who patriotically went to the assistance of Rosecrans.
Meanwhile, the troops in the central portion of the State were concentrated at the capital, Jefferson City, by General Brown, who was re-enforced by General Fisk with all available troops north of the Missouri River. The Union citizens in that region cordially co-operated with the military, and before Price turned his face in that direction, the capital was well fortified. The invader advanced by way of Potosi to the Meramec River, crossed it, and took post at Richwood's, within forty miles of St. Louis, when, after remaining a day or two, and evidently satisfied that an attempt to take that city would be very hazardous, he burned the bridge at Moselle, and then marched rapidly in the direction of Jefferson City, followed by General A. J. Smith and his entire command.
Price burned bridges behind him, to impede his pursuers, and appeared before the Missouri capital on the 7th of October, just after Generals McNeil and Sandborn, with all the mounted men they could muster, had reached there by a forced march from Rolla. The united forces made a garrison of a little more than four thousand cavalry and less than three thousand infantry. A slight resistance was offered to Price at the crossing of the Little Moreau River, four or five miles east of the city, when the opposers fell back, and the Confederates enveloped the town in a line semicircular in form and nearly four miles in length, the wings resting on the Missouri. Taking counsel of prudence, after looking at the defenses which the troops of Brown and Fisk and the strong hands of the citizens had thrown up
space a few days, the invader sent his trains westward, and followed with his whole army, leaving the capital untouched by his guns.
General Pleasanton arrived at Jefferson City on the day after Price left it, assumed chief command, and sent General Sandborn with his cavalry in pursuit of the fugitive, with instructions to delay his march, so that General Smith might overtake him. Sandborn struck his rear-guard at Versailles, and ascertained that Price was marching directly on Booneville. Shelby's cavalry quickly enveloped Sandborn, who made a timely retreat, and; falling back a short distance to California, was overtaken there by Smith's cavalry, under Colonel Catherwood, with needed supplies. In the mean time re-enforcements from the Nationals were coming from St. Louis. General Mower had followed Price out of Arkansas, and struck the Mississippi at Cape Girardeau, after a fatiguing march of three hundred miles in the space of eighteen days. His army was so worn, man and beast, that Rosecrans sent steamboats to Cape Girardeau for them, and they were taken to St. Louis, whence the infantry were conveyed up the Missouri on steamers, while the cavalry, fifteen hundred strong, under General Winslow, marched to Jefferson City by land.
Price was now moving toward Kansas, with a heavy force, in pursuit. The National cavalry, with Pleasanton in immediate command, led in the chase. As the Confederates marched westward they found more sympathizers, and became bolder. Price sent Shelby across the Missouri River at
1 These were the One Hundred and Thirty-second, One Hundred and Thirty-fourth, One Hundred and Thirty-sixth, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth, One Hundred and Fortieth, and One Hundred and Forty-second Regiments.