Page images
PDF
EPUB

institution and as the sole truly representative forum left in this Nation, by every means that comes to hand.

THE TWO-BIT CYNICS

These are the two-bit cynics, who demand reforms which would really mean the slow destruction of Congress and the final

elevation of the bureaucrats as our undis

puted masters. These are the ones who cry up every real or alleged scandal involving Congress, without waiting to hear a word of the evidence and with pitiless disregard of

the old-fashioned notion that even elected

politicians are entitled to the presumption of innocence until proved guilty.

These are the professional moralizersabout the supposed poor morals of Congress-and the professional finger pointers at somebody else's human weakness. These are the self-righteous prigs whose compassion for themselves-especially when it comes to taking care to see that their own incomes are always more than merely adequate is so all-consuming that they have no time for compassion for others.

To starve out Congress-to keep in constant economic anxiety Members whose record for high public service is an unarguable part of current history-would well suit the book of this set of critics. And current congressional pay literally means near poverty for all save the Members of independent wealth or separate income. When a man must maintain not one but two homes; when he must contribute beyond his real means to every charity "because it is expected of him"; when he must educate his children and run expensive campaigns for reelection this man is an economic victim in an affluent society.

INFANTILE LOGIC

"Well," it is said, "if they don't like the pay they can always quit. Nobody made them go to Congress." And also it is said: "Lots of those fellows in Congress aren't worth what they are getting already."

But this sort of infantile logic-"if you don't like it here why don't you go back where you came from?"-is a poor excuse for unfairness. It is an unfairness, moreover, that is dangerous for the country itself. For to follow such logic to the end would mean to close the doors of Congress to all but the wealthy-or the tricky ones who know how to become wealthy in very unpleasant ways.

To put congressional pay at the level where men there could go about their high jobs free of financial fear-and free of financial tempetation, for they are human, too would be the best and soundest investment the people of the United States could make, even if it cost double or triple what the present proposal would cost.

[blocks in formation]

Chicago's police chief, whose pay is $30,000, gets $7,500 more than the head of the FBI and $4,500 more than justices on the circuit courts of appeals. The manager of the Los Angeles airport is paid $40,000; his counterpart at the Government's Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C., draws $16,000.

Cabinet-level officials are temporary officeholders who frequently can look forward to a return to lucrative jobs in private industry. But their pay determines the pay scales of subordinate officials who make Government service a career. Randall points out that "unless a change is made in the salaries of the Cabinet Secretaries, no career officer who enters the Government service upon leaving college, and who gives his entire life to it, can ever hope to earn more than $20,000 a year, no matter how great the responsibility which he bears or how competent his performance."

UDALL proposes to make the congressional pay increase more palatable by requiring Congressmen to file a public record of their relationship with the people they hire. Employees would also have to perform their jobs

either in Washington or the home State of the Congressman.

This would clear up some of the present abuse in congressional pay, but not all. The public is aware that the $22,500 salary figure tells considerably less than the full story about income possibilities for Congressmen.

Congress would be wise to act to curb pay abuses by its Members before attempting to convince the public of the need for more pay for Congressmen and thereby endangering the other objectives of the Randall report.

The justification for substantial increases will be much stronger if they are made proportional to the responsibilities that each recipient carries.

The linking of this bill with higher pay for classified and postal employees would make the entire package cost $600 million. That is a very substantial sum, but most of it would go, of course, to employees in the lower pay brackets. Even the substantial increases recommended by Mr. Randall and

his colleagues in the upper brackets would

amount to less than one-tenth of 1 percent of the Federal civilian payroll. What is needed most at this point is widespread support

for the bill, with some amendments in the interest of equity in the highest brackets.

[From the West Chester (Pa.) Daily Local News, Oct. 28, 1963]

CONGRESS' DUTY IN SALARY ADJUSTMENTS One of the most forceful arguments in support of Congress increasing the salaries of its own Members as well as those of the Federal judiciary is to be found in the fact that neither has been adjusted in neary 10 years.

Congress now has the opportunity to make this long overdue adjustment, a move which has the backing of the Advisory Panel on Federal Salary Systems which was appointed by the President and headed by Clarence B. Randall, of Inland Steel. This panel, following a careful and detailed study of comparable salaries paid by private business, State and local governments, education and charitable institutions, as well as other fields, has presented its findings to President Ken

nedy.

Back in January 1954, the Commission on Judicial and Congressional Salaries made specific recommendations as to the compensation due those in these responsible positions, yet Congress, after due deliberation, adopted a salary schedule substantially less than recommended. This schedule continues today despite the fact that in the intervening 8 years Federal classified service employers have been granted six pay increases.

This fact alone, it appears, would warrant congressional action at this time, but there is no assurance that it will materialize, despite the inequities which have long pre

[From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Nov. 1, vailed. Out of a sense of justice, if for no

1963]

SALARY REALINEMENT

The salary adjustments proposed by the House Post Office and Civil Service Committee for top executives, judges, and Members of Congress should not be regarded as an ordinary pay increase. On that basis it would be impossible, of course, to justify a $10,000 boost for any Government employee. What the committee is proposing is a new workers in some relationship to salaries paid for comparable service by State and local governments and private industry.

[From the Des Moines (Iowa) Register, Oct. policy of remunerating topflight Federal

30, 1963]

HIGHER FEDERAL PAY

Representative MORRIS UDALL, Democrat, of Arizona, recognizing the "risks involved," has introduced a Federal pay bill that would boost the salaries of nearly all of the Government's 21⁄2 million officials and employees.

The measure is almost certain to invite ridicule. Among other things, it calls for increasing the pay of the Speaker of the House from $35,000 to $50,000 and of Congressmen from $22,500 to $35,000.

The natural resentment of the public toward officials who propose raising their own pay should not obscure the merit of the Udall proposal. The increases for higher echelon officials are based on a careful study by a committee headed by Clarence Randall, formerly head of the Inland Steel Co. The committee included Gen. Omar Bradley,

Marion Folsom of the Eastman Kodak Co.,

Theodore Houser, former head of Sears, Roebuck, and Stanley Reed, former Supreme Court justice. In almost all cases the Udall CIX-1333

The comparison with private industry cannot be pressed too far because in many instances there are no comparable positions in the field of private enterprise. Moreover, the proposed $10,000 boost stops far short of what had been recommended by the experts who have been studying the lag in Federal salaries. Clarence Randall's advisory panel recommended salaries of $50,000 for Cabinet members, $60,000 for Supreme Court Justices, and $35,000 for Congressmen. The committee would reduce these figures to $35,000 for Cabinet officers, $45,000 for Supreme Court Justices, and $32,500 for Members of Congress.

It is significant that the committee trimmed its allowance for Congressmen only slightly below the Randall panel's figure, while sharply reducing the recommended salaries for top officials in the executive and judicial branches. The House itself or the Senate might well restore these differentials.

other reason, these salaries should be brought into line with others as they stand today. We say this even in light of the fact that three House Members, during the last salary schedule hearing, opposed the proposed increases because of large sources of income which they happened to have outside their salaries. While such frankness is to be commended, it does nothing for those Members who are not so fortunately situated.

Congress has a duty to perform, not for

present Members alone but for those who

will follow them in office in years to come. The same goes for those of the Federal judiciary.

REPORT OF 1963 EUROPEAN TRIP

Mr. WICKERSHAM. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent to extend my remarks at this point in the RECORD and include extraneous matter.

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Oklahoma?

There was no objection.

Mr. WICKERSHAM. Mr. Speaker, at the request of the Honorable CARL VINSON, the distinguished chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, from October 1 to October 15, inclusive, I participated in a military inspection trip of U.S. installations in Europe. The purpose of the trip was to receive firsthand

information on NATO operations, troop deployment, offbase housing, and the organization, commitments, and day-today operations of U.S. military forces.

for

The trip included visits to our Air Force bases in Spain, to the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean, to Germany for briefings and personal inspection of prepositioned equipment and supplies for Operation Big Lift, Headquarters, U.S. Army, Europe, to NATO Headquarters in France, to Great Britain for review of our newest missile radar defense unit, and to Greece and Italy for briefings on missile detachments and military advisory groups.

In order to get a feeling of the personal morale and needs of our serviceman, I was housed, at my request, in military barracks whenever possible. I also traveled by military aircraft whenever it was available.

As a result of my trip, I can conclude the following:

First. Our defense system, including our early warning radar system, and military preparedness have never been stronger at any time in our history.

Second. The morale of our troops overseas is very high. Our servicemen are making excellent "good will ambassadors."

Third. In general, off-base housing for our military personnel is poor and the cost of rent and utilities is very high

compared with the quality received.

Fourth. Secretary of Defense McNamara recently cut off oversea pay to troops in many areas. This pay should be restored to troops and personnel stationed in areas where living costs are higher than usual. Reconsideration should be given to action recently taken in connection with proficiency pay.

Fifth. We need to keep our Air Force bases and full complement of manned bombers in Spain and avoid any reduction of our manned bomber force in Europe.

OUR MILITARY MIGHT IS STRONG

The U.S. Army, Europe-USAREUR is the largest and most powerful offshore Army command ever maintained by the United States in peacetime. It is composed of 250,000 officers and men, representing one-fourth of the Army's strength worldwide, and nearly twothirds of its oversea strength.

The tasks assigned to USAREUR are into two categories, those directly involving NATO and those derived from

USAREUR's status as a U.S. force.

The NATO missions of USAREUR are to provide evidence of U.S. determination to maintain a strong NATO alliance, to deter and defeat the Soviets, or any other enemy of the free world, should they attack NATO, and to provide know-how and a training base to modernize NATO armies.

The non-NATO missions include preparing to move troops and supplies across Europe or the Mediterranean to carry out U.S. policy, supporting U.S. policy by other than military means-diplomatic activity in Berlin and helping distressed areas and by maintaining cordial relations between our forces and our military

and civilian allies. U.S. Army, Europe, is to be combat-ready at all times, and to be good neighbors to the host nations concerned.

The military threat facing USAREUR at this time consists of 60 Communist and Red satellite divisions, with 400,000 men in East Germany alone. In Poland and Hungary the Soviets have about and Hungary the Soviets have about 100,000 combat-ready troops, all backed up by strong reserves in western Russia. Soviet efforts to increase their military power continue undiminished with particular emphasis on improving their capability for offensive operations.

and responsibilities. He negotiates with the British all transactions on policy matters and services, location of installations, logistics, law, medicine, and education for the military personnel and their dependents stationed in the United Kingdom. Since the Air Force returned to England in 1948 there has been nothing on paper setting forth terms, conditions, and so forth, but all relations have been worked out amicably between the British-American forces.

BASES IN SPAIN

Recently this country renewed a 5-year agreement with Generalissimo Franco to

After viewing the Berlin wall in person, one cannot help but see the danger son, one cannot help but see the danger keep U.S. Air Force bases in Spain. This we are facing there. There is a unique threat to Berlin. It is an island surrounded by potential aggressor forces. Against the equivalent of one division in the Allied sectors of West Berlin, the equivalent of six Soviet and East German divisions are located either in the

Soviet sector of the city or on its out

skirts.

USAREUR is a major target of hostile espionage activity. In recent years several hundred Soviet bloc agents have been apprehended who had specific missions to obtain information on USAREUR personnel, units and activities. They perform observation-type missions, that is, counting tanks in an installation, or watching maneuver activity. The volume of their reports does provide the enemy with a comprehensive picture of USAREUR operations.

The bulk of USAREUR's manpower, about 70 percent, is assigned to 7th Army, which patrols the border 24 hours a day along 400 miles of the Iron Cur

tain.

logistical support and another 15 percent About 15 percent is devoted to logistical support and another 15 percent to various other missions.

mobility and has the latest in weapons U.S. Army Europe possesses extreme to combat any threat thrust upon it.

BMEWS PROTECTS UNITED STATES

Recently completed in northern England at Fylingdales Moor is the U.S. Air Force ballistic missile early warning station-BMEWS. I was the first Congressman to visit this installation, after completion. This BMEWS is the most missile effective known deterrent to a surprise

attack in the free world. BMEWS is unique in the history of military electronics, providing a powerful space radar net for long-range ICBM's.

Elsewhere in Great Britain are lo

cated Royal Air Force Greenham Common and Royal Air Force Mildenhall. Greenham Common is located 70 miles west of London. This is a SAC base, supporting reflex operations, a term which indicates the utilization of strategic forces at forward area bases that support the strategic alert forces.

RAF Mildenhall is a MATS base and the aerial port to the United Kingdom, located 85 miles northeast of London. Both bases are part of the 3d Air Force, an organization of 30,000 personnel with 1,000 installations. In addition to its four tactical wings, the 3d Air Force also runs a variety of other bases.

General Puryear, commander of the 3d Air Force, has a vast number of duties

country has three SAC bases and a naval installation in Spain at this time. Among the bases I visited was Torrejon Air Base, 18 miles east of Madrid, which is 16th Air Force-SAC-Headquarters. The focus of all SAC activities at Torrejon is the Reflex mission. In addition to the SAC mission, this base supports the 65th Air Division which is responsible for command and operational control of the air defense mission in Spain and Morocco. There are 750 officers and 4,300 airmen at this base.

The development of new missiles and intercontinental bombers has supplemented the value of SAC bases in Spain. These bases are very important as staging areas as well as refueling points.

Spain is allied with the United States, yet General Franco does not allow the U.S. flag to fly over our bases there. He insists that it would affront his people if an American flag were also displayed.

I strongly recommend that in any future negotiations with Spain that this country firm up our requirements, including urging General Franco to relax some of the tensions imposed on the Spanish people. Certainly the U.S. flag should fly over U.S. bases in Spain, just as it does in other areas where our U.S. military forces are located.

SIXTH FLEET ON GUARD

Protecting the Mediterranean area is the U.S. 6th Fleet, made up of a multitude of every type of U.S. ship. I visited the flagship, the Little Rock, a guided missile cruiser equipped with the latest missiles and electronic equipment. I was also the overnight guest of the crew of the U.S.S. Independence, while at sea. I received firsthand information on the operation and requirements of a modern aircraft carrier of the Independence class.

OFF-BASE HOUSING IS PROBLEM

Perhaps the No. 1 problem of our military personnel overseas is in the area of off-base housing.

In Great Britain, off-base housing is very difficult to find. Many men are forced to live many miles from their bases. At RAF Station Greenham Common, public quarters on base are provided for 23 officers and 51 airmen. As of September 30, 26 officers and 369 airmen lived off base in private rentals. Average monthly costs to officers are $94 for rent plus $45 for utilities. Average monthly cost for an airman, first class, is $70 for rent plus $30 for utilities. Furthermore, approximately 70 percent of

the private rentals are substandard, due to poor structural condition, lack of proper insulation, improper room arrangements, lack of adequate facilities, or because of poor surroundings.

The situation is almost as serious in Germany, where most of our personnel are stationed. Fifty percent of our percent of our families there are living in inadequate accommodations, inadequate because of excess distance and excess cost of substandard conditions.

Private rentals consist largely of apartments with a few single and duplex units. Three bedroom apartments are almost unheard of luxuries. Hot water is limited, at times available only in the bath from a flash heater over the tub. Bedrooms are small by our standards and rarely have closet space.

Utility charges are high, varying from $15 to $20 in summer to $70 and $80 in winter. Rentals are high in terms of the accommodations received. More on-base

housing is definitely needed; if the United States is going to keep thousands of troops in Europe on a permanent basis, we should provide decent housing for them. We should also encourage the government of the host country to sponsor housing programs. After all, our troops are there to protect Europe, as well as the United States.

EXPENDITURES ON TRIP

I have submitted the following expenditure report to the House Armed Services Committee, which shows that I spent $123.23 in counterpart funds, $29.88 to the Department of the Army for military billeting, and $449 to the Department of the Army for transportation, category Z-tourist-at my request. Total cost of trip was $602.11. I declined to request the extra $10 per day per diem from the Appropriations Committee-a privilege provided for by House resolution.

Following is a complete financial re

[blocks in formation]

While in Greece for 2 days, I spent $18.80 for 2 nights hotel lodging, $13.94 for six meals, and $3.50 for taxis and tips. This is $8.24 over per diem allowance.

I have written a check for $8.24 to the Treasurer of the United States reimbursing the excess per diem allowance for Greece.

The expenditure report shows that I spent $44.39 less than the per diem allowance in five countries and $8.24 over per diem in one country, or $32.15 less than the per diem allowance for the entire trip.

CONCLUSION OF LEGISLATIVE

BUSINESS FOR TODAY

The SPEAKER. The Chair desires to inform the Members that the legislative business for today has been concluded.

RESOLUTIONS PASSED AT THE 52D CONFERENCE OF THE INTERPARLIAMENTARY UNION HELD AT BELGRADE, SEPTEMBER SEPTEMBER 12 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 20, 1963

Mr. REIFEL. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the gentlewoman from New York [Mrs. ST. GEORGE] may extend her remarks at this point in the RECORD and include extraneous matter.

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from South Dakota?

There was no objection.

Mrs. ST. GEORGE. Mr. Speaker, as president of the U.S. National Group of the Inter-Parliamentary Union it is my duty to bring to the attention of the Congress the resolutions passed at the 52d Conference held at Belgrade on September 12 through September 20, 1963. The five resolutions follow: RESOLUTION I. APPEAL FOR AID TO THE CITY OF SKOPJE

The 52d Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Informed of the tragic condition of the city of Skopje in the report submitted by the delegation entrusted with visiting, on September 16, the site of the recent earthSeptember 16, the site of the recent earthquake,

Noting that the material damage and distress of the population are still greater than was to be expected, as 90% of the buildings have to be reconstructed and almost all the inhabitants still live in tents.

Pays a moving tribute to the dead of Skopje and addresses its fraternal greetings to the homeless, whose courage and dignity are above all praise.

Invites the Parliaments represented at the session as well as the appropriate national and international organizations, to do everything in their power, before winter makes further victims, to speed up the action of human solidarity already undertaken on a world scale and to aid in the reconstruction of Skopje, particularly by granting long-term and low-interest credits for this purpose.

RESOLUTION II. THE WORLD PROBLEM OF
DEVELOPMENT

The 52d Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Recalling that the period 1960 to 1970 has been designated as the Development Decade by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1710 (XVI),

Believing that the economic and social advancement of the developing countries is not only of vital interest to those countries but only of vital interest to those countries but of fundamental importance for world peace and prosperity,

Considering that, to reach a stage where international cooperation on an equal footing would become possible, it is necessary to attain, apart from political independence, a given essential level of economic achievement,

Noting

1. That the average per capita income of industrialized countries is eight times higher than that of developing countries-the richest being over twenty times greater than the poorest and that this gap between poorer and richer countries is continually widening,

2. That United Nations statistics show that between 1953 and 1961 industrialized prices rose by 10 percent, whereas raw material prices fell by 8 percent, reducing the developing countries' income by an estimated $14,000 million annually,

3. That this persistent decline in the terms of trade of the developing countries' export products is a major cause of their continuing low level of economic development,

4. That about 80 percent of the developing countries' foreign currency receipts come from exports and only 20 percent from oversea aid and that therefore greater trade and greater industrial development and diversification, not merely aid, are required,

5. That raw material price stability is not enough: The terms of trade should be reversed in favour of developing countries,

6. That existing international commodity agreements need strengthening and extending to other raw materials and foodstuffs on an individual commodity basis and should, as appropriate, include arrangements for disposal of surpluses in ways which avoid the disruption of commercial marketing and which promote the economic progress of de

veloping countries,

7. That barter agreements have tended to restrict international trade and reduce prices,

8. that the enormous increase in population is one of the gravest problems of the day: Urgent support of the United Nations assistance for family planning research is necessary,

9. that a fairer distribution of the world's wealth which would materially improve standards of living in developing countries will require great sacrifices from the wealthier industrialized nations in order to discharge their moral obligations and likewise improved technology in the production of raw materials by the developing countries,

Urges Governments to give practical support to the 1964 International Conference on Trade and Development Problems so as to: increase trade as well as aid;

help reverse terms of trade in favour of developing countries, with special attention to their industrial development and to the solution of the problem of patents;

adjust tariff and remove other barriers to trade, and adopt such steps as may be necessary to give positive encouragement to the developing countries so that they may export their manufactured or semi-manufactured goods and be assured of a market for their products;

develop a new technique and medium of international exchange to supplement the present gold and currency reserves, which are proving inadequate in the face of increasing world production.

RESOLUTION III. SPACE LAW

The 52d Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Having regard to the spectacular progress of space technology and the ever-increasing activity in outer space,

Considering that the first artificial satellite was placed into orbit on October 4, 1957, and that, since that date, several satellites and space-men have been launched into outer space and have successfully returned to earth,

Recognizing the common interest of mankind in furthering the peaceful use of outer space,

Bearing in mind that the development of space law must keep pace with scientific and technological advances if threats to world peace and to the survival of mankind are to be averted,

Expresses the hope that, in the exploration and use of outer space, all States shall respect the following juridical principles unanimously approved at the XVIth Session of

the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 20, 1961:

(a) International law, including the Charter of the United Nations, applies to outer space and celestial bodies;

(b) Outer space and celestial bodies are free for exploration and use by all States in conformity with international law and are not subject to national appropriation;

Regrets that, since then, the United Nations has made no further progress in working out the basic principles of space law, especially in view of the fact that delays in this field make it more difficult for solutions to be reached;

Calls upon National Groups to recommend to their Governments, through their respective Parliaments, that they should

1. Reaffirm their belief in the need to further the peaceful uses of outer space in accordance with international law, with the Charter of the United Nations and the abovementioned juridical principles;

2. Refrain from space experiments or any activities which may interfere with the peaceful use of outer space by other countries;

3. In view of the urgent need to solve international space law problems, conclude at the earliest possible date international agreements covering

(a) Basic legal principles which should govern the activities of States in outer space; (b) Assistance to space-men and spaceships which might make an emergency landing on the territory of other States or on the high seas;

(c) Liability in respect of personal injury, loss by or damage to third parties caused by space vehicles or any part thereof.

RESOLUTION IV. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION The 52d Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Desirous of achieving the principle of the equality of all mankind, regardless of race, colour, religion, language or social class, as laid down in the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,

Deeply disturbed at the continuous existence, in the different regions of the world, of racial hatred and discrimination based upon race, colour, religion, language or social class, Believing that it is necessary to take appropriate steps on both the national and international levels with a view to the definitive and effective elimination of this intolerable behaviour which is contrary to the Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the principles of humanity,

Stressing the responsibility of States in this respect and affirming that it is their duty to do everything in their power to prohibit these condemnable manifestations,

Emphasizing, in this connection, the importance of the role of Parliament in its quality as the supreme legislative organ of the State,

1. Invites the Parliaments of those States in which there are signs of such practices to take all necessary steps, in co-operation with their Governments, to promulgate laws aiming at the prohibition of discrimination, in any form whatsoever, based upon race, colour, religion, language or social class, to adopt legislative and other regulations in order effectively to combat hatred and discrimination, and to abolish all laws which might create conditions favourable to the rise or existence of hatred and discrimination;

2. Recommends the Parliaments of all countries to take steps to educate public opinion with a view to creating conditions favourable for the elimination of prejudices and discrimination based upon race, colour, religion, language or social class or of other harmful influences which encourage them, and to see that the principle of the equality of all mankind is applied without discrimination in the education of youth;

3. Notes with satisfaction the action taken by the United Nations, Unesco and other

international bodies to eliminate hatred and discrimination based upon race, colour, religion, language, or social class, and invites the Parliaments of all countries to support the measures taken by these organizations on an international level, particularly by the preparation and completion of a convention and a declaration on the abolition of all such practices, as provided for in the resolution adopted by the XVIIth session of the United Nations General Assembly.

RESOLUTION V. SAFEGUARDING PEACE

(A) METHODS OF INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UNITED NATIONS ACTION IN MAINTAINING INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY The 52d Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Deeply convinced that the United Nations is an essential element in the preservation of peace and international security,

Bearing in mind that the main task of the United Nations Organization is to watch over the maintenance and consolidation of peace and security, a task which is becoming increasingly urgent and difficult at the present time owing to the intensification of the armaments race,

Noting with regret and anxiety that U.N. action is encountering many difficulties and that this most important Organization of our time has not yet succeeded in obtaining concrete results in the solution of such vital problems as those of general, complete and controlled disarmament, the creation of denuclearized zones and other similar issues, Recognizing the essential contribution of the United Nations, through the EighteenNation Disarmament Conference at Geneva, to the recent successful conclusion in Moscow of the treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water,

Convinced that the members of the United Nations desire even more effective activity and fuller participation of the UN in efforts to strengthen peace and to promote negotiation as a method for settling current international questions in the political, economic, social, cultural and other spheres, and in particular the problems of disarmament and of economic development,

Bearing in mind the considerable increase in UN membership and the need to adapt the structure and work of the Organization and its main organs to changes in the composition of the international community and in the world in general,

Convinced of the need for greater efforts to realize the principle of universality in the United Nations,

Aware of the necessity for the active development of fruitful co-operation, on an equal footing, between States and between peoples,

Confirms the recommendations made in the resolution adopted by the 50th InterParliamentary Conference in Brussels concerning means of increasing the effectiveness of United Nations action for the maintenance of peace;

Calls on National Groups of the Union to bring their influence to bear on their Parliaments and Governments

To work for respect for the aims and principles of the UN Charter by all States, and for the active and creative application of those principles in conformity with the changes which have occurred and will occur in the world;

To endeavour to ensure that member States of the UN refrain from using it as a place for stirring up cold-war dissension and for the achieving of selfish political and other interests;

To strive to make the UN as effective an instrument as possible for the solution of international social and economic problemsthe fight against hunger, poverty and illiteracy-and for the full use of natural and human resources;

To strive for the consistent application of the decisions of the Security Council and acceptance of the recommendations of the General Assembly so that the principles of the Charter of the United Nations may be implemented and that the authority ascribed by the Charter to the two most important organs of the United Nations may be fully recognized;

To make every effort to achieve the goal of general and complete disarmament as early as possible;

To take such steps, in accordance with the U.N. Charter, as may seem appropriate to strengthen the administration and operational organization of the U.N.'s peace-keeping forces, including, if necessary, an increase in the numbers of advisory military personnel, in order to facilitate planning and to increase the efficiency and economy of U.N. police operations;

To take all appropriate steps, in accordance with the U.N. Charter, particularly with regard to Chapter VII, to strengthen the system ensuring the maintenance of peace and international security;

To ensure the fulfillment of U.N. responsibilities by the provision of adequate contributions and the avoidance of arrears in accordance with Article 17 of the Charter, while bearing in mind more particularly General Assembly Resolution 1877 (S-IV),

Appeals to the States which have not yet signed the Moscow Test-Ban Treaty to do so as early as possible.

(B) THE CREATION OF DENUCLEARIZED AND LIMITED ARMAMENTS ZONES AS A FIRST STEP TOWARD GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT

The 52d Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Considering it necessary, simultaneously with the drafting of a treaty on general and complete disarmament, to take rapid and adequate measures to decrease tension in relations between States and to facilitate the achievement of humanity's principal goal, namely, peace in the world through general and complete disarmament,

Considering also that among these measures a treaty to ban all nuclear tests, and agreements to set up denuclearized zones, where required by the international situation, with the consent of the States concerned, could play a particularly important role,

Taking into account

That a number of States have submitted plans for the creation of atom-free zones in different parts of the world-in Central Europe, the Balkans, the Mediterranean Basin, Northern Europe, the Pacific, the Near East, Latin America and other parts of the world;

That the idea of such zones has been favourably received in various States, as evidenced by the resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly in 1961 on the denuclearization of Africa, and by the support accorded by the XVIIth Session of the U.N. General Assembly to the plan for an atomfree Latin America;

That the idea of denuclearization has already been given concrete expression by the conclusion, in 1959, of a convention on Antarctica;

Recalling that, in the resolutions adopted by the Warsaw and Brasilia Conferences, the Inter-Parliamentary Union supported the creation of atom-free zones as being a further guarantee of collective security,

Noting that wide support for the idea of denuclearized zones leads to conditions favourable for formulating the general principles governing their creation,

Believes that the efforts to create adequately verified denuclearized zones and limited armaments zones in different parts of the world, provided they are arrived at freely by all the parties concerned in the region and do not alter the balance of military forces, would serve the cause of peace

and represent a step towards the achievement of general and complete disarmament. Welcomes the signature of the Moscow Test-Ban Treaty;

Urges those concerned to redouble their efforts in the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Conference and elsewhere in order to reach early agreement on further measures to reduce tension and improve international confidence;

Calls for the achievement of the "principal aim" proclaimed in the Preamble of the Moscow Test-Ban Treaty, namely:

speediest possible achievement of an agreement on general and complete disarmament under strict international control, in accordance with the objectives of the United Nations, which would put an end to the armaments race and eliminate the incentive to the production and testing of all kinds of weapons, including nuclear weapons".

(C) AFTER THE MOSCOW AGREEMENT The 52d Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Noting with profound satisfaction that ninety nations have already signed a treaty on the banning of nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, thus giving evidence of the great concern of the world over contamination of the human environment,

Convinced that the Moscow Agreement constitutes an important step forward in lessening international tension and strengthening confidence in relations between States and that it gives proof of the possibility of settling international problems by peaceful means, whatever the political or social régime of the States involved.

Considering that the Moscow Agreement

creates favourable conditions for the realization of new accords leading to a detente in international relations and aiming at general and complete disarmament, an indis

pensable condition for the consolidation of

peace among peoples.

Appeals to those few States who have not yet signed the Moscow Treaty to take the necessary measures to adhere to this agreement, and also addresses an appeal to all countries that they ratify the accord pursuant to their respective lawful procedures so that it may enter into force as soon as possible;

Invites Parliaments to insure the implementation of the agreement in question in

conformity with its letter and spirit and in particular to prevent any new extension of

nuclear weapons;

Urges the atomic Powers to make all possible efforts to bring about an absolute ban on all nuclear weapons tests under strict international control, thus taking a further step toward the absolute interdiction and destruction of atomic weapons;

Appeals to each State to consider, after

full consultation with the countries concerned;

proposals for achieving a new détente in international relations, including nonaggression pacts where appropriate, in accordance with the terms of the communiqué issued on the initialing of the Moscow Treaty;

such measures as would help to reduce the risk of surprise attacks or of a war started by miscalculation and would also promote an atmosphere of international trust and confidence, and thus reduce the risk of war.

INTRODUCTION OF JOINT RESOLUTION TO CLARIFY RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO PARTICIPATE VOLUNTARILY IN CONDUCTED PRAYER AND READING OF THE SCRIPTURES IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND OTHER PLACES

Mr. REIFEL. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the gentleman

from California [Mr. BOB WILSON] may extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and include extraneous matter.

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from South Dakota?

There was no objection.

Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, I am today introducing a joint resolution which is intended to clarify the right of every citizen under our Constitution to participate in voluntarily conducted prayer and reading of the Scriptures in our public schools and in other public places.

The Supreme Court has ruled on this issue in several specific cases. This resolution is not designed to reverse their decisions, rather establish a clear-cut guideline. I believe that in essence the Supreme Court ruled that no governmental unit can compel religious activity of any kind in the schoolrooms or public places. This has generally been interpreted by many authorities to mean that not only can the State not compel, it cannot permit any religious observances, readings, or prayers in schools or public readings, or prayers in schools or public places.

My resolution would simply permit such religious activities as reading the Bible, or saying the Lord's Prayer. It would allow, but not compel. If adopted, this resolution would be a constitutional amendment and would have to be ratified by the States.

The Supreme Court's decision was expressed in such a way that extremists have seized upon it as being a credo for atheism in our public institutions. This Nation was founded by brave men and women who came here in search of a place to worship. God is referred to often place to worship. God is referred to often in our history. Religion played a great part in our early development. Denominational strife does not deter or erase the recognition that we are a Christian nation. We also are a Nation of majority rule. The vast majority of our citizenry has religious beliefs. Therefore, nondenominational observance of religious principles has a definite place in our schools and public institutions.

To allow a tiny minority to deny what should be the privilege of the vast majority is not in line with the intent of our Republic. My resolution would rectify the erroneous interpretation being placed on the Supreme Court's sweeping opinions, rendered in cases that actually encompassed extremely narrow issues.

Local school boards and teachers, educational authorities across the country should have the right to conduct prayers and public readings on a voluntary basis. I feel this issue is important. In these times when materialism is being pushed upon our people from many sides, it is important that our children be given spiritual guidance and be taught the precepts of religion. I am hopeful that the Congress will act favorably on this amendment.

"THE PRINCE"

Mr. REIFEL. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the gentleman from California [Mr. YOUNGER] may ex

tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and include extraneous matter.

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from South Dakota?

There was no objection.

Mr. YOUNGER. Mr. Speaker, when this administration came to power, it was widely circulated that Machiavelli's "The Prince" was required reading for all top appointees.

In order to better understand the "family" New Frontier crusade, I got a copy of "The Prince" from the Congressional Library and read much of it. As a result, I have understood the words and actions of the counterpart of the young prince whose philosophy can be summed up as follows, and I quote from the book:

It is not essential that a prince should have all the good qualities which I have enumerated above, but it is most essential that he should seem to have them-the appearance of having them is useful.

When the wheat and corn sales to Russia and Hungary were announced, the President said they would be, and I quote, "by private dealers for American dollars or gold either cash on delivery or normal commercial terms."

Here you have the appearance of the good qualities of the prince, but what are the facts? The credit of both countries will be guaranteed to the commercial banks by the Export-Import Bank, not on a 50-50 basis as is the usual practice, but a guarantee of the entire short-term credit. Nor is the shipment to be made in ships of U.S. registry as promised.

The 1964 election will determine the percentage of our people who can be fooled all the time.

MORE MANAGED NEWS

Mr. REIFEL. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the gentleman from New York [Mr. BARRY] may extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and include extraneous matter.

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from

South Dakota?

There was no objection.

Mr. BARRY. Mr. Speaker, Illinois has produced more than its share of dedicated public officials. It has never been more ably represented than by the distinguished gentleman who represents the 19th Congressional District of that great State.

In a commendable effort to keep his constituents thoroughly informed about vital legislation affecting this country, our distinguished colleague from time to time writes a report from Washington which he sends to constituents of the 19th Congressional District. His October report is well worth reading and I need hardly add, very well written. One section of the report entitled "Now Managed History" relates to a serious issue facing this country. I quote:

NOW MANAGED HISTORY

On October 15 a rather obscure bill, H.R. 6237, was passed by the House of Representatives. This bill, which I vigorously opposed, granted $500,000 to the National Historical

« PreviousContinue »