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including those in Kansas. My aggregate is between 7,000 and 8,000 men, more than half of whom are three months volunteers, some of whose term of enlistment has just expired; others will claim a discharge within a week or two, and the dissolution of my forces from this necessity, already commenced, will leave me less than 4,000 men, including companies B and E, 2d infantry, now with me. In my immediate vicinity it is currently reported there are 30,000 troops and upward, whose number is constantly augmenting, and who are diligently accumulating arms and stores. They are making frequent lawless and hostile demonstrations, and threaten me with attack. The evils consequent upon the withdrawal of any portion of my force will be apparent ; loyal citizens will be unprotected, repressed treason will assume alarıning boldness, and possible defeat of my troops in battle will peril the continued ascendency of the federal power itself, not only in the State, but in the whole west. If the interests of the government are to be sustained here, and in fact the whole valley of the Mississippi, large bodies of troops should be sent forward to this State, instead of being withdrawn from it, till by concentration there may be ability to overpower any force that can be gathered in the west to act against the government. Troops properly belonging to the valley of the Mississippi from Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio, have already been withdrawn to the east. The moral effect of the presence of the few regulars in my command is doubtless the main consideration that holds the enemy in check, and with them I may be able to retain what has already been achieved until I am strengthened ; but any diminution will be imminently hazardous.
The volunteers with me have yet had no pay for their services, and their duties have been arduous. Their clothing has become dilapidated, and as a body they are dispirited. But for these facts they would probably nearly all have re-enlisted. I have no regular officers of the pay department, nor the commissary and quartermaster; the affairs of both the last are, consequently, indifferently administered, from want of experience. Nothing but the immense interests at stake could have ever induced me to undertake the great work in which I am engaged, under such discouraging circumstances. In this state of affairs, presumed to have been upknown when the order was issued, I have felt justified in delaying its execution for further instruction, so far as the companies with me are concerned. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
N. LYON, Brigadier General Commanding. Lieutenant Colonel TOWNSEND,
Assistant Adjutant General, &c.
[Received July 18, 1861.)
SPRINGFIELD, Illinois, July 18, 1861. All the Illinois forces are in Missouri, excepting the Irish regiment and three companies of cavalry at Quincy, and three regiments of infantry, two companies of cavalry, and battery of artillery at Alton. Shall assume command at once. Moving with the force from Alton to St. Charles to-night, and that at Quincy, will take position on line of Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad to-day, and will put the entire force in North Missouri into action immediately.
JOHN POPE, Brigadier General Commanding. Major General John C. Fremont, New York.
Astor House, New York, July 18, 1861. North Missouri railroad torn up and obstructed by State forces. Mails cannot be transported. Tracks torn up behind the United States troops. Some fighting between these and State forces. I have ordered General Pope to take the command in North Missouri with three regiments from Alton. He moves this morning. General Lyon calls for re-enforcements.
J. C. FREMONT, Major General Commanding. Colonel TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant General, Washington, D. C.
[Received at the Astor House, 4.30 p. m.]
WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, July 18, 1861. Your letter of 16th and telegram of 18th received. The general-in-chief says please proceed to your command without coming here. He has no particular instructions for you at present. He adds, for your information, the term of service of three months volunteers began with date of reception and muster into service.
E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant General. General Fremont, United States Army.
[Received July 18, 1861.]
SPRINGFIELD, Illinois, July 18, 1861. No force at St. Louis except necessary guard for arsenal and city. I leave for Missouri in a few minutes.
JOHN POPE, Brigadier General. Major General Fremont, New York.
St. Louis, July 19, 1861. Gorernor Yates has referred your despatch to me. The fourteen guns need caissons, barness and equipments. Only available regiment for immediate service is Mulligan's, at Quincy, but it has no arms; will get them here. I open North Missouri road to-morrow. Three Alton regiments landed there to-night. Several regiments will be available in three days.
JOHN POPE, Brigadier General. Major General FREMONT, United States Army.
St. Louis, July 19, 1861. It was the design to occupy Southwest Missouri, cutting off all approaches from Arkansas by way of Pocahontas, to occupy Poplar Bluffs, Bloomfield, Greenville, and the line of the Cairo and Fulton railroad. Accordingly one regiment is at Ironton, ready to advance when reenforced. Grant was under orders, but his orders were countermanded. Marsh is at Cape Girardeau, instructed to keep open communication with Bloomfield, where Grant was to be. General Prentiss has eight regiments at Cairo, and could spare of them to go into that country. If we once lose possession of the swamps of that region, a large army will be required to clear them, while if we get possession first and hold the causeway, a smaller force will do. General McClellan telegraphed that he had authentic intelligence of a large army gathering at Pocahontas, according with what I have advised for week Expecting you here daily, I have not telegraphed before ; but if you do not come at once, will you take into consideration the importance to Cairo that the southeast should be held by us?
CHESTER HARDING, JR.,
Assistant Adjutant General. Major General FRÉMONT.
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE WEST,
Springfield, Missouri, July 19, 1861. Sir: The 4th and 5th regiments of Iowa volunteers are reported to me as available for service. They are at present at Burlington, in that State, and it is desirable to have them actively at work. If they are not otherwise needed, I wish you to order them forward to join my column, with a'l possible despatch. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
N. LYON, Brigadier General Commanding. Colonel CHESTER HARDING, Jr,
Assistant Adjutant General, St. Louis Arsenal.
[By telegraph from Washington, July 20, 1861.]
St. Louis ARSENAL, July 20, 1861. General Thomas authorized me to say that you can accept as many three years regiments as shall offer, until further notice.
F. P. BLAIR, Colonel 1st Regiment. Colonel CHESTER HARDING,
Assistant Adjutant General.
[By telegraph from New York, July 20, 1861.]
St. Louis ARSENAL, July 20, 1861. Have you later reliable intelligence from General Lyon ?
J. Č. FREMONT,
Major General Commanding. Colonel HARDING, Assistant Adjutant General.
St. Louis ARSENAL, July 20, 1861. Nothing later from General Lyon, but I have obtained authority to accept regiments as fast as offered. Can soon re-enforce him. Will begin next week. When will you start?
Assistant Adjutant General. Major General FRÉMONT, New York.
[By telegraph from Cincinnati, July 20, 1861.]
St. Louis ARSENAL, July 20, 1861. In case of attack on Cairo, have none but Illinois troops to re-enforce, and only 11,000 arms in Illinois. Will direct two regiments to be ready at Caseyville, but you will only use them for defence of St. Louis and in case of absolute necessity. Telegraph me from time to time.
G. B. MCCLELLAN, Major General U. S. Army. CHESTER HARDING, Jr., Assistant Adjutant General.
[By telegraph from New York, July 20, 1861.]
St. Louis ARSENAL, July 20, 1861. Can clothing, camp equipage, and other ordinary supplies be had in St. Louis ? I come on immediately.
J. Č. FRÉMONT, Major General Commanding. Colonel HARDING, Assistant Adjutant General.
St. Louis ARSENAL, July 21, 1861. GENERAL: Before referring to your recent communications, allow me to explain the state of affairs in other parts of Missouri outside of your line of operations.
Before you left Boonville I had the honor to advise you that large forces were gathering at Pocahontas. In accordance with your instructions, I communicated freely by telegraph with General McClellan, and, as I supposed, succeeded in having placed at your disposal sufficient troops from Illinois to hold the swamp counties of the southeast. Accordingly, I commenced by sending Brand's regiment to Ironton, with directions to proceed as far as he could, with entire safety, in the direction of Greenville. At the same time Colonel Grant's regiment was ordered here, to proceed to Bloomfield, and Colonel Marsh to Cape Girardeau, where he could have easy communication with either Cairo or Bloomfield. I armed 800 home guards in Cape Girardeau and Scott counties, to act as skirmishers, scouts, and guides in the marshes, and obtained authority from the Secretary of War to raise a force of mounted scouts. With these forces, and with arms for home guards in Wayne, Stoddard, and Butler, I expected to keep down local rebellion in that region, encourage Union men, hold the causeway through the swamps, and prevent the approach of an army from Pocahontas until the commanding generals and the authorities at Washington became convinced that it was the design of the enemy to march upon Bird's Point and St. Louis as soon as sufficient strength was gathered.
General McClellan countermanded his order to Grant. I could get no answer in regard to equipping Buell's battery, (though now the authority is here and a portion of the battery in service on the Missouri river,) and Bland and Marsh are at the points which they were sent to, without the force to accomplish the object named. General McClellan's reason for countermanding the order to Grant was that Cairo was threatened. Therefore, instead of occupying the country through which the enemy must come, eight regiments are lying in that sickly hole, Cairo, where General Prentiss can see the whole of them at once. He also bas cavalry and two light batteries.
A week since General McClellan telegraphed that he had the same definite information of troops crossing from Tennessee and coming up from all parts of Arkansas to Pocahontas, which I had learned from our scouts and spies (one of them a pilot on a Memphis boat which had conveyed some of the troops over,) and had sent to him.
Now, in the southeast we stand thus: two regiments, not in communication with each other; no artillery, and a few home guards, against, what they expect to be, 20,000 men, (regular troops, well provided) who design marching upon St. Louis.
I have explained all this to General Frémont, who will be here Tuesday, and who (as does General Pope) understands the threatened movement, and will take vigorous measures to meet it.
So much for the southeast. Meanwhile, your departure from Boonville, and the necessity of having 1,800 troops to garrison Jefferson City, Boonville, and Lexington, encouraged the rebels in Northeast Missouri. Brigadier General Tom Harris gathered a force below Monroe Station, in camp. I took the liberty of ordering Colonel Smith, of Illinois, who was lying eighteen miles from him, to break up the camp. He waited a day or two until Harris had got together 1,600 men, proceeded part way, shut himself up in a seminary, and sent back for re-enforcements, as his men bad been marched off in such a hurry that they forgot to fill their cartridge-boxes and had only four rounds apiece. He was relieved, and Harris marched south
westwardly, on his way through Calloway county, to make a combined attack upon Jefferson City, with forces from Pettis, Osage, and Linn counties.
To check this I ordered up Schüttner's regiment from Cairo As soon as the boat arrived I gave Colonel Schüttner his marching orders, and immediately went to work to equip his regiment. McKinstry helped, and both of us worked all night. The field officers, except Hammer, and nearly all the company officers went up town, and McKinstry and I were colonels, captains, adjutants, and quartermasters, as occasion required. I finally got them off, to go to Jefferson City, to cross there. As the regiment was in the worst possible state of discipline, and as Hammer is no soldier, (Schüttner and the balance I put in arrest as soon as they appeared at the gate at reveille,) I couldn't trust him, and ordered McNeil to take seven of bis companies and follow him and take command. Hammer had with him forty-two mounted orderlies. The two commands united were to proceed from Jefferson City, via Fulton, to Mexico, between which two places last named Harris
At the same time Colonel M. L. Smith, 8th regiment, with two companies, and four companies of the 2d, under Schaeffer, were sent up to Mexico by rail, where it was arranged with Hurlbut that either Palmer's or Grant's regiment should join them and scour the country down toward Jefferson. After fully entering into the plan, and after I had sent off our forces, Hurlbut sent Palmer on to guard the Chariton Bridge with his entire regiment, and left Smith to do the best he could. I, of course, immediately re-enforced him. Meanwhile the enemy burned the bridge above Mexico.
Hammer telegraphed from Hermann that he concluded to leave the river there, as transportation was easily procured, and that he had made arrangements to effect a junction with McNeil. The next I heard of him he was at New Florence, on the railroad, and McNeil, with 460 men, was near Fulton, where I then knew he would meet Harris. You can imagine my anxiety, and afterward my relief, when I heard from that brave fellow McNeil that he had fought and routed the rebels. The next day after this affair General Pope sent me word that he would
into Northeast Missouri with a large force. He has done 80. pects to bave 7,000 men there, two batteries, and four companies of cavalry. McNeil still lies at Fulton, Hammer came down from the railroad, and McNeil has ordered him here. Everything quiet in Calloway. The northeast may be considered secure.
From Jefferson I have had nothing but trouble. It being impossible to supply the places of Boernstein's six companies, I have left him there, and but I won't stop to mention his performances.
At home our friends are alarmed, and the city is uneasy. I receive about five deputations per diem, warning me that I ought not to send away so many troops, i 2,200 United States reserve corps left,) and sometimes hinting that I will be overhauled by higher powers for doing so. The only danger is in case of an advance from Arkansas. But the first demonstration will result in clearing St. Louis of its secession element.
As far as your command is concerned, I fear that you think I have been neglectful of my duties, but I cannot admit the fact. Every order that you have sent I have immediately put into execution, and have seen it executed, so far as I could give my personal supervision to it. Misnanagement of transportation at Rolla, to which place 110 wagons had been sent before Brown moved, and probably the inferior kind of transportation furnished, accounts for the delay in getting supplies forward. Arms, ammunition, and provisions were lying for weeks at Rolla, while I supposed they were going forward, and I was not informed of the fact. When I did learn it I telegraphed to Washington, and had instructions sent to McKinstry to buy