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was Selu, the Secretary of State. Slight in stature and frame, he was keenly intellectual and fertile in resources, with courtly bearing and mild, though persuasive, speech; it often seemed to me that a high degree of education would make him capable of winning great social triumphs anywhere.

Tamasese, the leader of the insurgents, I did not see, he being with his forces at a distance from Apia; but there was a general concurrence of opinion, except among those who were engaged actively in supporting him, that he was a man inferior in capacity to the chiefs just mentioned; and although entitled to be treated as a chosen head of the Tupua family, it is hardly likely that he could have maintained himself as a leader except under the tutelage and with the active support of a foreign power. The climate of Apia is not at all trying. The temperature does not vary the year round two degrees from 80° F., and there is always the trade-wind blowing with such regularity that the residents speak of going to windward or leeward instead of to east or west. The atmosphere is moist, and out of the breeze one perspires freely; but it is always easy to find a breeze by going out of doors. An umbrella is a constant companion, for protection not only from the sun, but also from frequent and sudden showers, which come without any premonition and are often over before shelter can be reached. The natives always run under shelter from these showers, not because they have any clothes to be injured, but because they object to having their hair wet after it has been dressed; and they present a comical appearance walking along naked above the waist, bareheaded, and holding an umbrella over them. The ease with which foreigners become accustomed to seeing the natives in scanty costume makes it doubtful whether the efforts of the missionaries to induce them to wear clothing like foreigners have been entirely judicious. Their natural costume, besides its inexpensiveness, is well suited to the climate. In Tonga, where the natives are compelled by law to wear clothes, they utilize every available fabric from old coffee-bags up; and the result is not conducive to cleanliness, which is a marked characteristic of the Samoans. The latter are greatly favored by having, all around the coast at short distances, beautiful freshwater rivers, which find their way from the mountains of the interior to the sea over pebbly beds; and in these, at all hours of the day, the natives of both sexes disport themselves like ducks, whose equals they are in managing themselves in the water.

It is the presence in Samoa of a relatively large foreign population, with more or less of the greed and selfishness usually characteristic

of the relations of white people to aboriginal races, that has made difficult the problem of government, and that necessitates the well-considered assistance of the great powers whose citizens and subjects have acquired residence and property interests in the islands.

Having immediately after my arrival settled down to work, after a short sojourn on the ̧ shore I had the satisfaction early one morning of seeing the Mohican steam around the point and into the harbor; and thereafter I found myself in most comfortable quarters on board, where I enjoyed to the fullest extent the unwearying hospitality of Captain Day and the cordial coöperation, with respect to the objects of my mission, of himself and his officers.

With the exception of two weeks' absence on a trip to Tonga, on the Mohican, I was unremittingly engaged in the investigations which I was required to make, and in the course of them found all the foreign residents not only willing but eager to impart information and opinions, all of which had to be carefully weighed with due regard to their source. At last I was transferred from the Mohican to the San Francisco mail steamer, and reluctantly bade farewell to Samoa. The 17th of October, on which I left the kingdom, was Sunday in east longitude time. This is observed in Samoa, although it is in west longitude, because the early missionaries carried with them New Zealand time. Consequently as I stepped on board the mail steamer I found myself in the middle of Saturday, October 16, and the following day enjoyed the novelty of a second Sunday, October 17. This made me even again, as I left the out-going steamer on Sunday, August 15, and on the following day found myself in Tuesday, August 17. Monday, August 16, 1886, was a day entirely lost to me, and in place of it I had in that year a second edition of Sunday, October 17.

The commissioners had reported to their governments early in 1887, extracts from their reports were exchanged, and in June and July of that year the conference met at Washington, the Secretary of State representing the United States, and the German and British ministers their respective governments. The protocols of the conference, recently sent to Congress, have fully disclosed its internal history. Its failure of immediate practical result was due to the insistence by the American representative upon the principle of equality of control which had theretofore been uniformly admitted in every reference to the subject by representatives of the treaty powers, while the German representative for the first time set up a claim to mandatory control for Germany, in violation of the understanding upon which the negotiations had proceeded. This divergence

of opinion and the surprise occasioned by it were forcibly expressed by the American representative at the time.

It may therefore be regarded as fully recognized and established that the object of the United States in proposing the present conference, and of all three powers in sending commissioners to the Samoan İslands to report on the condition of affairs, was to maintain autonomy and independence of the islands under a native government. Such being the declared object of the conference, I have listened with regret to plans and suggestions that appear to me to depend upon the recognition of an inequality of interest of the three powers in the political, moral, and commercial welfare of the islands, and to look unequivocally to the prompt suppression of the native government.1

They embarked upon the conference with a declaration of the absolute equality of the three powers, and that they were acting in an advisory capacity towards the Samoan people, and that they desired to preserve the independence and autonomy of the islands and absolute equality of treatment in respect of commerce, navigation, jurisdiction, etc., and it is further stated that it was intended that there was to be no inequality whatever in respect to the influence to be exerted by the three governments upon this community; that, whether their interest was little or large, the basis of their approach to this question was the equality of the three treaty powers in dealing with the subject of Samoan government. They approached it with equal responsibility and equal right to deal with it. It was understood that they all had agreements in the form of treaties with this people and were disposed to stand by them. This is found in the united representation of the three powers that the existing treaties were to remain.2

The conference was adjourned, not concluded, on motion of Mr. Bayard, to permit the consultation of its members with their governments upon the subject of their differences; and in a dispatch, dated August 7, 1887, Prince von Bismarck, after restating the different views expressed in the conference, admitted that the position taken by the German minister could not be maintained except with the cordial concurrence of both of the other treaty powers, and he reiterated in the most unqualified terms the often expressed understanding as to equality of interest and control.

The Imperial Government does not see in the American counter-proposition any redress of the now existing evils; it does not aim, notwithstanding the preponderance of German interests over those of other nations in Samoa, at the exercise of a stronger influence with regard to the affairs of the islands than England and America, unless such influence would, in the common interest of the three nations, be willingly conceded to it, as has been done by Great Britain, and, as we were in hopes, would be done by the United States too. This hope having proved to be erroneous, we consider, as we have done hitherto, the now existing equality of rights of the three 1 Protocol, sixth day. 2 Protocol, fifth day.

nations as the acknowledged basis of their relations to Samoa.

The Imperial Government is, of course, far from intending to bring about any change in the political relations which the three powers represented there and connected by friendship entertain to Samoa; on the contrary, we maintain unaltered the existing treaties and stipulations between us and the Government of Great Britain and the United States with regard to that group of islands, as well as the equality of rights of the treaty powers. We shall also in the future continue our endeavors to arrive at an understanding about the necessary reforms in order to establish lasting peace on the Samoan Islands, in the interest of the foreign and native population.

A solemn recognition of the equality of the three treaty powers is found in the Municipal Convention of 1879, which was composed of the three consuls and an additional representative from each nationality; and so carefully were the rights of each power preserved that no business could be transacted at any meeting of the municipal board unless a representative of each power was present. Even after the deposition of Malietoa, and the setting up of a pretended native government by the Germans, the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, as reported by a dispatch from Mr. Pendleton, dated October 13, 1887, professed to recognize that equality between the powers which the action of his government's authorized local representatives had done all that was in their power to destroy. Mr. Pendleton quotes Count Bismarck as saying "that the German Government desired to maintain the good entente between the powers in regard to Samoa upon the principles so well known to them all." And while at this time the German officials had assumed practical control of the Government of Samoa, the minister suggested "that there seemed to be no reason for haste just now; and that with new light on the status, as it should then appear, all the governments would go forward in the same spirit which had actuated them heretofore."

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And it would almost seem as if it was with the view of diverting the attention of our Government from the German operations in Samoa that Prince von Bismarck, on November 18, 1887, addressed to the German minister a dispatch to be communicated to the Department of State, commenting on the alleged 'Anti-German attitude" of our consul-general and his predecessors. Even in this paper is reiterated the principle of equality, notwithstanding the asserted "mercantile preponderance" of Germany, when it says: "We have always maintained the principle of equality of rights of nations in Samoa, and never aspired to political advantages."

To this dispatch the Secretary of State, in a comprehensive view of the whole subject, on

the 17th of January, 1888, refuted the charges made against our consular officers, and concluded with this emphatic repetition of the American position:

But, for the very reason that the native Government of Samoa is weak, it has seemed all the more clear to the United States that the control of the islands by any strong foreign power, or its representatives, would defeat the great object of securing native independence and autonomy, and the practical neutralization of the group. Under such control a native government would necessarily cease element in the islands, deprived of voice and influence in the management of their affairs, would quickly succumb to the aggressive and exclusive tendencies of the foreign residents; and, under these circumstances, the islands would inevitably become a colony of the foreign power by which, or by whose representatives, the Government was actually

to have more than a nominal existence; the native


To this no direct reply appears to have been ever received.

Since the popular interest awakened in the subject in this country and in Congress, Prince Bismarck (January 13) reiterated his assurances of due regard to the treaty rights of America and England with respect to Samoa, and subsequently (February 1) informed our Government that the German consul had been instructed to withdraw his demand for temporary administration of the islands, such "demand not being in conformity to our [German] previous promises regarding the neutrality and independence of Samoa."

It was therefore upon the same basis of neutrality and autonomy for Samoa and equality of rights and influence for the treaty powers, which underlies the entire negotiation, that the renewal of the conference at Berlin was agreed to. The diplomatic assurances from Berlin have been fair from beginning to end. If doubts are entertained as to their fulfillment, they arise from the contrast between previous promises and the progress of events at Apia, as disclosed by the official papers sent to Congress. On August 23, less than a month after the adjournment of the conference, without notice to this Government, war was declared by Germany against Malietoa because of his inability, on twenty-four hours' notice, to pay a large indemnity for alleged thefts of fruit during four years, and for the injury to a German who had his nose broken in a brawl on the Emperor's birthday in March previous. At once, upon the declaration of war, Apia was filled with German sailors, who were ostentatious in their disregard of the most ordinary personal and property rights of Americans and Englishmen. The German flag was raised over the Government house of Samoa. Tamasese was brought

to Apia by a German ship, saluted, landed, and installed as king by the German forces. A socalled government was set up, under control of a clerk of the German trading house as Premier, who early in August had circulated reports anticipating what did occur. Malietoa, having surrendered himself to avoid bloodshed, was deported, and for months the local German officials and naval officers controlled affairs through the nominal government of Tamasese, disregarding the rights of all other foreigners and levying taxes to a point at which the Samoans could no longer pay them and live. The chiefs were summoned, under threats of war, and forced to sign an acknowledgment of Tamasese at a fono, held under the guns of the German fleet, at which all discussion was forbidden; and our Government was congratulated upon this result as carrying into effect its suggestion for the election of a king. The office of the Premier was in the German consulate, and thence all Tamasese's orders were issued. Finally the municipal government was broken up.

This condition of affairs grew worse and worse until it was ended by the revolt of the Samoans under Mataafa, the conquest of Tamasese's forces by him, and the awakening of interest in the United States, when the whole subject was brought by the President to the attention of Congress.

For the first time the German Government seemed to understand that there was a limit to the violation by local officials of its promises to us beyond which our Government would not remain quiescent, and a renewal of the conference was proposed with new assurances of good intentions for the future.

Such was the situation when the approaching end of the term of President Cleveland naturally suggested a pause until the new Administration could take up the question.

The position to which we should adhere has been laid down both in the long correspondence and in the attitude of Mr. Bayard in the conference of 1887. The justice of that position has been admitted by Germany and England. Recent events indicate that Prince Bismarck for the first time appreciates that the United States will submit to no less. He understands, as every one does, that Germany cannot go to war about Samoa, and that in such a war she would have an indefensible position upon the facts. Hence it is much to be desired that these two great nations, which ought to be not only at peace, but friendly, will now make a settlement of the vexed question which will conserve all the treaty rights of the United States and at the same time contain the fulfillment of our implied promises to Samoa.

George H. Bates.




DURING General Grant's Administration attention and potatoes. The schooner Peerless arrived at Apia

was called to the necessity of the United States having coaling stations or places of call for its cruisers in case of war. During the cruise of the Confederate steamer Shenandoah in the South Pacific, where she destroyed our whalers, our vessels sent in pursuit were unable to get coal or to go anywhere for repairs. The President, seeing that it was desirable that we should have some point in the South Pacific where our navy in time of need could find shelter and a depot for supplies, and our mercantile marine a place for trade with the surrounding groups of islands, sent Colonel A. B. Steinberger to the Samoan Islands in 1873.1 Steinberger remained among them long enough to make a thorough investigation bearing upon the commercial value of the islands, their harbors, and the facilities for coaling stations for our cruisers. He made his report, which was sent to Congress by President Grant April 21, 1874. The Samoans addressed a letter to President Grant asking that we would aid them in forming a government, praying for our support, and offering annexation to the United States. The President sent Steinberger back to Samoa as American commissioner. He took passage from San Francisco in the flag-ship Pensacola to Honolulu, where he was transferred to the United States ship Tuscarora, Commander Henry Erben. A large quantity of freight in shape of arms, some of the very newest pattern, was also taken on board the Tuscarora. Commander Erben was ordered by the Navy Department under date of 11th January, 1875, to receive Colonel Steinberger, with his clerk, and convey him in the Tuscarora to Samoa, and "to extend to him any facility that you can for the execution of his mission." In March, 1875, the Tuscarora arrived at Apia. Commander Erben informed the chiefs of his arrival, also the object of the visit of Colonel Steinberger, also that he was the bearer of a letter from President Grant to the chiefs. The chiefs appointed April 1 for receiving the United States commissioner. They asked that time be given them to get the petty chiefs together and properly to receive President Grant's sealed letter. Twenty-two days were needed. Before the council adjourned a present was made to the Tuscarora of 450 chickens, 17 pigs, and about a ton of yams

1 While President Grant was looking for a naval station in the South Pacific, he at the same time was having the harbor of Pearl River, near Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, in the North Pacific, examined or surveyed by a commission composed of Major-General J. M. Scho

from San Francisco shortly after the Tuscarora. She had been purchased by Steinberger in San Francisco for his personal use, and a battery of one twentyfour pounder put aboard of her, with the usual number of small-arms. She was sent to the islands of the group to bring up the chiefs to be present at the fono, or reception, on the 22d of April; she also did surveying work about the other harbors of the group.

The days before the fono were spent in daily conventions explaining to the chiefs in council the Constitution; every article was gone over, and they thoroughly understood each. The Samoans are a superior race of aborigines, intelligent, all having been taught by the missionaries to read and write their own language. The Government was based upon the Taimua, seven chiefs chosen by the other chiefs to serve for one year each. A king was elected, Malietoa. This was not done hastily by any means, but mature deliberation was given, and each candidate's fitness fully considered. On the 22d of April Commander Erben with the officers of the Tuscarora attended the council. The sealed letter from President Grant was delivered to King Malietoa, who handed it to Commander Erben to read. A translation was also read by Dr. George A. Turner of the London Missionary Society medical mission. The greatest enthusiasm was manifested. Colonel Steinberger explained to the people the importance of the occasion and the meaning of the articles of the Constitution. The new flag brought out in the Tuscarora was shown, and he proposed that it be adopted as a national emblem. The flag consists of seven stripes, red and white, each representing an island, and a white star in a blue ground, representing the Government island of Upolu. It was adopted by the Government, hoisted in the square, and saluted with twenty-one guns by the ship, and the foreign officials were notified of the adoption of both Constitution and flag. The parade that day was a grand and picturesque affair. Fully eight thousand persons were in line, all dressed in fancy costumes, marching splendidly, each village by itself, preceded by beautiful village maidens dressed in their prettiest feather robes of all colors. The men performed athletic feats and feats of arms, showing their war mafield, United States Army, Major Alexander, United States Engineers, and a naval officer, with the view of our obtaining possession of it and using it as a naval station, with dry dock, etc. [This is the harbor recently ceded to us for such use by treaty with Hawaii.]

nœuvres as they advanced. The Samoans are a fine-looking race, and different from any of the other Pacific islanders. This parade will never be forgotten by those who viewed it. As they passed by, presents to the Tuscarora were deposited before Commander Erben and officers; these, when received on board, amounted to 700 chickens, 70 hogs, and tons of yams and cocoanuts. The cocoanuts were necessary to feed the chickens and hogs, as the chickens would not eat corn. The cocoanut-fed hog furnished a delicate pork for the table. After the parade and ceremonies the foreign consuls and missionaries called on Commander Erben and promised their aid in giving strength to the newly formed Government. In this way the Government of Samoa was inaugurated. The great chiefs remained at Apia for some little time, until a code of laws was made. These were simple in their nature, relating to murder, assault, theft, perjury, revenue and trading, and trespass. The laws regarding liquor selling were well defined, the restrictions being regarded by the liquor sellers as very arbitrary. The Tuscarora remained at Samoa long enough to see everything working smoothly and then sailed for Honolulu. Before leaving, the Taimua of Samoa addressed a letter to Captain Erben and to Colonel Steinberger, and a letter was sent at the same time to President Grant.

In this connection I may state that Mr. William H. Webb, the eminent ship-builder of New York, in 1870 established a line of steamers from San Francisco, via Honolulu, to Australia. Looking about for a place in the South Pacific where his vessels could stop and take coal, he, after a personal inspection, selected the Samoan group as the one offering the best facilities and being nearer the route followed by his ships. He made arrangements with the petty chiefs for a spot to establish a depot and fly the American flag, Pago-Pago being the port selected. Our Government never appreciated the work of Mr. Webb, and that it failed to take advantage of the opportunity of opening up a trade with the South Pacific there is no doubt, but the names of the gentlemen engaged in the enterprise show that the company was formed of San Francisco's most respectable men. That their business would be carried on with greater security and their capital better protected under a settled and recognized Government was a fact well recognized by


The following letters are given here because they do not appear in the printed Government records.


MULINUU, May 12, 1875.


The President of the United States of America. GREAT AND EXCELLENTLY GOOD SIR: We have received from Colonel A. B. Steinberger your very excellent letter, which was written on the 11th December, 1874.

Our joy is very great, and our thankfulness to your Excellency, in that you have been pleased to regard us, and accept our letter and our petition, which was sent to you.

That was indeed a red letter day for us, and all the people of Samoa, on which Colonel Steinberger first gave us your letter and we perused it; and we also again looked upon the person of Colonel Steinberger, who had returned to Samoa then. Thus was our thanks

giving, "the will of God is good"; it is he who has enabled you to regard us, and to appoint him to Samoa to become a source of light in all matters which will give right and solidity to our Government and the laws which have been set up in Samoa. You are aware our weakness and ignorance is very great; our land has not been accustomed to these affairs; it is, as it were, a new thing to us.

Our anxiety was very great during the time that we had not received an answer whether you would accept our wish or not, as also from false stories of vagrants in Samoa. But now these stories are things of the past; we have no longer any doubts; our thoughts are only and Colonel Steinberger, who is the full pledge of your those of thanks and rejoicing because of your letter kindness towards us; on account of this we are now of good courage, and have confidence and also great strength.

All the encouraging words of your letter are very good, to our thinking; we will heed them.

We are very grateful indeed for the present from your Excellency and your Government, the weapons which were brought by Colonel Steinberger to us to strengthen our Government, because, since he reached been hampered in any way; no one has attempted to us and gave us these weapons, our Government has not originate quarrels, as was our foolish custom in days gone by.

Although we are well aware that we can be of no use to you and your Government, it is right for you thus to show friendship to us; but it is on account of your free will to us and our land that you have given us these handsome presents.

We have received from Colonel Steinberger the new flag, which was made for our Government; we deliberated whether we would receive it. We have resolved to accept it gratefully, because it is a very beautiful flag, and we have now adopted it as a sign that our country is one and desirous of establishing a new gov ernment.

We are also very desirous of keeping steadfast our present prosperity, and that by God's will it may not again be interrupted. We are about to commence this year fresh plans, which we hope will give unity to our Government; we are now, in fact, beginning this with Colonel Steinberger.

His zeal is very great in helping us and showing us things that are right and useful.

We shall esteem this gentleman very highly on account of his love and humility and great forbearance, inasmuch as great is our inexperience and slowness of comprehension at present. But he is not disheartened on that account; on the contrary, it is as though our darkness and slowness are the cause of his being more zealous and energetic, by night and by day, to make things plain to us, just as is the true love of a father to his children.

Our pleasure in Colonel Steinberger is still very great, and our prayer to God is that he may be pleased that nothing in his providence may happen to cause his speedy removal from among us, but that he may remain with us in Samoa till his death. Our reason for this is that we are well aware that this gentleman is very useful indeed to our land; through him our Government is for the first time strong and able, as it were, to stand and walk about, so also with all arrangements regarding our laws.

Captain Erben, the commander of the war-ship Tuscarora, has also been with us for some time; the zeal of that gentleman in encouraging us was indeed great; the behavior also of the officers and all his crew were excellent before us and all the Samoan people; all that they did in Samoa was very good indeed.

The words which we have written in this letter are not many, lest you should get weary in reading it; but your letter we shall preserve, that future generations of Samoans may peruse it.

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