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Vol. XIV. No. 26.] LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 24, 1808. [Price 10D.

to a pursuit of the enemy. It is impossi- the part of our troops.

The Honourable C. Stewart is serving as a Brigadier, or a Major, General, in Spain or Portugal, with, of tourse, the pay and allowances of that rank. He is a member of the House of Commons. He is also, according to a Report, printed by order of that House, an Under Secretary of State in the office of the war department, which office is kepe in Downing Street, and, in which latter capacity, he receives two thousand pounds a year. He is a brother of Lord Castlercagi. 961)

[9C2 SUMMARY OF POLITICS.

army, wbich we fought with 17 thousand COURT OP INQUIRY.—Since the arri- men, consisted of 14 thousand, and if the al, and appearance, of Sir Harry Burrard, French had, as they had according to the the objects of loquiry have taken a new Convention-makers' account, 13 thousand shape. This general is accused of having more, besides the Russians, in their rear, prevented Sir Arthur Wellesley from pur- would it not have been madness to have atsuing his victory on the 21st of August ; tempted a pursuit of the 14 thousand, who that is to say, at the close of those proceed- were retiring pon their reserves and their ings, which constituted what has been cal- forts? The enemy was not routed; he led the Victory of Vimiera,

It clearly ap

was in very little confusion ; we took pears, that Sir Harry Burrard was opposed some prisoners, but no standards that I to the advance of our troops, which advance bave yet heard of ; and, from the account led to the battle of that day; and, after the given before the Court of Inquiry, it does battle was put an end to by the retreat of not seeni that much of a victory was, upon the French, he, having thei: landed, and the whole, obtained, though there evidently being upon the spot, was likewise opposed was a good deal of bravery displayed, on

-Thus, as to the ble for the public to be able to determine, conduct of Sir Harry Burrard, it appears to whether this decision was right or wrong, me, that the whole of the case turns upon unless they could come at an authentic the question, of what was the real strength statement of the force of the French. Sir of the French army, or the strength of Arthur Wellesley now says again, that the which our people had information ? Upon whole of the effective force of the French this question will also depend, whether Sir

*as that day evgaged. If so, and, if the Arthur Wellesley was right, or wrong, in roads and distances were as they are descri- advancing upon the 21st of August ; fur, bed in the published evidence; then it cer- if he was aware, that the French had an tainly does appear, that the enemy might, army of 27 or 25 thousand men, it was by a pursuit of them, have been completely evidently faulty, and even criminal in him, defeated ; and, of course, that Sir Harry not to wait for the arrival of Sir John Barrard was the sole cause of preventing Moore's division, which division was, at that obat defeat. We must take it for granted, time, actually landed in Portugal, and which that the roads and distances have been ac- could have been brought to the scene of curately described; but, as to the force of the action in the course of a few days. Nay, enemy, if that force did really consist of upon the iu po ition, that the 14tivusand in 27 or even of 25 thousand ment, as the Con- 6. Kendal Green" were the whole or iba vention-makers would fain have us believe ; French army, and that the 13,000 roglies then the decision of Sir Harry Burrard was " in Buckram" have only been brought in certainly wise ; .fur, in that case, is it at all for the purpose of justifying the Convenprobable, that our army would not have tion; even, upon this supposition, it does not been finally defeated, if not captured in apy ear to me, that Sir Harry Burrard was to great part or in whole, especially as it is ac- blame for wishing to bring up the division of knowledged, on all hands, that the French Sir John Moore previons to an advance were greatly superior to us in cavalry, and against " the Duke of Abrantes in person;" that we could not get on our artillery? Be. be a i e, as the French could, at any time, resides, it now clearly appears, that, though treat towards their forts; as there was no comthere was some confusion in the French army, pelling then to keep the field against 17 any that confusion was by no means general. mre than against 25 thousand of our troop, The retiring corps fonned in good order, not it does not seem to me, that any thing couli only in sighl of our army, but within the have been lost by the delay of a few days, reach of our artillery. Now, if the French while it is quite clear, that much might have

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been gaineil, because no one can fail tos per- coalit have been annibilated by contioving ceive, that a retreat befute 25 thousand ner the pursuit of the 21st of August. Besides, must have been more difficult, than a re- does it not appear from the evidence, that, treat before 17 thousand. But, though al most, supposing the pursuit to have been such a determination, tbe part of attended with all the success, which its Sir Harry Burrard, might have been most strenuous advocates contend for, there wise prerious to the bulile of the 21st was only a part of the French army, of August, it does not follow, that, sup- amounting to about 4 or 5 thousand men, posing the French force to have been thus in- that there was the smallest chance of inJerior to ours, his decision was wise after tercepting on their retreat towards their that battle; because then ail the advantages strong holds ?" What becomes, ther, to be hoped for from greatly superior num- of the pretence, that, after the 21st of bers were given up. So much for the

August," the opportunity was lost ?” The reasoning upon supposition. But, I think,

object of this preience is evident enough. there can be no doubt in the public nrind, Sir Hew, it is clear, is no more than a thit, at the utinost, the French force did

participator wiib Sir Arthur, whom he was not exceed 14 or 15 thousad men ; and to consult, whom he did consult, and with that of this fact our officers were well as- whore concurrence he acted. It is, theresired. How does this rell, then, for the fore, necessary to make it out, that the faul: Convention? What becomes of all the palm lay elsewhere ; and the only way that can be try excuses for suffering the French to go off found out of doing this, and of consbining with their plunder, and with all the honours all she purposes together, is to throw the 'of' war, and to be carried home, and set blame upon him who prevented a pursuit down (ready to march against the Spaniards) on the 21st ; but, unfortunately for this at our expence The cause of this dis- scheme, it must be shown, by those wbo graceful event appears to me to be the de- have invented it, that the army in the forta sign of Wellesley to have to bimself all the was the same, or very nearly, the same honour that was to be achieved, and the de- army, that retreated before our troops the sire' of Sir Harry Burrard to thwart him day before; and this does not suit any in that design. Wellesley hastened to the the persons conceroed in making the conte combat before Sir Harry landed, and vention; of course, it does not suit sis against Sir Harry's expressed opinion, who Arthur Wejlesley, who is in this dilemmas wanted the former to wait for the arrival of either the French had 27 or 25 tharisad Sir John Moore. On the 221. Wellesley

On the 221, Wellesley men, or they had 14 or 15 thousand. I was no longer commander-in-chief. Any the former, Sir Harry Burrard was rigbt is honour gained by capturing the French must wisbing to wait for Sir John Moore, and hive been claiined and enjoyed by another j also in preventing a continuation of the We!lesley's name would have apppeared purevit on the 21st of August: if the latneither at the head nor the tail of the offi

ter, then the Convention, in making wbich çinl papers relating to the event ; and, Sir Arihur Wellesley had his full share, is which was of still more importance, in this deprived of one of the principal facts, view of the matter, bis - Victory of Vi. which have been slated in its justification. " miera" would have sunk into compar. -This clutter about the “ tatal effects ratire insignificance. If not, to a cause of " of preventing the gallant Sir Arthur this sort; to a jealousy somewhere or " from pushing forward on the list" is a other; to what can we ascribe a Conven

ruse de guerre, against which the people tion, such as that of Cintra, made with an

should be upon their guard. Granted that enemys, whose whole force, cominanded he would have pushed on ; granted that by "the Duke of Abrantes in person,' he would have succeeded ; granted that he bad heen obliged to retreat, at least, before would have cut off and captured the 4 one half of the army which we had ready or 5 thousand men, whom he and bis to act on the day when that Convention was friends he could have captared. What signed ?" Oh," say they, “ but, after then ? What would that have done towards the 21st the opportunity was lost." What driving out of the forts, the 27 or 25 thou: opportunity? What opportunity, my good sand men, which they are now said to bave Nabobites? Why, the opportunity of contained ? Evidently nothing. Junot would annihilating the whole of the French have been able to march out, the very next

army.” This is what you said at first ; day, with a force greatly superior to ourse but, you had not then thought of the 13 and consisting chiefly of fresh troops. thousand men in Buckram. At the utmost, And, if we take away this force of Buckram it was only the army in Kendal Green that

mon, away, goes Sir Arthur's chief argue.

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ment in fivour of the Convention. It is, " dictated to thirty thousand Englishmen, therefore, the Convention to which our at. " the terms of the Convention of Cintri, tention is still to be directed. We ought “ which terms caused a tiring of cannon, not to suffer our ininds to be led astray by • and an illuinination in London, under the any of these pretences of " a lost opport- “ direction of those who administered the tunity.". Let it, for argument sake, be government." granted, that Sir Harry Barrard acted un- SPAIN.- -If the French bulletins and wisel; ; let it be granted, that, if he had accounts be true, Baonaparte was at Maacielupon the suggestion of Sir Arthur Wela drid on the 4th instant, and, of course, his lesley, 5 thousand Trenchmen would bave brother has, before now, been crowned in been captured on the 21st ; still, according that city. Madrid is not Spain ; and, upou to the latter's own first account, there would the supposition, that a complete change of bave been but a force, one half, at most, as the-government be intended by those who great as ours to subdue.

The whole question are at the head of aifius in Spain, tha is, after all, a mere question of numbers. country, I hope, will let the invading despot If the French had, as we were first told, see, that his congnest is bardiy yet begun. only the 14 thousand inen, who were en- He will issue procla:vations, as the Duke gaged in the battle of the 21st, then nothing of Brunswick did; but, with men resolved in the world can justify the Convention of to live free, or die, bostile proclamations are Cintra; and, if they had 27, or eren 25 nothing. A correspondent, whose leiter I thousand men, previous to that battle, the insert below, complains of mylukewarmgetting them out of Portugal, except upon

ns to the reverses in Spain, and the condition of retaining their plunder and says he expected from me something more securing indemnity to their partisans, was a 'patriotic."

Now, I have no recollection very meritorious and honourable service, of what I have said, or thought, upon thio. and there is no blame attaches to any of the subject; if I have, upon any occasion, shown' generals; though one cannot very well ex- myself wanting in warmth towards the cuse Sir Arthur Wellesley, whose greediness cause of the Spanish people, whom I refor fame would have led him to continue garded as engaged in a most perilous confict his pursuit of the 21st, while “the Duke against a despot, to whom their former desd'Abrantes " could have come out upon him pot had transferred them. For their own with 13 thousand fresh troops. As to sakes I heartily wished them success and also, the settling of this important question, no for the sake of other nations, wbo, in more proof has been produced, or attempted to be than one way, might be induced to follow produced, that the French bad 27 or 25 their example, as far as that example might thousand soldiers that could possibly have be found to apply to their several situations. been brought into the field ; and, as I have The resistance of the Spaniards to the de. before asked, is it probable ; nay, is it possia clared will of their late masters, and to the lile, that Jurət, who knew that our army was threats and violence of deir new ones, exdaily receiving large reinforeements, would cited in my mind more pleasure, as far as I have met our 17 thousand men, with only 14 know, than I had ever felt at any political Thousand, if he had had 27 or 25 tiousand event. But, ubat bad this to do with a men capable of being brought into the field ? war for that very Ferdinand, by whom they There is not, I think, one man in the bad been abandoned, and by wham they had whole world, who is impudent enough to been, in terms the most earnest, exhorted say, that he believes the athrmative of this to submit to the sovereign sway' of Joseph proposition. It cannot be believed. Of Napoleon ?-Ny correspondent, in comcourse, the public must still see,

as the

plaining, that I am “ continually looking world will always see, that about 12 or 13 " at the abuses of the old government,” asks Thousand Frenchmen, allowing for the losses me, if I am not assured that those abuses of the battle of the 21st of August, ob- “ would be corrected ?" I answer, that, tained from, or rather dictated to, 30 thou- so far from being assured of this, I see no sand Englishmen the terms of the Conven- reason to believe ihe fact, in the case of a tion of Ciotra. Whitewash, plaister, dis- successful war in behalf of the old governgaise the matter howsoever we may ; Con. ment; and, if I had lead no doubts upon the fuse, confound, bewilder, as long as subject before, the proclaination of the please; to this plaiu not-shell statement, il Central Junta, for restraining what is there world, who has no interest in becoming our

called “ the licentiousness of the press," : dupes, will will return ; and this the enemy would have excited such doubts, because, does, and will continue to, throw in ou for reasons which I bure, of late, amply teeth," i Thirteen thousand Frenchmen siaiad, I can see so good motive for restraia

we

needles, but like splinters and fish-hooks ; | ing this kingdom no one can doubt. The it draws no blood, but leaves an aching motives which existed at the rupture of the testering wound; and a wound, too, which peace of Amiens, still exist in all their for is, somehow or other, shy of showing mer force; they have received strength from itself to the doctor. Mr. Cannirg seems time, and especially from recent events. to have been put into so much agony by this Our fleet is, indeed, a mighty tulwark, observation as not to know very well what but, as has been a thousand times observed, he was about; for, the latter part of the there are modes of attack against which a Declaration is, whether as to manner or fleet cannot be brought to bear. Experience matter, any thing, I think, but what it has proved, that our fleet cannot, at all times, ought to be. There is a pitiful hankering prevent the landing of French troops in Ire still after the Emperor of Russia ; there are land. Now is, therefore, the time to erect, blunt attemps at severity; there is a roundla in that country, an inipenetrable barrier ness of assertion that noihing short of proved against the enemy. Tbe means are com. facts could have justified ; and, as to the pletely in our bands. They will cost us Dophraseology, it may, perhaps, be thought a ibing. Only a single act of parliament does compliment to it, to say, that it is equally the business. How many millions. What “ unparallelled" with the usurpation of the freigbts of treasure, what streams of blood, throne of Spain by the Buoriapartes.- might be spared, by an act of parliamen! When parliament meets, we shall, I sup. passed in time! pose, hare all these negociation papers DUKE OF YORK's Income. -In my last before 11s; and, my opinion is, that it was statement, upon this subject, there was, I to soften the effect of Buonaparte's sarcastic ain informed, an important omission. At observation, about the Catholics of Ireland, page 901 of this volume, I stated the sere. that the newspapers were enabled to let it Tal sources of the Duke's income, taking bis leak out beforehand. There is, to be sure, nilitary income at the acknowledged amount, a gross fallacy in the reasoning of that ob- as published in the Nabobs' Gazette, wbich servation ; but, gross as it is, it is a fallacy, statement shewed that, exclusive of the imwhich many will not perceive, and which mense grant of crown, or rather national, will be affected not to be perceived by many lands in Surrey, the total of that incorre, more. And, whose fault is it, that we are paid out of the public purse, was £39,858. exposed to the probable, or, at least, possi- But, I now find, if my information be casa blc, effect of such a dangerous fallacy? rect, as I believe it is, that, to this listina That question may be useless; but, cer- mous sum must be added £7,000 a yea tainly it is not useless to ask, whether all pension, upon the IRISH establishment possible speed ought not now to be used, in The place and pension Report of the Fmane order to remove the ground, whereon it Committee, which, as I observed before, is, rests? Frequently have Napoleon's news- in bulk, equal to the Old and New Testapapers sympathised with the lrish Catholics ; mient, and contains about 300 folio pages, but, this is the first time that he has openly does not, however, contain the places and and officially given us to understand, that pensions upon the Irish establishment, except they are an object of his imperial attention in part, but contents itself with refering ia and solicitude. There is no doubt, bowever, another Report, which ü as laid lrfere par. that ihey long have been such, and that, liament some years ago, and which, of course, if he succeed in bis present enterprise ; it very few of the present members ever saw, he geç safe possession of Spain and Puriugal, or ever will see as long as they live. I will the Irish Catholics will be the next, or nearly endeavour to find out this Report, and when the next people, to whom he will directly, I have so done, I will state ihe fuct, relat and with very little reserve, address him- ing to this additional pension. In the meanin self. This nust be evident to every man of while, I beg the reader to look again ai the common sense ; and, it being evident, the whole of the article begining at page fo7 of question is, whether our goverument will, this volume. while there is yrttime, adop the means, and Butley, Dec. 22, 180s. the only possible means, of preventiog him from obtaining a fair chance of final success;

SPAIN. or whether, we are doomed to keep blunder- Sir,Accustomed to approve and admire ing on to the end of the chapter, under the your writings on most subjects, I cannot but influence of despicable bigotry and more des. read with a mixture of suprize and indiga picable intrigue. That Buonaparte will, as nanion your very lukewarm rena: ks on the jong as he has life, ixver rest until he has late reverses in Spain. It seenus with you tried all the micans in his power of subjugat- a malier of doubt whether we seherly

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regard the success of the French as a circum- / dispate.. To some of them, particularly to stance of regret or not. From you, Sir, a Dr. Thompson, I own myself under consimore patriotic spirit was expected. You are derable obligations, for the satisfaction and continually looking to the abuses in the old pleasure I have received from his writings. government of Spain. Are you not assured And when, from a comparison of dates, these would be reformed ? And if that were I learn that the writer himself was able to not to be the case, is this a time to chill the

confute a now long-exploded" doctrine, blood of patriotism and raise a doubt to several years before I was born, I almost which side we should lend our hearts and feel how unlucky a wight I am to venture aid ? Look at the treniendous power of into the field against so much age, Buonaparte. Is there an object that can many great nantes, such long experience, come in comparison of importance with the and such unquestionable abilities. The diminishing of that power? Can any one Hampshire Brewer appears to me to mistake estimate the extent of his ability to injure the question at issue between us, as all the us as a commercial nation? Independent of experiments he produces either prove what? our sympathy with the brave resisters of his I readily admit, or wliat with me prove no- ! tyranny, our own situation is become most thing to the purpose. When be speaks of alarming. Instead of reflections upon me as reviving the long esploded opinion, an old government, it was expected that as to the inadequacy of a statical test of a

would bave shewn that deal and malt ertract, I can assure him that he is energy (which you have displayed on more entirely mistaken ; and I cannot conceive trivial occasions) to excite and animate the from what part of my paper he has drawn spirit of this country to every practicable such a conclusion. Competent experience mearis of assistance to the patriots.Con

the
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of the instrument vinced that you cannot exert it at a titter for the general purposes of the brewery, but period, I trust I shall yet not be disappoint, it is no reflection on any human invention, ed. Your constant reader, A. Z.-Covent that it is not capable of an application to try, December 13th, 1808.

every purpose. A malt and a molasses exe.

tract are very different; and as the original BREWERIES.

qualities of which they are composed, and SIR,-On the perusal of controversial which they possess in common, are comwritings, we may observe that a general bined in different proportions, they must pertinacity attaches to most of them. We require a different niode of valuation as any, defend a position nerely because we have one quality prevails in the combination. advanced it; and are ingenious in framing Where mucillage prevails, there will be arguments, by which our favourite hypo- an increase of spissitude without an increase thesis may be supported. It was under a of value; and there may be a liquor of full persuasion that there is in the human greater tenuity which possesses more sacchamind a tendency to this sort of obstinacy, rine virtue, and is capable of becoming an that I ventured my remarks on the first pa- article of superiour favour' and vinosity. per of the Hampshire Brewer.

And as we I am not so fortunate as this gentleman in are all desirous of taking credit to ourselves, having a number of learned authorities to for our full share of candour and ingenuous- | quote; but, however, I have one, and that ness, I trust I may be intitled to a presuinp. in itself a bost;-it is the Hampshire Brewer tive credit for my own openness to the full bimself. When he admits that a third part of force of my respondents' arguments, and a a wort of 30lbs. per bariel, is superior to anoreadiness to acknowledge niy conviction, ther of volbs, per barrel, merely because of should they be able to effect it. There can the greater prevalence of mucillage in the be no reason, suthicient to induce an honest latter, does be not by this concession estaman, to persist in error after he is convinced blish that opinion which he is labouring to of it; neither can there be any, for renoun- overthrow, and prove that the instrument, cing an opinion without its being fully con- indicating in both instances an equal gravity, futed. Had the reply of the Hampshire is insufficient to shew their relative value? Brewer been such as to satisfy my mind, it Mr. Martincau's experiments nearly coincide should have been followed by an ample with my own, as to the final gravity which acknowledgement; but I should deem it will appear by the instrument in a separate worse than foliy, 10 admit the force of ar- solution of either malt or sugar; but, I guments, of the illegitimacy of which I think, neither of them sufficient to form am firmly persuaded. That gentleman has

the basis of a decision. From many expeshrouded himselt under the protection of riments which a private friend of mine has names, the greatness of which no one will made on the subject, and which have been

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