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nicate it to me. This" WATCHMAKER" | notes?-The motives that would prompt suche is a man after ny own heart.

a claim are obvious ;-first, the claimant Some peculator, who calis himself “ A would obtain the notes, and secondly, he Harnpshire Man," has written me a letter might secure favour, by producing such an upon the subject of the last Winchester evidence of spontaneous zeal. Such a susmeeting. For the reasons, stated in the picion you would certainly think excusable, beginning of my letter to Mr. Poulter, I were I to name to you four, in particular, of shall not insert this letter ; though I should, the gentry, by whom the application bas. I must confess, be glad to see it published, been actually made.-But the application of particularly in this county, as a specimen of these men, Sir, materially differed from the folly as well as the baseness of those, that which you have made : they required a who stand forward as the champions of cor- private communication; you call for the ruption and peculation.

publication of the notes, and with your Butley, Dec. 15, 1808.

proposition I am entirely disposed to con

cur.--Indeed so fully impressed have ! Major Hogan's APPEAL.

been for some time, with the propriety of SIR,- Respecting as I do the great talents such a proceeding, in order to remove all by which you are distinguished, and still doubt, and to facilitate the detection of more their bold and independent exercise, guilt, that long before your paragraph apa any suggestion from you naturally commands peared, I had written to Major Hogan, my attention. I therefore feel myself urged strongly advising him, first to give the notes to submit a few remarks upon two para- to some charitable institution, and then to, graphs which have lately appeared in your publish the numbers.--But Major Hogan Register, upon the subject of Major Ho having gone to America, some time after gan's Appeal. In the first of these para- the publication of the pamphlet, in order graphs, you require, upon the suggestion of to make arrangements of property with his a friend, that Major Hogan should publish brother, who is one of the first merchants , the numbers of the notes, which your in the United States; the Major's agent must, friend alleges may in that case be traced wait for his acquiescence, before your pro with facility, and in your second paragraph, position can be complied with. - The Mas: you state, that, “ if the Major does this, the jor assured me, that he would return to Eng.

public will believe the account concerning land by February or March ; before that " the notes to be true ; if he does not, they period, however, I have reason to hope for

will, with very great reason, believe it to his answer to my request.-His compliance “ be a most atrocious falsehood." If this story will, I assure you, afford me much satisbe really false, Sir, I agree with you, as to its faction, alıhough I do not feel myself in atrocity, nay, I should consider even the the slightest degree implicated, in any part term atrocily as too feeble to describe its of the transaction, having received the eharacter.—But if it be true, Mr. Cobbelt, whole of the statement froin Major Hogan, in what terms of reprobation would you and taking it entirely upon his faith and credescribe all the hireling scribblers, and scur- dit, which I have no reason whatever to rilous slanderers, all the newspapers, pam

doubt, as I do not tind the authenticity of phlets, magazines, and reviews, which bove, any of the documents referred to in that for the last two months, teemed with such publication, bas ever been questioned. vulgar venom against the reputation of Ma- Upon this affair of the bank notes, I must, jor Hogan --This gallant officer's Appeal Mr. Cobbelt, take leave to say, that I am by bad not been long before the world, when no means disposed to adopt the doubts, several persons applied to know the numbers which seem to exist, as to the probability of of the votes. But how simple must those such an event ; for I can easily suppose, who made the application have been, or how that a womau of fashion and intrigue might simple must they have conceived the person have quite sufficient motives for doing to whom they addressed it, in supposing what is, by - Major Hogan, stated to that it would' or could be safely complied have been done by the person in question. with, while the agent of Major Hogan stood - One of the pamphleteers asks with pledged to give up the notes to any person some air of triumph, what could have who could state ibeir numbers. For, if the “ taken any person to a newspaper office, application had been acceded to, what se, “ to inquire atier Major Hogan's address, curity existed that some callous swindler “ which could be so easily known, by ap. would not avail himself of the information " plication at the Horse Guards?"-But the and immediately stand forward to claim the Major, having, some weeks before resigned

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his coir mission, nothing about his address MAJOR CARTWRIGHT, ON THE AFFAIRS was known at the Horse Guards.-Another

OF SPAIN. pamphleteer a-ks, why apply at a newspaper Sir, -The Proclamation from Aranjuez, <ffice, when the name of a bookseller ap- bearing date the 26th of October, and pub. peared ? But the fact is, that no bookseller's lished in the '“ Times” of the 3d of this name appeared to the first advertisement, instant, fully justifies the couclusions drawn which was published in August.

in my letier, inserted in your Register of Now, Sir, as to the facility of tracing the the 29th of October, touching the patriotic notes, I raiher think your friend bas been views of the supreme junta; but if virrue too sanguine. To satisfy you of that, I need herself be too slow in her movements, cononly refer to the case of Lord Melville, sequences the most fatal may ensue. As the where a committee of the House of Com. salvation of Spain depended on the people mons, invested with powers, to send for being made politically free, and being armpersons, papers, and records, found it ex- ed, these were points on which there ought iremely difficult to trace any of the notes, not to have been a moment's hesitation. and were entirely unable to trace some The very first resolution of the supreme jonta, Then, Sir, if, with the means which that and while the oath of fidelity was warm upos committee possessed, obstacles arose, how their lips, ought to have been, that a pationcan it be so confidently stated, that it is in al corles, equally representing the people

, the power of any individual, or even of the and annually elected by all who contribute directors of the Bank of England, to trace to the taxes, should as soon as possible be the notes, alluded to in Major Hogan's Ap- assembled ; and that all the able-bodied of peal.-It must be obvious, that any indi- the whole community should be instantly vidual may refuse to answer the application trained for war, and furnished with arms as of the person or persons endeavouring to expeditiously as they could be procured; and trace such notes, and the probability of a to these objects the whole energies of the refusal to answer, where the answer might junta ought, in the first instance, to have betray a party, making an improper appli- been directed. cation of such notes, is so strong, that I al- These being the principles I have uniform. ways heard with surprise, have the confident ly inculcated, they cannot, now that disas. language of those,' who talked so much ters have been experienced, be called after about the facility of tracing these notes. thoughts; and I could appeal to a Spansk After all, Mr. Cobbett, let us argue this nobleman, for having, in a letter dated so matter as we may, it must resolve itself into far back as the 21st of June, expressed an a question of faith, and then you are to auxiety for seeing “ the English force with consider, whether you will attach credit to " the best of the Spanish in the service of the words of Major Hogan, recommended “ their country, in the Pyrennees."—What as he is, to your respect, by some of the have been in both countries the causes of de first military characters in the country, or lay, and what may be the fatal consequences, whether you will attend to the mere doubts, are objects worthy investigation ; because a surmises, and conjectures, of sycophants knowledge of thein might be highly instructin office, and anonymous libellers.-- ive. No time, however, ought to be last Here let me conclude, Sir, with the repe. in attempting to retrieve past errors; and, tition of your own words, iliat “ the atlair from the heroism and constancy of the Spa" of the Bank notes has no connection with vish character, much may be hoped for. If “ Major Hogan's case, which closes before the mind of Spain be noi subdued, the farm " this affair occurs."-But the motives ther the enemy leads his columns into the which urge that meritorious officer's assail. country, the sooner perbaps be may be deauts, to dwell so much upon this affair, are stroyed. I say perhaps ; for, koowing very quite obvious. The case of Major Hogan Jittle of actual circumstances, I cannot judge is found impregnable, because the grounds what is likely to be the event. We bave

, of bis complaint are undeniable, and there. however, seen the confidence with waich fore, it is thought expedient, by his foes, Buonaparte has undertaken the conquest of to fix the public attention as much as possible, the Peninsula, at a time when the whole upon the business of the Bank notes, be- people were apparently hostile, and when cause it affords sone opportunity for cavil. every hand that had a weapon would be raisJing.

ed against him. If, under such circumTHE PUBLISHER OF MAJOR stances, we should see that Peninsula actually

Hogan's APPEAL. subdued, the event must give birth to two December 6, 1808.

reflections, on which we cannot ponder with

too much or too serious attention. First, | for mocking the nation with a species of trithat all the combinations of political and bunal which has all the qualities of a packed military powers, applicable to invasion and jury, and no one attribute of a court of jus. offensive war, have, in the French govern- tice or equity; and the great rival parties in ment, attained a degree of perfection far ex- the state inay still think it a season, for face ceeding even those of Rome, and consequent- tiously contending with each other for power; ly whatever was before experienced among but ought not all parties, and all descriptions mankind ; and that, for resisting the attacks of men, rather to consider how long it may of such an invader, nothing is to be depende be, before we ourselves may have to contend ed on, short of the best combinations of po- with that invader, under whose prowess malitical and military power which are applica- ny are of opinion Spain and Portugal must ble to defence. Secondly, that that national sink? disease, of which inveterate despotism and Should such an event take place, it habitual slavery are the indications, so breaks would need not the spirit of prophecy to down and destroys the constitution, the ener- foretel, that nought but reformis, civil gies, and the very means and capacities, of and military, completely restoring 10 us a state, that the mere dissolution of its de- those best combinations which are applicnble testable government is by no means a resto- to defence, could save the throne, or governration of health and vigour. According to ment of our country. But when those com, circumstances, its recovery must be a work binations are at the same time the very esof time of greater or less duration; as ge. sence of our constitution, which, in the nius and virtue have more or less the ascend. strictest sense, is a constitution of liberty ant; and as the true spirit of liberty shall be and arms, were it not ihe first duty, of more or less aroused and cherished.

king, ministers, parliament, and people, to It was at an early period of the struggle, restore w haiever is in decay, and with one and in my first public letter on Spanish af- heart and one soul build up again the dilapifairs, written on the 15th, and inserted in dated parts of our constitution, and rear your Register of July, the 23d, that I used again the fallen parts of our liberties, yet, this language :-'! If she fail in the attempt, as mere matter of the most vulgar prudence, “ it can only be, because she reformed and it should seem advisable, not to neglect these " armed too late; AND IF she Fall, we things until the Iberiun peninsulu may like

KNOW WHOSE HARNESS, FOR THE FINAL come French, until the marine of France may CONFLICT, MUST BE NEXT BUCKLED ON." double our own, and until the armies of After just remarking, in confirmation of my France may be in Ireland or in England. second reflection, that eight months have now But Mr. Miles, in his letter to the Prince elapsed since the worn-out government of of “ Spain was annibilated; and four months

his suspending the constitution," which prosiace the French power in the country was ject he attributes to one of whom he says, in effect broken by the capture of Dupont's " the natural despotism of his temper is army; which ought to have led to an early "s well known, and it has lost nothing of contest in the very passes of the Pyrennees, “ its stern and inflexible ferocity by a resiwe in England ought not to lose a moment " dence in Asia, where it has been most in effecting those reforms in our own govern. wofully felt." The reason which the ment which, by equally restoring to health person alluded to is said to have given for and vigour both the civil and military branch- 1 bis advice, is this, that the power of Buoes of our constitution, „shall once more give naparte can only be effectually resisted by us those best combinations of political and a power as despotic as his own. But there military power which are applicabile lo de- are some objections to this conclusion. First, fence.

in the most effective combinations of poAn attorney-general may think it a right į litical and military power, for offence and season for proposing a statute, abridging the for defence, they are radical differences of rights of liberty and adding to the severities principle. Secondly, neither of the bumof law; a court of King's Bench may think bled emperors, por the king of Prussia, it a right season for acting upon most ques- were at all deficient in despotic power. And, tionable precedents, in committing, for of- thirdly, if despotism is to be our defepces in Middlesex, the convicted persons feuce against despotism, we may as well to distant gaols, thereby grievously and ca- submit at once to that of Buonaparte himself, lamitously adding to the evils of legal impri- as that of the adviser, or any other. Nay, sonment, and causing to the parties a heavy , it would be more creditable as well as more expence, althongh fine made no part of the beneficial : more creditable, because there is sentence ; ministers may think it a season less discredit in submitting to a mighty con.

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queror, than to any traitorous usurper of chief, in not always selecting proper men contemptible pretensions; and more bene- for command, that parliamentary influence ficial, as we should not only be spared the must be yielded to. Here, is the bane of havoc and bloodshed of a contest, but, when our affairs! Here is the canker-worm prey. once slaves, should at least be governed withing on the vitals of the state! This, Sir, transcendant ability.

is the accursed thing" we must “ take As I am not, however, likely ever to be- away," or in the day of trial “ we cancome a convert to the preachers of despotism,

stand before our enemies.'' so I must niyself continue a preacher of it remain, Sir, &c.-J. CARTWRIGHT, REFORM.

Enfield, Dec. 12th, 1sos. I have remarked, that in the combinations for invasion and for defence, there is

OFFICIAL PAPERS, a radical difference. But this requires ex. ENGLAND AND France.-King of Eng. planation and qualification In the present land's Declaration against France. Daled state of society, standing, regular, and Westminster, Dec. 15, 1808. highly disciplined armies, are best for in- The overtures made to his majesty by vision and conquest ; but it is only in des. the governments of Russia and of France potic states that such armies can arrive at the have not led to negociation : and the magnitude necessary for subduing extensive intercourse to which those overtures gave and potent states ; for so long as any nation rise being terminated, his majesty thinks it retains iis liberty, its standing army must right thus promptly and publicly to make necessarily be limited in its numbers for the known its iermination. The continued ap. security of that liberty. A free nation, pearance of a negotiation, when peace bas therefore, in these days of civilization, is, been found to be utterly unattainable, could happily, unqualified for the conquest of be advantageous only to the enemy.other powerful nations. In the rude and might enable France io sow distrust and jea. ferocious ages prior to civilization it was lousy in the councils of those who are comotherwise ; for then the nations most free bined to resist her oppressions : and if, were most warlike; and countries among the nations which groan under the not conquered by standing armies, disci- tyranny of French alliance, or among those pline, and military science, but by whole which maintain against France a doubtful nations of free men pouring into a territory and precarious independence, there should more fruitful than their own, and exiermi- be any which even now are balancing teDating or subduing nations less free, fierce, tween the certain ruin of a prolonged joand hardy than themselves. My positions activity, and the contingent dangers of an therefore remain unsbaken, that in our effort to save theinselves from that ruin ; 10 own age despotism, with its unlimited stand- nations so situated the delusive prospect of ing armies, are the machinery for invasion ; a peace between Great Britain and France while liberty and the universal arms-learing could not fail to be peculiarly injurious. of the people, are the means of defence; Their preparations might be relaxed by the always recollecting, that the more universal vain hope of returning tranquillity; or their that armis-bearing of the people, the greater purpose shaken by the apprehension of bemay be with safety the regular army of the ing left to contend alone. That such was, country in question.


in fact, the main object of France in the Nor, Sir, is reform, radical reform, only proposals transmitted to his majesty from necessary to our political liberty, and to the Erfurth, bis majesty entertained a strong preservation of our property from taxation persuasion.-But at a moment when results at the will and pleasure of a minister, for so awful from their importance, and so trecorrupting parliamentary supporters, and mendous from their uncertainty, might be for enlisting an immense army of civil depending upon the decision of peace or mercenaries for the support of his power, war, the king felt it due to himself to ascer. to be paid out of the pockets of the be- tain, beyond the possibility of doubt, the trayed and injured people; but it is necessary views and intentions of his enemies. It for restoring discipline aud vigour to every was difficult for his majesty to believe, that department of the state; that our affairs the emperor of Russia had devoted himself abroad as well as at home may not be con- so blindly and fatally to the violence and ducted with imbecility, and our national, ambition of the power with which his imefforts end in disappointment, and cover us perial majesty had unfortunately become with disgrace. In.“ A Short English Tale," allied, as to be prepared openly to abet written in answer to Major Hogan, it is the usurpation of the Spanish monarchy; made an apology for the commanders-in- and to acknowledge and maintain the riglu

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assumed by France, to depoše and imprison | majesty, nor the generosity of the British friendly sovereigns, and forcibly to transfer nation, would admit bis majesty's consentto herself the allegiance of independent ! ing to commence a negotiation, by the nations. When therefore it was proposed abandonment of a brave and loyal people, to his majesty to enter into negociation for who are contending for the preservation of a general peace, in concert with his majesty's | all that is dear to man; and whose exertions allies, and to treat either on the basis of the in a cause so unquestionably just, his maUii Pussidetis (heretofore the subject of so jesty has solemnly pledged himself to suse much controversy), or on any other basis,

tain. consistent with justice, bonour, and equally, his majesty determined to meet this seeming SPANISH RevolutioN.- Forst Bulletin of fairness and moderation, with fairness and ! the French Army of Spain, datert Vittoria, moderation, on his majesty's pari, real and Nov.9, 1908. (Continued from p. 928.) sincere.—The king professed his readiness The marshal duke of Danizic advanced to enter into such negotiation in concurrence against them, and broke through their centre. with his allies ; and undertook foru with. The 58th and 32d regiments distinguished to communicate to them the proposals which themselves upon this occasion. Had these his majesty had received. But as his events occurred in the plains, not a man of the majesty was not connected with Spain by a enemy would have escaped; but the mountains formal treaty of alliance, his majesty of St. Andero avd Bilboa are almost impassathought it necessary to declare, that the en- i ble. The duke of Dantzic pursued thefoe dura gagements which he had contracted, in the ing the whole of the day in the passes of Valface of the world, with that nation), were i maseda. -In these various affairs, the enemy considered by his majesty as no less sacred, I have lost, in kille land wour ded, from 3500 10 and no less binding upon his majesty, than 4000 men.-The duke of Dantzic particularthe most solemn treaties; and to expressly praises the generals of division Laval and bis majesty's just cortidence that she govern. Sebastiani, the Dutch general Chassey, coment of Spain, acting in the name of his lonel Lacoste, of the 27th regiinent of light catholic majesty Ferdinand VII, was un infantry, colonel Baco, of the 63d regiment derstood to be a party of the regotiation.- of the line, and the colonels of the regiments The reply returned by Frasee in this pro. of Baden and Nassau, upon whom his maposition i? bis majesiv casts off at once jesty has conferred rewards. The army is the thin disguise, which had been assumed ' abundantly supplied with provisions, and the for a momentary purpose; and displays, weather is very tine. Our columns are with less than ordinary reserve, the arro- marching forward, and combining their gance and injustice of that government. movements. It is supposed that the heade The universal Spanish pation is described quarters will move forward to-night froni by the degrading appellation of “the Spanish Vittoria. ci Insurgents;

and the demand for the ad- Second Bulletin of the French Army of Spain, mission of the government of Spain as a

daled Burgos, Nov. 12. party to any negotiation, is rejected as in. The duke of Danizic entered Valmaseda, admissible and insulting.-- With astonish- in pursuit of the foe.- On the 8th, general ment as well as with grief his majesty has Sebastiani discovered the rear-guard of the received from the enperor of Russia a insurgents posted upon a high bill to the reply, similar in effect, although less in- right vi Valmaseda : be immediately advancdecorous in tone and manner. The empe- ed against them, defeated them, and took for of Russia also stigmatizes as “insure about 100 of them prisoners - In the mean* rection," the glorious efforts of the time, the city of Burgos was occupied by Spavith people in behalf of their legitimate the army of Estremadura, consisting of three sovereign, and in defence of the indepen. | divisions. The advanced guard was comdence of their country; thus giving the posed of Walloons and Spanish guards; and sanction of his imperial majesty's authori. The students of the universities of Salamanca ty to an usurpation which has no parallel in and Leon, divided into several battalions, the history of the world. The king would and some reginents of the line, with other readily have embraced an opportuniy of ne- corps raised since the insurrection of Bada-gotiation, which might have afforded any hope jos, made the whole of the army amount . or prospect of a peace, compatible with to little short of 20,000 men. The command justice and with honour. His majesty of the cavalry of the army was given to mardeeply laments an issue, by which the suf. shal the duke of Istria ; and the emperor ferings of Europe are aggravated and pro- contided the command of the second corps longed. But neider the honour of his to marshal the duke of Dalmatia --Ou che

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