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Wellesley, respecting his PROTEST, were thing without consulting Sir Arthur Wellesdownright lies. All the stories, which came ler. More was meant than met the ear, in before the public (as relating to this Protest) this case, and that Sir Hew would clearly in the shape of letters from officers of higi. perceive. What a man must be made of, 10 rank and reputation in the army;" all the accept of a command on such conditions, I numerous extracts of this sort; all the asser- will leave the reader to say ; but, the fact tions about Sir Arthur Wellesley being forty clearly enough is, ihat it was meant, that miles distant from the scene of negociation ; Sir Aruar Wellesley, who was the seventh all, all and every one of these as.errions, are in command; who had six senior officers now, from Sir Arthur's, from the reported orer him, should, in reality be the Comprotestor's, own lips, proved to be lies. mander-in-Chief; that his should be all the Observe, as connected with this point, an praise that might become doe; his all the assertion of Sir Hew Dalrymple : chata pa. renowo ; and, as far as saving appearances per, from England, was actually circulated would permit, his all the reward, of every in the army, to the same, or nearly the same, sort.. Accordingly, it is said, and I have it purport with these now-acknowledged lies. trorono bad auti rity, that the head of the Sir Arthur Wellesley denies having had any high family is cttended, that Sir Arthur is hand in the promulgation of either; but, as out created l'iscount Vimeira! To this my correspondent, R. L. in a late number, conduct, on the part of the ministers, and of very pertinently asks, why did not Sir Ar- Lord Castlereasb in particular; this creating thur, who " came home on leave of absence" of an unnatural sway, a confusion and conso long before Sir Hew was " recalled ;" Hict of authoriries, where nominal rank was why did not Sir Arthur, give a contradiction set in opposition to confidential trust; to this to these atrocious calumnies against his ab- unwarran'able partiality ; this poisonous insent Commander-in-Chief, especially as the fluence at home, no small part of the indelievident and necessary tendency of them was, ble disgrace, and of all its consequent mise to exculpate himself at the expenie of that chiefs, may, probably, be attributed; and, absent commander ? No: it may be, that all other points apart, the baring instructed he had, himself, no hand in batching, or a Commander-in-Chief to be, in fact, roled in promulgating, those njalignant lies; but, by an interior officer, being the seventh in I may venture to leave any man of sound command, is not only a fair, but necessary moral principles to judge, how far, under subject of parliamentary inquiry; for, a such circumstances, to wink at such lies of two things must be: eiiher the not makes him an accomplice with those, by nal Commander-in-Chief was, by the wi. whom they were hatched and promulgated. nisters, throught incapable of that post, Had I been in the place of Sir Arthur Wel. or le was, without any necessity, insulted lesley, I should, I hope, upon landing at and disgraced trom motives of favouritism Plymouth, and upon finding how things towards another. The next point, mesiood at home, instantly, before I got into riing the notice of the public, is, that it my chaise; before I saw the face of ihe mi- 1804 .ppears, from the statement of Sir Hew nisters; hare taken care to send to the most Dalrymple, that the whole of the documents, rapid and most extensive cbannels of circula- reaning to the disgraceful Convention, were tion, a declaration of iny opinion, !! itsmitted to Lord Castlereagh in the French " the Convention was a wise measure ; but, lan: tige. Men of spirit; men who had felt, mense that, at any rale, whatever degree of as ibey ought to have felt, apon such an oc" blame it merited, a full share of it was Cerion; men, who bad had a proper notion " nine, I having assisied at the negociation, of u bat honour required, and u bo had had Si the Commander-in-Chief having done no. the wisdom to perceive the great effect,

thing of importance without my advice which, in certain cases, is produced by ap. cs and concurrence, and I, so far from pro- parently trifling causes ; such men would “ testing against the Armistice, having n.ost not, in the face, and under the very noses,

heartily approved of it.” It appears to of the Portuguese pation, have put their me, that this is what I should have done. I hands to any document in the French Ing. think, I could not bave slept an hour, 'till I guage, though, after acknowledging the had done this. It is certainly what honour, legiuimacy of the title of the " Duc truth, and justice demanded; and it ceilain- d'Alrurites," and of the Emperor Naly is what was not done - The next point poleon I."' this is hardly worth notice. worth particularly attending to is this: that, So it was, however; the documents were it now appears, liom a document, produced not only drawn up, and signed, in the French by Sir Hew Dalrymple, that he, by the in- language; but, in that language they were struction of Lord Casilę.cagl, was to do 20- all sent home to Lord Castlereagh.' Now,

16 that

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then, let that Lord explain to an abused approving letters and addresses are some. and most grossly insulted nation, how, for times, and particularly in cases of emerwhat reasons, from what motives, he came gency, obtained, to lay much stress upon to cause the Armistice, the only document such documents; and, we know, that, in sigued by Sir Arthur Wellesley, to be pub- the present case, there existed, as to the Jished to the people of England in the French disapprobation, no undue influence at all; language only, while all the other documents and that the Portuguese, whether right or were published in the English language only. wrong in their opinions, had no temptation, From the first, this was a great point with when they first heard of the Convention, to nie; because, until this distinction appeared, say what they did not think.-We now there was no reason, that I could perceive, come to the wonderfully magnified numlers of suspec:ing the ministers of a disposition of the French army. It has been stated, to do any thing that was wrong, or unfair. it appears, before the Court of Inquiry, From this distinction, I did begin to suspect that the number embarked amounted to unfair intentions, Yet, until now, there twenty-five thousand men. It is not averred, might be a doubi; because, until now, we that these were all soldiers ; that they were were not quite certain, that all the docu- all persons bearing arms, or capable of beare mients erme nome in the same language. | ing arms; but, as the public must have Now we are certain as to that fact; and, observed, and with no small degree of Ibere can be, I think, but very little differ- surprize and indignation, all the generals, ence of opinion as to the motive, whence all and others, who have been called upon to the other documents were traslated for pub. state their opinions as to the expediency of lication, while that one, that one which the Convention, have reasoned upon this alone bore the name of Sir Arthur Welles. fact, relating to numbers, as if all the ley, was published in French.---The next persons embarked were actually so many thing, towards which the public should, incapable of being brought into the field of my opinion, direct their attention, is the battle. Now, if this were so, is it prostatement of Sir Hew Dalrymple, accom- bable, that Junot would, in the first inpanied with documents to prove, that, after stance, have met Sir Arthur Wellesley with a few days' consideration, the Portuguese no greater a force than fourteen thousand expressed their pleasure at, and their grati- men? Is this probable ? And, then, when tude for, the Convention ; thoughi, at first, he actually negociated, he had, if this new they had loudly condemned it; whence it is edition of numbers could be believed, more meant, that we should draw an inference fighting men than our arnıy consisted of, favourable to that measure, which bas, in even after the arrival of Sir Hew Dalrymple this country, been so decidedly and so gene- and Sir Harry Burrard. Nay, when Sir rally condemned.

But, Sir Hew Dalrymple, John Moore arrived, and he did not arrive betore he prevails upou me to adopt this in- till after the Armistice was signed, our ference, must show me, that this change of whole army, even then, amounted to only language proceeded from some new lights, one-sixth more than that of the “ Duc which ihe Portuguese had received upon the o d'Abrantes " is now made to amount to, subject ; he must let me see the rounds of he having all the fortresses and strong holds their change of opinion; he must convince and positions, not only at his command, but me that their reasoning was correct; and, in his possession. I appeal to the sense and above all things, he must convince me, that judgment of the reader, whether Junot the persons, who had, at first, expressed would have dared to make an offer of op:nions hostile to the Conventios, were evacuation under such circumstances ? So Nüt hinder the smallest apprehension, that a

much as to the reason of the case ; but, Commation of that hostility might be at- Sir Arthur Wellesley, in his dispatch, told Anderd will disagreeable consegnences to

us, that he defeated "the WHOLE of the themselves. I remember an English House French force, commanded by the Duke ruf Commons, who, on one day, by an al- of Abrantes in person ;" and, indeed, that anust wavinious vole, did, upon a motion the whole, or very nearly the whole, of ihe of the nyinister (Mr. Addington) decide in effective force was that day in the field, there the atsirmative relaung to a certain tax; and can be very little doubi. It is barefaced who, when, on the morrow, the same mi- bypocrivy to attect to believe, that Junot, mister, proposed to negative that same pro

who had so much time for preparation ; position, did, without any division, or op- who had the choice of time as well as of position at all, give their role in the said place; whom it so evidently behoved to have negative. We, who were not born yester- driven our first-advancing battalions into day, know too much of the means, by which the sea; who had received a check on the

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day before ; and who had all his means at question ; but, I have not yet beard it put by bis back and completely at bis command : any of the great captains, now sitting in the it is barefaced hypocricy to affect to believe, Court at Chelsea. The truth is, ibat our gethat such a Commander, so situated, would nerals appear to have eyes wonderfully adaptmarch to the attack of superior numbers ed to the discovering of difficulties and obleaving nearly half of his efficient force structions. We have often been amused in a state of inactivity. Besides, the reader with descriptions of the miserable state of will not fail to bear in mind, that, when the Frencle armies ; the shoe-less, hat-less, the news of the Convontion first reached shirt-less state of the “ wretched conscripts, England, it was asserted, by the friends of " whom Napoleon leads to battle in chains." Sir Arthur Wellesley, that "if he had not But, somehow or other, these wretches do “ been prevented from following up bis fight and get on. They feed on the air, pervictory of the 21st, the WHOLE French haps ; but, certain it is, that they live; they army must inevitably have been destroy- find something to eat and to drink. Alas!

Now, either this was a falsehood; Buonaparte has generals, who can shift, for it was, from beginning to end, a lie, in- a while at least, without port wine and fea. vented for the purpose of raising Sir Ar- ther-beds; and he has, of course, soldiers thur Wellesley in the public estimatiou, at who follow their example. To hear the the expence of Sir Harry Burrard's reputa- miserable excuses of a scarcity of provisions, tion ; either this was a foul and malignant want of horses and carriages, want of canlie; or, it is not true that Junot ever bad, non, and the like, is truly deplorable, at a after ll- landing of any part of our army, time when we have just bven witnessing the twenty-five thousand effective men under campaigns in Austria, Moravia, and Poland; his command. It is curious to observe, how campaigns, at one half of the battles of tbis French army is raised, or lowered, as which, in the midst of winter, Frenchmen, the purposes demand. They were nothing, bred up under a southern climate, fought up uben the purpose was to persúade the pub. to their knees in ice and snow, at the end lic, that Sir Harry Burrard was guilty of of a march, which had left them scarcely a the crime of preventing Sir Arthur Welles- shoe to their foot, and in which hardship ley from putting an end to them ; die the officers had shared with the men i

stroying the whole of them," after the this is to be our manner of making war; manner of Captain Bobadil ; but, now, if to go into the field of battle, we must wien the purpose is to defend the Conven- have our English luxuries, let us, in the tivu, it being no longer to be denied, that name of common sense, give up the thing Sir Arthur Wellesley bad a principal share in at once; withdraw from the contest; stay making that instrument; now, the French at home in ale-houses and barracks; keep army was very numerous

, nearly twice as guard over the prisoners taken by ihe skil strong as the army with which Sir Arthur and valour of the navy; and no longer ex, beat ibern. It is; it is, say what they will, pose ourselves to the scorn and derision of the old story of the Buckram Men revived. the world. These are the points, wbich, -The reader will see, that, at Chelsea, as far as the proceedings have hitherto gone there is great stress laid upon the state of the and been published, have chiefly attracted army's provisions. Provisions, we are told, my attentical. Out of the circumstances of were not to be got on shore, io Portugal, Sir Arthur Wellesley's command, however, and those, which we had on board, it there arises a question or two, which are was ditficult to land. I have asked this worihy of great attention. Whether this question before, but I will ask again : officer received the usual sum given to comhow did ite" Duc d'Abrantes ; " how did manders of expeditions for their our-tit, 10 Wellesley's Tartar Duke ; how did he ob- gerber with the staff-pay and enormous altain provisions ? He had, they now tell us, lowance of a lieutenant general commandtwenty-five thousand men; he bad long ing in chiel, including bat and forage mobad them there ; he had had no cummuni- ney, which Jast alone would, I imagine, cation with the sea ; he liad even the Rus- amount to, at least, five hundred pounds gian teet to feed, besides his own army. There is, too, it has been publicly stated, How did he, who had all the people for another general, employed opon the stafi of enemies; how did he obtain his supplies of the same aniny; I mean the irother of Lord provisions, in this sad barreu country, and Castlereagh, who, along with the pay Not only enough for the time being, but emolumentis of a major general, l'ul and faenough to borde up stores for the long linger- rage money, &c. &c. receives pay, agreea: ing ziege, which our heroes apprehended; bly to the report laid before the Honse of Jam in sibulation for an answer lo this Commons, as an under secretary of state

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should, at a moment like this, be, as the will not be less than Dey now are. Morning Post states, necessary to "cury We were told, that the Americans could " the refractory disposition of certain class. siarve the West India Islands. Those Is"es of she Portuguese," is, indeed, matter lands were, perhaps, never much better for serious reflection ; for, in the first place, supplied from America than they now are, the "refractory" must, if this necessity do and have been ever since the embargo was really exist, be the mo:t powerful part of the laia. The town of Halifax, in Nova Scotia, nation; otherwise, they might be "curbed is become a grand depository for Ameriby the part, who are not refractory. Then, can produce, whence it is shipped to what is the mark of this refractoriness? Is the West Indies. And, in fact, all that it a disposition favourable to the French ? Mr. Jeiterson and his bitter set have Is it a spirit of hostility to the Prince Regent done, with a view of injuring England, bas or the old government? Or is it a dislike 10 had no other effect than that of injuring his the English authority? One or the other foolish constituents. of these, I think, it must be. If the latter, CORN AGAINST SUGAR.The effect of it is quite evident that to withdraw our troops the American Einbargo puts one in mind of and our authority is the only effecial way the alarm of the Barley-Growers," who of removing the necessity of keeping troops are now selling at from 50 to 60 shillings a locked up in Portugal; and, if either of the quarter that corn, which they were afraid former, it would, I think, puzzle the Morn- would sink below 37 shillings a quarter ; and iog Post to assign any probable good that who, upon seeing the ports in the Baltic will arise from keeping them there. To and in America closed against us, cherish, or defend, a people against their will, seized with a dread, that we should be is a most difficult as well as a most ungrateful starved in consequence of being able to contask. It is a task, which, froin the nature of vert into bre:d 300,000 quarters a year of things, can never be attended with success. that corn of our own growth, which wo

-Is it not a strange thing, that, amongst formerly employed in making spirituous all the numerous nations, who bave been liquors! I defy all the world, the readers subdued and plundered by the French, there of the Morning Pust not excepted, to prohas never yet appeared one, that has demon- duce me au instance of folly equal to this. strated any great degree of anxiety for the Mr. Wakefield denied me the privilege of return of their former rulers ? Some few | judging upon such a subject, because I was have fought a little to keep the French out ; not a practical farmer. Just as if it was but, when once in, there is scarcely any necessary for a man to be a good hand at people that have discovered any very strong ploughing and sowing, in order to be certain wish to get them out again. Who would that 309,000 quarters of bread corn would not have supposed, that the people of Por- add to the food of the nation. It was a tugal, for instance, would have been half question of such plain common sense, that, mad with joy at their « deliverance?" to come to a right decision, their required Who would not have expected to see them neither experience nor reason. Barley must vie with each other in eagerness to obtain a

now be de

till next barvest; so that, at return of the ancient order of things ? Who any rate, there is one year for the Barleywould have imagined it likely to be neces- Growers, free of that mischief, which they sary for us to keep ten thousand men in the really did, or affected to, anticipate. country, “ to carb the refractory disposition " of certain classes ” of a people, just de

* A letter from LORD Anson to the livered from the grasp of the French, and Freeholders of Staffordshire is inserted, berestored to the rule of the representatives of cause it is right that my readers, who have their “ beloved sovereign"? I should like seen the letter of A. B. should see, that that to hear the sapient editor of the Morning

nobleman had it not in his power to be prePost explain this political phenomenon ; for sent at the county meeting. it is a matter of vast importance with all The Income of the Duke of York I do those who study the science of government. not state this week, because my intention

AMERICAN States ------The election of is to publish, along with it, the whole of the new President and Vice President, which the act of parliament, granting him the eshas taken place before now, will, it is tate in Surrey, and which is too long to be thought, terminate in favour of the Jeffer- inserted, except in a double number. son party, and in the election of MR. MA- Major Hogan does not answer my redison to the office of president. If so, the quest. I have a letter before me, saying, embargo will, probably, continue ; but, the that, next week, “ the publisher of Major violations of it, the almost opeu dehance of Hogan's Appeal will send me a letter upon


" the subject of that Appeal, and particular- wasted in learning sounds instead of sense; "ly with respect to the Bank Notes." I “ suffer not his body and mind to be debidire say, that there will be no objection to " litated by continual confinement and the insertion of the intended letier ; but, “ continual controul and correction. Give I cannot refrain from apprizing the writer, " him, God being your helper, a sound that I am rather surprized, that the numbers body and strong limbs; habituate him to of the Bank Notes have not been publish- bear fatigue, to move with confidence ed. As the Major expressed his anxious “ and rapidity in the dark ; to fare and to desire to return the notes, one would think sleep hard ; and, above all other things in that he must still have them in his posses. " the world, to rise with the lark, thus sion ; and, the gentleman who suggested the “ making his year equal to eighteen months question to me, assured me, that, if the “ of his etteminate contemporaries. Next numbers were advertised, the notes would “ lead him into the paths of knowledge, not be traced to the late possessor, with the “ minding whether pedants call it learning, greatest facili:y. What I should do, were or not; and, when he arrives at the I in the Major's place, is this. State pub- proper age for acquiring that sort of Jickly the numbers of the notes, and offer knowledge, make him acquainted with to give then up to whomsoever would prove every thing material, as to public affairs, a proprietorship in thein, than which, I am " that has really occurred in his country told, nothing is more easy. The fact is, ir from the earliest times to the present day. that, if the Major does this, the public will Open to him the book, not of speculation, believe his account, respecting the notes, “ but of unerring experience. That he may to be true; if he does it not, they will, "be able to judge of what is, as well with very great reason, believe it to be a as of what ought to be, show bim, in mosi atrocimus falsehood.

*“ detail, all the political causes and effects

, Bolley, December 2, 1808.

to be found in our history ; make him

see clearly how this nation has come up, NEW EDITION OF THE STATE TRIALS.

“ and bow this government has grown toOn Monday, the 2nd of January, 1809,

" gether." toill be published to be completed in

From these, or such like reflections, sprang Thirty-six Monthly Parts, forming Twelve

that arduous undertaking, the PARLIAMIF very large Volumes in Royal Octavn),

TARY History of ENGLAND; and, from Part the First, Price 10s. Õib. of

the same source arises the Work, whichi

now submit to the judgment of the public, COBBETTS

As I proceeded with the History, I found,
COMPLETE COLLECTION OF that to read discussions, relating to Trials for

High Treason and for other high Crimes and
Misde ne anors, and not to be able to refer

immediaiely to those Trials, they being sa TREASON,

intimately connected with the history of the AND OTTER CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS,

parliament, and being a detailed relation of some of the most important and most inte

resting events to be recorded, could not fail In proceeding with the PARLIAMENTARY

to be greatly disadvantageous to the student : HISTORY, which it has been, and is, one yet, to bring into the HISTORY such a mass of the principal objects of my life to lay 1 of legal proceedings, which admitted of complete betore the public of the present little abridgment, was, for several reasons, dav, and, in that stare, to have the satisfac- not to be thought of. I, therefore, resolved tion of leaving it to posterity, I have, for to forn them into a separate Work, to be some time past, perceived that there would

published during the same time, and in the still he wanting a Work like that above same manner, as to paper and print, with described. In putting to inyself this ques- the PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY. tion, “ How shail I go to work to secure Besides the consideration of uniformity, " the best chance of rendering a son capable there were others which bad great weight in of accomplishing great things; fit to this determination. The State TRIALs are

now to be found only in an edition of Eleva “ others; of weight sufficient to make him ex a share in guiding the minds of

Volumes in folio, a form so unwieldy that it " an object of respect with good, and of is impossible they should ever be mach read, "dread with bad publiczınen ?" I putting to say nothing of their incomplete state, or this question to myself, the answer my mind of the expence; which latter alone, owing suggested was: “Suffer not his time to be to the scarceness of even this imperfect edi

State Trials,





" have

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