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atrocious as to have shocked the whole na- tended with some nice and difficult circum- ' tion, and given cause of deep dissatisfaction stancez, nothing short of the powers of a reto our allies, bas been perpetrated in open gular court, with full authority for compel. day, in the presence of two armies, in the Jing attendance, and all the powers of Jaw face of Europe. The nation demands a over witnesses, can extract the truth, and trial, and justice. You are premature,' give the party his acquittal. If such a party says the minister, you prejudge the parties is to be called before such a mock tribunal concerned, but you shall have due in- as I have described, and there, for the want quiry.". Due inquiry,Sir, is legal in- of due means of legal investigation, is quiry; and, by the converse of the propo: judged a proper subject for trial before a sition, that which is not legal inquiry, is court martial, will this circunstance have NOT “due inquiry.". It is in the mouth no effect to his prejudice? Is not this a cruel of every despicable quibbler, that calling the prejudging of his case ? ---How, again, Armistice and Convention a crime, is to pre- may it be in the case of a guilty person? judge. If to accuse, be to prejudge, and on May not niceties and difficulties in the case that account is not to be listened to, how is so embarrass the meinbers of a “ court of any criminal to be brought to justice ? Ac. inquiry," conscious of the extreme decording to this doctrine, I may see one man fects of their appointment in all its paris, kill another, and apparentiy without autho- and not bound by the sanction of an orth rity, without accomplices, without proroca- to adminisier justice, when attended with tion, but I am not to accuse him of murder, severity, that they may not venture 10 because that is prejudging. He may have say the accused person ought to be put been doing his dury, or acting under a legal uçon bis uial? And would not this be 1 outborily, or on sell-defence.

Is such rea- proudging favourable to guilt? To presoning to prevail, and the trial of crimes to judge, iş io pronounce upon any act, as to be stayed, until guilt is first proved? or is being crinjinal or not criminal, before it what else is the meaning of this quibbling? has been decided on by the proper court of --That I might not, Sir, be misled by ibe law. To accuse, and to prouounce upoi, assertions of the Major, I have consulted the are very distinct things. But ministers authorities he quoted, namely, Blackstone sharply rebuke those who only accuse, and and the Mitiny Act, and tind him perfectly call it projucaing; while they themseires correct. Blackstone, b. 3, c. 3, saya, first assume the arbitrary power of inlä: « LAW hath appointed a prodigiou3 varie- posing, bei ween accusation and trial, an ab

ty of couris,'--' ali these in their torus surd and inonstrous species of vibunal, rs will be taken notice of in their proper which it is not “lawful for his Majesty to " places," which he accordingly performs. “ erect and constitute," and a tribunal The Mutiny Act now in existence, herein which cannot possibly do otherwise than copying, as I believe, the very words of prejudge the case at issue. Is this, Sir, ! every preceding muliny act, g. 31, says, – be endured? If the nation can tamely suffer * for bringing offenders against such articles itself to lie chus insulted, I will not say it

“ of war to justice, it shall be lawful for is prepared for slavery, but it is already ell"" his Majesty to erect and constiilie courts slaved, for none but slaves could si ent. “ martial, with power to try, hear, and do- submit to such indignity. - To make a " termine, any crimes or oriences by such shew of impartiality, and to ward off from 6 articles of war, and to inflict, &c.” Bat themselves the suspicion of packing a court the act no where says “it shall be luafiil for skreening their colleagues, ministers are " for his Majesty to erect and constitute to have put upon their court of inquiry courts of inquiry ; in which neither mem - a certain noble lord, and to bave ordered bers por witnesses are to be upon outh, in that the court shall be an open court. But, which a witness may or may not answer al Sir, when a court is not only illegal, bui of question, at his pleasure, and before which the ministers' sole appointment, I am ati na person can be brought as a witness, lin- loss to know how it can be otherwise de less he think fit to attend, and the sunmous scribed, than as a packed court; and is wat to which even the accused may treat with a picked court as odious and revolting as a contempt. The law, Sir, has not done any packed jury, to the feelings of Englishnan thing so absurd and monstrous as all this. And --Now, Sir, those who would liken a sliail, then, any minister be permitted to do court of inquiry to a grand jury, and pre: so absurd and monstrous a thing without teid to recoinmend it on that account, ought VEL? Now, 'Sir, let us see who are the to recollect that a grand jury is not an open

Tiroirs Avinnocent officer is accused court; and that it can examine no witnesses ,'y serious crime, which, being at- but on the side of the prosecution. Here,

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Sir, are new dilemmas. Will ministers and punishable. And it is right it should be venture, in these particulars, to adhere to so. No man ought to arrive at, or to acthe practice of grand juries ; and to direct cept, the command of a fleet or

or an army, their court to take the examination of every without professional judgment and skill

. witness on the side of the prosecution who His situation requires these qualities. He is shall present himself ?---Should they take paid for exercising these qualities in the serthis course, any indignant Englishman may vice of his country. It was more from a demand admittance to their presence, with want of these qualities, than from any proof the Gazette in bis hand, containing the three of cowardice, that Admiral Byng was sendocumenis, signed by Sir Arthur Wellesley, teuced to die. Un-officer-like conduct, in Sir Hew Dalıymple, and Sir Charles Cote point of skill, was one of Sir Hugh Palliston, containing the Armistice, and the two ser's charges against Adiniral Keppel; and parts of the Coovention. The accusation of for an impated misconduct, by Sir Robert those officers is, for baving signed those docu- Calder, in his manauvres, tending rather ments and carried ille conditions of them into 10 cover and secure the two line-of-battle execution. It is no matter whether the cire ships be bad taken, than to hazard their loss cumstances which the accused persons bave agun by attending to nothing but how he to bring our upon their trials before a court should get again idio action with the enemy, Warrial will, or will not exculpate thes; shat thai galant, and I must needs think all that is legally necessary for putting ihem very judicious officer, was sentenced to a upon their irials is, to prove that they are grievous bumiliation. It may, Sir, be dia the persons who signed and acted upon ihose gressing from the point immediately in hand, documents. If the court should have any io say more on the case of Sir Robert Caldoubts of those facts, they niust call for the der, whose person I never saw but once in originals, and for the proofs of the signa- my life, and with whom I have not the tures. It, in the coroner's phrase, there smallest connection ; but I so warmly feel have been accessaries or accomplices among the injury which in my mind was done him, persons unknown, that may come out in evi. that I cannot but remark, that ibe

very condence; and then, in my judgment, it will duct for which he was reprimanded, was the be time enough to talk of parliamentary in- very conduct enjoined by the immortal Nylo quiries into this business. At present, we Son to the commanders under him, in a bave only to do with the three persons, paper written the evening before tbe batile who, by their assent, under their of Tratalgar. In that paper, presuiping hands, have made themselves eitliet princi. that in the approaching action some of tho pals or accessaries.-----s any special pleader enemy's ships might be captured, while a in this case to attempt talking the nation out part of the hostile fleet might be in a condiof us senses, by denying that there has been won to attempt their recaplure, he particually criminality at all, and maintaining that larly instructed bis con manders, in writing, criminality in those acis must first le proved, by w.ty of precaution in case of his own fall, before those who performed them can be 10 make the security and protection of their brought to trial? I, on the contrary, main- prizes the first object of their attention. Sir tain, that there is criminality on the face of Robert Calder not only did this effectually, those acts; a criminality that has shocked but in a masterly and most officer-like man.. and tunded the whole nation, and that it is ner, parried the enemy's attempts at reachbt those vilicers should disprove the accusa- ing those ports where he must have been tion, or suffer the punishment due to them. joined by a strength iliat would have given It is to be remembered, that miliary law, in him a resistless superiority. For this conits nature and principles, is of necessity of duct, Sir Robert experienced a harsh sengreater strictness and serenity, and properly tence, and has never since been employed; So, than the conmon la v of the land. liis although, as Major C. observed at Hackney, also to be recollected, that cowardice, which the ships he took were not returnea to at common law is no cime at all, is, by ini- France with drums beating, colours flying, litary law, and very properly, a heinous and sixty rounds of ammunition; but were crinie, and liable to capital punishment. It conducted to an English port, and their is likewise to be recollected, that, although crews to an English prison.----lo return, want of judgment, or even imprudence, in however, from this digression : while cona man's civil

conduct in his private affairs is sidering our military law, it is very plain, no crime, yet for a military commander that there ought not to be one measure for a even to err in his judgment, or 10 misma- sea officer and another for a land o15 er; and nage the force entrusted to hiin, is, more or yet it is well known, that any com.u-sion of. less, according to circunstances, criminal ficer cozinanding a vessel, from a first rate to


a gun-brig, who loses the same, whether with business of Cintra. In this call, nothing glory or dishonour, whether by his fault or can I recognize but the voice of faction. It his misfortune, whether in fight or by ship insinuates that the blame does not rest with wreck, must be tried ly a courl-marlial. our military commanders, but with minis. And is not this invariable rule of the service ters. I see no ground, at present, for any most proper, and most admirable?--for- such insinuation. Ministers, as well as the got to remark before, that criminality, in nation, were taken by sorprize, as to the military law, attaches to whatever is disho. existence of a hope tijat Spain and Portugal nourable; and not merely in a moral sense ; could possibly be saved from the gripe of for whether an officer should commit a felo- France, since which I cannot but praise their ny, or should habitually get drunk with exertions for meeting France on that theatre. blackguards in a night-cellar, or should suf- Ready as I am to condemn their illegal, unfer himself to be kicked in the open streets, constitutional, and corrupt conduct for saor should sign, either as a besieger or a beo ving the man on whom depends the fuelve sieged, a shameful capitulation, bringing votes, yet where I see no blame, I will not disgiace on the arms of his country, he even insinuate accusation. If a rash indivi. would be alike punishable for such conduct dual of inordinate ambition, who well krev as dishonourable. Shall then, Sir, the naval all the combinations of their council and commander of the smalles! gun brig, who plans for reducing Junot, were so eager to shall lose the same, merely for that act, snatch from his superiors the wreath of vicwhether blameable or meritorious, be in- tory, that he would not allow time for those evitably, as a regular rule of the service, combinations to operate, nor for the whole brought to a court martial; and shall it for force destined for Portugal to be brought to a moment be a question, whether generals bear upon the enemy, it is extremely illitewho have signed such a capitulation as that ral to impute consequences to ministers

, of Cintra, which has blasted our laurels, dis- which, as I conceive, are imputable to him graced our arms, injured our allies, and fa- alone. So far as I can judge, they had furvoured the enemy beyond whatever is on re- nished ample means for effecting, by right cord, shall, or shall not, be brought to trial? management, !he reduction of Junoi, 10 a - From the reference made at Hackney

surrender discretion; and those, in whexe to the ca es of Keppel and Calder, and com- hands those means .failed of accomplishing paring them with the audacious attempt to the object which, in Porugal, was the end skreen Sir Arthur Wellesley, it is high time proposed, onght to be first brought 10 trial be that this illegal, unconstitutional, and mis- fore we look farther. I have avorher objecchievous engine of a discretionary court of tion to the cailing of parliament for inquiring inquiry, to be interposed as a conductor for into the conduct of ministers. Parlament is dissiparing the lightnings of national indigna- too well read in Scripture to expose itself to tion, only when a minister has a friend to the rebuke of, “Thou hypocrite, first cast protect, only when political purposes and

out the beam out of thine own eye; and then corrupt interests are to be served, should be thou shalt see clearly to cast out the mote wrested from the hands that are so daringly out of thy brother's eye.'-No! no! its using it, and destroyed for ever.---This “ brother” is safe enough from inquiry, ul. ministerial expedient of a court of inquiry til the arrival of that great constitutional refor saving a colleague, may perhaps remind novation, which you, Mr. Cobbett, bave you of a circumstance that happened in the from time to time, foretold was approach. case of Byog. In sight of the enemy he ing. We may have factious attacks, and called a council of war, and the consequence factious defences, we may have hostile mowas, there was no battle. Soon afterwards, tions and biller speeches, we may have com). as Flash and Frillle, on the stage, were at

mittees and commissions, and we may have high words, and clapping their hands to piles of reports as bigh as Pelion or Ossa, but their swords, the lady presunt cried out,

until this renovation shall take place, we • Lord, lord, what shall I do to prevent shall not see a minister really called to actheir fighting?" upon which an honest tar, in count by a parliainent, nor any department the gallery bawled out, “call a council of of the state swept of its corruptions.-MAX. war.' Thus our war minister cries out, VIL. Palace-Yard, 13th Nov. 1808. • lord, 'lord, what shall I do to prevent a trial?' to which the valiant landsman who

STAFFORDSHIRE MEETING. erst proposed a march to Paris, replies,- MR COBBETT,—The active and decisive • call a court of inquiry'-One word, Sir, part which you have taken in the question if you please, on calling upon the king to of addressing the king for an investigation assemble parliament, for inquiring into the into the causes which led to the Portugal


Convention, leaves no doubt, but the result the Hampshire meeting ; but the example of the meeting, held yesterday for the county allude to, he would, be assured, have of Stafford, will become a subject of your called “ irregular," as it is certainly animadversion. Of that result the news. “precedented.” It must he admitted, howe paper reports will give you an accurate ever, that his lordship’s sagacity, upon this detail. But I conceive that you must be occasion, is erititled to commendation, as [ strangely puzzled to account for the unani- can affirm that no person in this county mity which prevailed at the meeting, after would bave been able to discover, much less reading the nxnes attached to the requisi- to notice, the irregularity complained of, if tion, without some clew to guide your his lordship had not kindly condescended to judgment. It is my object to give you that point it out. – But this was not the true clew; or rather, by a statement of facts reason of the noble marquis's defection. npon which you may depend, to discover to The secret must be told, though I am afraid, you the motives which actuated those Mr. Cobbett, that it will be as unpleasant staunch friends of constitutional doctrines, for

you to hear, as it was galling to the noble the requisitionists, to assert their privileges, marquis to discover. The fact is, that the and display their independent principles, i universal opinion of the pople of this upon this occasion.-On the 24th day of county, freeholders and others, is, that an October last, a copy of a requisition was address to his majesty for the purposes men. sent to the high sheriff of this county by tioned in the requisition is not, under the Mr. Blount. The sheriil, in acknowledging present circumstances, necessary. It was the receipt of the same, wrote that he could this convictio.., which reached his ear very have no possible objection to comply with soon after the publication of the requisition, the wishes of the requisitionists to call a that induced the Marquis of Stafford, to meeting of the county; and begged that think that he acted precipitately; and he the original requisition might be transmitted would have given (yes; depend upon it) to him

as his voucher ; and which indeed he would have given one or two of his best was necessary to produce, and be read at piciures that he had not signed that cursed the opening of the meeting. Upon this, reqnisition !–His pride could not bear the Mr. Wolseley and Mr. Blount waited on idea of the shameful defeat that awaited him the sheriff, and told him, that they had no in his own county, and even by his own requisition signed individually, but read adherents ; much less could it bear the idea various extracts of letters which authorized of subm ring to the frank acknowledgement them to subscribe the nanes of several of the truth. - Mark, then, to what meanness noblemen and gentlemen, and alleged that pride is reduced. Rather than manfully they had verbal authority for the rest. They come forward and avow his sentiments, and declined giving up the letters, but bad no support the opinion he had so strongly wordbesitation to sign an authority for the sherift, 1 ed in the requisition, which, be it known, which they accordingly did.-A day was was drawn up under his immediate inspec. fixed for ihe meeting, and the requisition tion at Trentham,--rather than do this, Ile was published in the Staffordshire Advertiser | Marquis of Stafford chuse to seize upon an in the form in which they signed it.--To the Old-Bailey-like quibble, and at all hazards surprize of every one, in the paper of the to abandon the object which appeared to week following, immediately under the re- him so essential to the future weliare of the quisition, appeared a remoustrative letter to country. Like the very generals, who were the sheriff from Mr. Wolseley; and a the ostensible cause oi ihe iequisition, he protest from the Marquis of Stafford who withdrew from the field, and suffered the declined attending the meeiing on the enemy to dictate his owo terms.-After ground that the requisition was published in this desertion of a principal leader of the an "irregular and unprecedented manner." requisition force, others of interior quality Now, Mr. Cobbeit, I look upon it that complained that their names had been subthe zeal of the noble marquis in the cause scribed upon very slight authority, and of his " insulted and degraded country" without iheir being acquainted with the is not of that description which will urge nature of the requisition to be made ; and him to die a martyr in its cause ; when, up. one gentlemin, as you will perceive by the on the plea of a trifling informality (which, report, through the medium of a friend, by the way, I do not admit existed), he could from the hostings, actually denied having withdraw his support from a weasure to given any authority at all, for his name. which be had attached such important re: Avd bere one cannot held remarking the sulis. He might have found a better ex- judicious precaution of thic sheriit in adample, Mr. Cobbett, in the proceedings of hering to the usual manner of publishing

the requisition from an authenticated ori- brought before the p::blic: and I liare only ginal.--In spite, however, of the alleged to wish that the paper might bave a circulaformality, and the noble marquis's protest, tion commensurate with its importarce to the meeting was, vot only very numerous, the community. His general ideas on the but highly respectable. But not one man production of an uniforo ly good and wholeof those whose names appeared 10 the some malt liquor are such as can only have requisition, came forward to avow their

been derived either mediately or imnieko signatures, or to propose an adåress : al- ately from an extensive practice aided by a though Sir Robert Lawley, Mr. Wolseley, close and philosophical course of observaand Mr. Blount, were in the town of tious. From such a writer I am sorry 10 Diafford during the meeting, and it was diller in any thing, but a strict regard to believed fully prepared to do so Lord St. truth, and e-pecially a truth in which mea Vincent, who by his own acknowledgement are practically inierested, induces me lo came into the county for that express pur- trouble you with a few observations on pose, remained quietly at Stone, about se- some remarks in the gentleman's paper; veo miles froin the place of meering. That, and for which, I trust, he himself will not however, the production of their delibera- det m it necessory to offer any further apotions might not be lost to the world ; and logy.-- It is stated by the writer that the probably with a view of assisting other relative value of misli, sugar, and creacle nie, county meetings wiib ibeir enlightened and as 8 bushels of malt, so are loớ lbs of patriotic principles, they have published sugar or 240 lbs of treacle." I wish lie The Address which they imeant to propose writer had furnished us with the precie for the adoption of the county. For the grounds of this stated ratio of saine, and of rest, they contented themselves will present- the method bs which he formed it. Asit ing silly protests against an informality is, we are left to inter, from other parts of which existed no where but in their own his p.per, liat iis conclusions are built on blandering and sneaking conduct.-Now hydrostatical experiments; and I am the permit me, Mr. Cobber, to ask, if it is to more inclined to suppose so from repeated this sort of men that the people of England crials, in which a given quantity of sacclia. are to look up, for the maintenance of their rine substance put in solution, when it civil and political rights, and for the re amined by the instrument, has not increaci dress of their many and crying grievances; in cieusity scarcely one third of the gius 10 these water flies, whose public spirit weight of the substance dissolved: a po is damped by the spleen of disappointed portion, I believe, that will nearly correspe! pride, and whose patriotism is subservient wiil the statement which he has furnisiei to courily etiqueite, and the companion of us with. But I entertain serious doubts party malevolence?—How disgusting is their whether any instrument we now have in uie conduct when compared to your own upona is adapted to slew lis the relativt rolielf similar occasion ;---you, who by the meridint TWO ir t?sts, the one prepared from malt and of talent and firmness carried an Address the other from eiiber sugar or mr classes. (which I certainly believe you slid) in the Ny reasons are these: In the extract from face of runk, wealth, and probably of the malt a considerable portion of mucilage or powerful stimulus of ministeriat influence! Vicons maiter is blended with the raccharine What I have above stated you may rily which is obtained, while the extract froita

I could enumerate ab10- molises, for instance, is nearly a pure sile dance of owner circumstances which would charine liquor. Now, as the action of any seire to place the public spirit of these in- statical instrument must be in proportion to dependent gen!lemn in a proper piot of the specific gravity of any liquid on which view. But you are already in possession of the experim(ut is made, it is esidrnt th: though to enable you to deal to them that the spissitude of the malt extract must får portion of praise trlich their conduct me- exced that of the other. But is it philoso. Jils, in any remarks you may be induced phical to conclude from thence that the Olku 10 giale upon the meeting if this counts: must necessarily be richer aod superior to - A, B -- Litchfield, 1217 Vov. 1908. the other? I appeal to the Hampshire

Brewer himself. Does he consider that his BREWERIES

last wort, which, for the sake of argument, SIR ;-In your Hezister of the 121 inst.

we will suppose to weigh 10 lbs pit barres

, I was much pleased with the perusal of a equal in point of quality to a one third paper signed " A Hampshire Brewer," the portion of his first wort, which we wil production of a person evidently competent conclude to weigh 30 lbs per banel? Why 1o the discussion of the subject he has not? Because, though the latter posses

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