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the person of the prince, that he may be quarto, cites in the following terms :- As sent into France.' This determination of to what respects the prisoner don Manuel his royal highness the prince of Asturias, Godoy, the king conimands me to inform perhaps, las not yet reached the junta. In the junia, in order that they may niake the this case it appears that his royal highness proper use of this notice, that his m jesty must wait for the answer of his majesty the esteems too bigbly the wish expressed by the emperor; but the junta will see, that to an
emperor of the French, not to gratity it
, swer the prince of Asturias will be to de. extending at the same time generosity in facide a different question, and it is kuown vour of a crimini who had offended the that his imperial majesty cannot recognise royal person. '-"ith little refleciion, it as king any other than Charles IV.-I beg ought to have occurred to them, that this the junta to take this note into their consi- supposed order was not intended to give lideration, and to have the goodness to answer berty to ihe prisoner, but that the king was me on the subject, in order to give an ex- disposed to extend generosity towards him planation to his imperial highness the grand out of respect to the
emperor. In order to duke of their decision.-The government kuow what species of generosity this was, it and the Spanish nation will see in this reso- was only vecessary to recor
10 the decre Jution of his imperial majesty, only a new which his majesty addressed to the council
, proof of the interest he takes in Spain ; be- and which it his inserted, folio 15 of the cause, in removing to a clistance the prince sane edition. Under the sime date of the of Peace, he wishes to deprive malevolence isih of April, a royal order was addresse itself of the possible belief that king Charles to the Marquis de Ca-telar, notwithstanding will restore to power and to confidence one his majes: y's firu persuasion that his rosal whom he has resigned for ever; and further, parents laboured under a mistake, directin: the j ata of government certainly will do 1h:t every care shoul i be taken of the heal justice to the exalted sentiments of bis ma- of the prisoner; and if it the same tine jesty the emperor, who would not abandon king had commanded that the junta of your bis fuithful ally.--I have the honour to offer veronent should bave set him at libert's to the junta the assurance of my high cau- such a piecation with regard to his bar sideration. The general in chi-f of the etat woulu bire bien jule and ridiculous. major general,-- AUGUSTO Bellaud. sides this, when the junta of governad Madrid, 20th April, 1808. ---He added,
gave an account to the king of the consid verbialy, to this pote sub atrocious and un- rations and notives that they had for selling lieard-of threats, that the junta, no doubt the prisoner at liverly', which are the gire fearful lest they should be realiz:), and that have been stated, his ni: jesty comminuthat the tranquiliity y Madiid would be ed me to reply in the following terms:shaken, bad ihe weakne is lo accede to the The king is made acquainted with the neproposition, and commanded the Marquis tives the junta of government had for the di de Castelar, by order of the king, the same livery of the prisoner without his order: night, to deliver up the prisoner, which, in The two chief oficers of the first secretary fact, was done wiih great repugnance od bis of state, and of the cabinet of his majesi, part, and on the part of all the officers who and his secretaries of decrees, don Eusebi had him in cusi dy.--A proper regard to de Bard.ixi y Azara, and don Luis de 06 truth requires that it should be said, that (through whose bands they were passed) cea doo Francisco Gil, secretary of staic and of rify this statement of ilie junta, and of this marire affairs, and in consequence member reply of the king. I have considered it! of the junta of government, opposed the be my duty to publish these transaction surrender of the prisoner, because it was not that the whole nation may be informed i authorized by the king - It is difficult to The circ'mstances whicli occasioned the surconce ve how, after such direct acts as those render of dou Michael Godoy, which is false; that are stated, the junta of goveroņiently attributed to his majesty, who
could should proceed to inform the council and think of abandoning ihe solemo prowise be ile public, by the means of two extraordi gave to his beloved people, to judge himnec. nary gazetes, that the prince of Peace hac! cording to the laws, and that we should va been delivered up by order of the king. this account be more strongly confirmed in The same ditřiculiy occurs, how ibis junta the ardent affection we cherish for our be could endeavour to excuse its weakness, by loved king Ferdinand VII. whom God ro distorting expressions of the oficial corres store, as soon as possible, for the complerica pondence : as for example, a passage in
the of our happiness. We, dun Eusebio Bardan! dispatch addressed to the council, which this Azara, and don Luis de Onis, secretaries tribunal, in its manifest, folio 14 of the y decrees to our lord the king, and pricipal
officers of the first secretary of state, and of py issue hitherto of their civil administration, the cabinet, certify the fact of the represen- and the military enterprises which they have tation of the junta of government, and the directed, have placel in the most conspicuanswer resumea to is by the king; and that ous light, and established beyond all doubt, they were conceived in the terms stated by this fundamiental truth, and most essential the most excelle. signor don Pedro Cevallos, politicul principle. But who is to create this in his Expositious ; the documents having si.preme civil goverment? Who are to passed through our han.is, and which we
Where shall be its place of authentiraie by our signatures.-EUSEBIO residence? What the extent of its autho. DE BAADAXI Y AZARA.-Luis De Osis.- rity? How shall it be established without Madrid, Sepi. 3, 1808.
interrupting the public tranquillity, and pro
ducing disunion among the different proOFFICIAL PAPERS.
vinces? How is the public opinion to be so SPANISH REVOLUTION.-Manifes!o of the regulated as i hai, without opposing it, this
Junta of Seville, Ang. 3. 1808. (Conti- tranquillit shani be attained, and all risk of nued from p. 576).
disturbance ovviated? These are the imVarious supreme juntas and military chiefs portaui and serious questions wbich we shall have expressed their conviction of this truth. now proceed 10 exainine; and upon which, -A conviction of the same springs from influenced solely by the love of our country, the indispensable necessity of a civil govern- and our anxiety to promote its welfare, we ment in every pation whose duty is to at. will enter into a frank explanation of our tend to the happiness of the kingdom, and sentiments. In the various papers that have to which the military may be subordinate. : been published upon this subject, we are The confilence of the nation, and, conse told that the cortes should assemble ; that quently, the public funds and the cipitars of they should elect representatives ; and farindividuals, must, necessarily, ha: e a civil ther, that the old council of Castile should goverument for their support. Without it, convoke them, and the whole of the prothe military power would, indispensabiy, ceeding should be executed nder its authobe under the necessity of employing vio. rity.-Most assuredly we do no: understand lence, with the view of acquiring that confi- the grounds upon which this decision rests. dence which it never couid aitain, and get- The council of Castile," though 3 swful asting a command of those capitals, which ' sembly, never convoked the cortes. Why, it would be equally impossible for it to bring then, should we give it an anthority which within iis grasp ; and thus it would ultimate- it does vot possess? Is it because it lent the ly destroy the public prosperity and happiness, whole weight of its influence to such imporwhich oug ut to be the sole object of every tant changes, with regard to which it had government. Let us not vainly flatter our
po pouers, por a .y authority whatsover? selves with notions of Roman dictators, and Is it because it has acted in opposition to the other military chiets of the ancient re- those fundamental laws, which it was estabpublics : they were placed under very pru- lished to preserve and defend? Is it because dent restraints, and the duration of their it afforded every faciliiy to the enemy 10 201: hority was limited to a very short period. 11s.rp the sovereignty of Spain, to destroy The dangers of complete despotism and the hereditary succession of the crown and Usurpation kept then, in continual alarm, and the dynasty legally in possession, and recog. conpelled them to take very rigorous pre- nized and scaied on the throne a foreigner, cautions, which are very incompatible with destitute even of a shadow of a title to it; the habits of modern times. Spain has de. for it is incontrovertibly manifest, that the riveda lesson of wisdo'n froin the history of renunciation of Charles IV. in his favour gave paol ages. she ha never thought of appoint- bim no such clain? . What confidence could ing a mury dictator. Her military chiets the Spanish nation place in a government (2011 it is a iacu most honourable to use
Pi- created by an authority invalid and illegal, muis name) li've been the first to eurip, and which had also rendered itself suspected, with the utmost cordiali:y, a $"<!! of by the previous commission of acts of so things as ancient in Spain as the w. warcly horrible a description, that they may be itself The experience of our times—the justly ranked with the most atrocious crimes confidence of the people in the supreme jud- against the country ? — The council of Casfas the facility and abundance with which tile being thus excluded from all considenpecuniary resource have been placed at their tion- who should convoke the corres ? The disposal—be heroic Joyalty with which authority to convoke them is a part of the the military chiefs and the army bave ac peculiar and exclusive prerogative of the kuowledged and obeyed them, and the hap-king. The provinces would not submit to
any other authority; they would not unite; people shall reside, and by which they may there would be no cortes; and should a few act. Whether they shall be constituted by delegates assemble, that very circumstance the petty cortes or any other bodies, their would expose the kingdom to division--the appointment ia some form or other is indis, evil which all wish to avoid. --Besides, the pensable, in order to the concentration of cities who have yotes in the cortes have not the legitimate power of the people, and the undertaken the defence of the kingdoni, nor establishment of a civil government, which of themselves, nor in their corporate capa- shall inspire confidence into the people, and city have they made any effort to defend it. proceed to the choice of persons who shall We entertain the most profound respect both compose the supreme government, which, for them and their rights; but truth com- under the present circumstances, cannot be pels us to speak out. --Most undoubtedly, legitimate, unless it bas its origin in the however, the cities who have votes in the free consent of the people.--It seems then cortes, in thus conducting themselves, acted to be indispensably necessary, that all the with consummate prudence, and with a due supreme juntas, meeting on the saine day, observance of law. The kingdom found itself should each elect from among their own suddenly without a king and without a govern- members two deputies to form the suprenie ment-a situation indeed unknown in our his. government, and the persons 60 elected tory and to our laws.The people legally resum- should, from that moment, be reputed, and ed the power of appointing a government; and actually be the governors-general of the this truth has been openly avowed by various kingdom; and that as such they should be supreme juntas. The people created these universally acknowledged and obeyed.-jantas without paying any regard to the ci- Their authority is well known, and cannot ties who have voies in the cortes, The be subject to any doubt. The supreme legitimate power is therefore deposited with junta of Valencia has most judiciously the supreme juntas, and, in virtue of that marked its extent and limits, in the paper power, they have governed and do govern which they published on this question, on with real authority, and have been and still the 16th of July. We shall, therefore, be are acknowledged and obeyed by all ranks of excused from going more at large into the suivjects, and by all cities in their respective consideration of it.-We will only add, that diitricis, having voles in the cortes. Their the supreme juntas ought to be continent situation iras not changed; the danger still with all their appoinıments and josigma. ekists; no new authority has surpervened; and be invested with the internal goverr.: tire lawful authority therefore resides entire ments of their respective provinces, until in the juntas which the people created, and the conclusion of the present state of things, to which they confided it. It is, therefore, but at the same time under due subordination incontestible that the supreme juntas have to the supreme government. In those sothe sole and exclusive right of electing those preme juntas resides the legitimate power of who are to compose the supreme govern. those portions of the people who have rement, as the only means of protecting and spectively created them. It is their duty 10 preserving the kingdom, whose defence the take measures for insuring the happiness of people have entru ted to them, and which their constituents, through the medium of a cannot be accomplished but by the establish- jast governinent, and vigilantly to protect ment of a supreme government. Nothing and defend the rights of every individual is more evident than this truth.-And whom among them. For this purpose they ought shall ihe supreme junta elect? Most cer- to give their instructions to their respective tainly individuals of their own body; for deputies, constituting the supreme governthey alone derive their power from the peo- ment; and it will be the duty of the latter ple, and it is in their constituent members to observe them, and to represent and sup. that the people have reposed their entire port the claims of their provinces, as far as confidence Shouid any other persons be may be consistent with the general prospe: chosen, they would possess neither the con- rity.--If there existed among us a royal fi tence nor the consent of the people, and personage, capable of presiding in this suall their acts would be null and void; and preme government, reason and justice prefrom this want of confidence, the nation scribe that he, and no other, should be apo would be exposed to intestine divisions, the puinted to that ofice. But if there be no la't and greatest of all our calamities.- such royal personage, the supreme govern. Hence, if there be any province in which ment must elect a president from its own the military power has alone been retained, body. To obviate every danger, however, results the absolute necessity of constituting the presidency should be temporary, and supreme juntas in which the power of the continue only for a fortnight, a month, or
any other term agreeable to the supreme go- shorter time, and have harassed the enemy, vernment; upon the lapse of which period who have surrendered prisoners, of war, it should be incumbent on them to choose a with their general, Dupont, and have capitudifferent person. We have already remark- lated for the divisions of generals Vedel and ed, and it is unnecessary to repeat it, that Gobert, who are to be conducted to France, the supreme juntas should elcct as deputies amounting, altogether, to 17,000 men, so to the supreme government such of their that there does not remain a single French members as are nose distinguished for their soldier in arms in the Andalusias ; a victory talents, their general knowledge of legisla- must glorious and singular, wbich ha: been tion, and all the branches of public weifare effected without the effusion of much Spa. and government, recollecting that they are nish blovd, in which it appears we stand to be the depositaries of the hopes of the alone.--The local situation of the Andalusias kingdom. The supreme junta, in full re- presents also a nore probable mode of deliance upon the generous character of Spa- feoce against the arıns of Napoleon, if he niards, and their ardent atrachment to ihe means to attack us; and, with this view, good of their country, așsures itself that we have united with us the Portuguese pro. intrigue, party, or personal interest or pre- vinces of Agarve and Alentexo, who have dilections, will have no influence upon this piaced themselves under our protection; occasio!), -The supreme juntas will, in the and the Canary Isles have sent us a deputy first instance, appoint the place, which shall for the same purpose. --The greater opulence be the seat of the supreme government, who and other peculiar circumstances of those shall afterwards adhere to or alter that ap. provinces offer resources which the rest pointment, as they think fit, according to a want; and we have thus been enabled to plurality of votes. The seat of government, make provision for immense expence, with as has been most wisely observed by the out having received any money from any supreme junta of Valencia, ought to be at other part, or imposed any contributions.a distance from all the dangers of war, and The marine arsenal of the isle of Leon, shouid, as a claim to preterence, possess perhaps the most considerable of all, obeyed ather ar!vantages of a local nature. Seville us from the beginning, and with it the concives herself to possess all these advan- Spanish squadron off C:diz, whose force is tages but has no anxiety to be selected ; the greatest, and has been since augmented for she will most cordially sacrifice ail her by thai of the French moored in that har. claims to what the other supreme juntas bour, and surrendered to us at discretion.--shal decide to be for the general prosperity Gibraltar, the famous English fortress, is in of the dogdom. The supreme juntas will, our territory, and one of the most numerous therefore, make known their pleasure as to squadrons of that nation kept our coast in a this point, when they notits the election of state of blockade. Weiinmediately, theretheir deputies. In the meantime we will fore, opened a cominonication with Gibralfrankly stare that La Mancha appears to us tar, and with the English squadron, which most convenient for the seat of government, has given us all the assistance that was in its and there we would particularly na ne its power, sent us a resident minister at the large cities of Ciudai Leal or Almagro. But very first, and conveyed our deputies to on this subject we are nowise anxious; we London, to request subsidies, and settle a leave it entirely to the free choice of the su- peace advantageous to the whole nation.preme juntas.--It remains only that we Amidst so many serious cares, we have speak of this supreme junia of Seville, tipon transınitted all the arms which it was possiwhich point we shall not say much. Cer- ble to transmit to Granada Estremadura tain persons, either ignorant or malevolent, has received a still greater number, and has have endeavoured to spread the persuasion experienced our protection, and so has Core that we affected a superiority over the other dova and Jaen. We have offered arms to provinces. Any such thought has been far La Mancha, to Murcia, to Tarragon, to from us, although the general good of the Gerona, who requested them of us, and we nation has been our guide, and as it were exerted ourselves to the utmost to fultil the the soul of all our determinations. We promises which we had made.- We have possessed the only foundery for cannon in not forgot the rest of the European provinces the kingdom, and arms and ammunition in and kingdoms, and we bope in time that a certain degree of abundance. Various the effects of our zeal and vigilance will be captains general acknowledge us from the made clear and public.-The Americas commenceinent, and veteran troops were claimed at the first a great share of our attenmore numerous in our province than in other tion, in order to preserve that so principal parts; and thus we formed an army in a part of the Spanish monarchy. We have sent envoys and commissaries thither and to ariyay is anxious to establish your civil go. Asia, in order that they may unite ihem- vernment upon the sanie footing in which it selves to us, which we could not do without was left by your beloved princs, when, asqualifying ourselves as the supreme junta sisted by the constant friends of his person for the government of Spain and the Indies, and his throne, he escaped from his most and we trust that this title and our cares will insidious enemies. Wiihout losing a mo. not be found useless. So many labours, ment, we are endeavouring to effect this surrounded by so many dangers, will, we measure, and to substitute a civil govem. trust, deserve some consideration of our nient to the military ; 10 accomplish wbich, country, for the love and defence of which however, some days will be requisite. In only we have done and suffered so much.- order, then, that the evil disposed (if such With all this, we repeat that we neither af. there be) may not convert true liberty into fect nor desire any superiority. Whatever unbridled licentiousness, and in order to we have done, we owed to our country: it avoid, in the present crisis, the terrible consewas an indispensable obligation upon us. quences of such disorder, it belongs to the Our only object is, that Spain may preserve commander-in-chief, and to those to whom its integrity and independence, for our lord he has immediately delegated the superinand king, Ferdinand VII; ana for that ob- tendance of the public tranquillity of this ject we joyfully sacrifice our lives. May God, city, to watch with all vigilance over its who has so clearly and marvellously shewn peace and quiet, and to give security to the his protection of Spain, grant a safe return persons and property of its loyal and worthy to its king Ferdinand VIT! And then with the inhabitants. To obtain this desirable end it supreme government, he will determine will be necessary, for a short tiine, to mainwhat may be his royal will, either com. tain strong guards, piquets, and patroles, in manding an lion of the cortes, or by such various directions, in order to seize and take other means as his prudence may suggest, into custody every person who shall attempt and will facilitate the reform of abuses and to disturb the public peace. You may rethe general happiness of the kingdom, se joice, inhabitants of Lisbon ! You have curiog it upon such foundations as are firm, great cause for gladness; and your English and subject to no change.-If these hopes friends, participating in your sentimest, are vaini, in which the clemency of God rejoice equally with you. Never let it be leads us to indulge; then the existing sua permitted, however, that the evil disposet preme goveroment will itself determine what should thereby have an opportunity of prois most conducive to the interest of the moting insurrection or cofusion ! But let kingdom, conforming itself to the funda- them beware of such a design! The most menial laws thereot, defending it against vigorous, and effective means are prepared the fury and marice of our enemies, and for suppressing any altempt of this nature, preserving this monarchy, in which itself, and all who may be guilty shall be punished the liberty of nations, and the Catholic according to military law, in the most prompt, chirch, the beloved spouse of our Lord Je- rigirous and exemplary manner; and for sus Christ, is so deeply interested.-Given the purpose of renoving every semptation at the royal palace of Seville, this 3d day of to interrupt the peace of the city, I probibit
, August, 1808.-Francis SAAVEDRA, Arcb- under the present circumstances, the enterbishop of Laodicea; the Dean of the Chap- ing the city with arms, and the wearing them ter of the Holy Church; Francis XAVIER in the public streets. All inns and taverns
, CIENFUEGOS Í VINçenT HORE; FRANCIS where wine or spiritugus liquors are sold in Diaz BERMUDO: MANUEL GIL, C. M.; small quantities, are, for the same reason, Father JOSEPH Ramirez; Juan Fernando required to be shut up at six in the evening, ÅGUIRE; Couni TILLY; Marquis de la GRA- and not to open before sun-rise, under the NINA; Marquis de Torres, and eleven pain of imprisonment to tbe dealers, and others.
forteiture of their liquors.--Finally, I jn
vite all persons, who possess aor authority or REVOLUTION IN PORTUGAL.- Proclamation influence whatever, and wheiher included
by Lieutenant General Hope, command- or not in the body of the magistracy, and ing the Troops of his Britannic Majesty, more particularly the holy mivisters of rofor the immediate Security and Tranquillity ligion, to assist ihe military power in pre; of Liston.
serving the tranquillity of the capital, until Inhabitants of Lisbon ; Your country the much wished for object of secing the colic is rescued, and you are restored to free- stituted civil authorities in the exeruise of dom : your national Aag is flying in every
their functions be cbtained. God save the quarter of the kingdom, and his excel Prince Pa gent ! Viva! Viva !-1. Hores ency the general-in-chief of the British lieutenant-general.