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ot' action on the Pyrenees; that it does ac- der of the French at discretion, and that mually' give the French a large and well ap- the vessel that bronglit those advices would pointed disposable force which they would also bring iwo or three of the principal not otherwise have possessed; -hese conside- French generals by way of a sample of rations are to be regarded as trilling wlien what olis bad been able to achiere. - This, compared to the nain object.--" We have I can at least vouch, was the general sentigot Portugal, though not ail belonging to it: ment throughout the netropolis, and it we have got rid of the French there; no should seem that the counties were to the matter what becomes of then-charity be- full as sanguine.—But, since we are on this gius at bone - and if these same French subject of " secret motives," I will stiggest should mareli over the Pyrenecs and belp to for your consideration one which I think beat the Spanish Patriots, why we are very more likely tuon any other to have irtuenc. corry for it, but, cur business was to get ed the determination of our commanders; then out of Portugal: and as to the few one which must not only have embarrassed live advantages which the Fench obtained then greatly at the time of framing the in the course of the negociation and in Conventions, but which will, if they are wordling the Conventions, besides that they good courtiers 3s I tahe them to be, ein.baralso are very subordinale considerations, is rass them still more when they come to un. it our fault that hellermann was the best fold their molives to the people of England. negociator of the two? Sir Arthur is a sol- --Did
never hear, Mir. Cobbett, of such dier, not a statesman; he has shewn that a thing as an INSTRUCTION to a commanho he could fight and beat the French too; is drawn up with studied ambiguity, or so €9. he to be blamed because he cannot wield cumbered with a mullitude of expletives, the pen as well as the sword, or because with paragraph within paragraph-parenthe Kellermann, who is probably some dull sis within parenthesis - hypothesis buk plodding German as his name indicates, and upon hypothesis--and the whole so inter never fought a successful battle in his life, larded with ifs and luis that it might be should get and keep the whip hand of him construed any and every way save into. in the course of a look, intricate, and most direct, clear, and positive meaning? An dithicult negociation?”—This, I make no did you never hear, Sir, ibat Lord Cartie doubt, is the sort of reasoning with which reagh was famous for giving such lestrian we shall be hereafier ediled. But it will tions ? There is no act of any descrit an not; I dare say, Sii, have esped your ob- for which a saving clause may not be found seregtion, that your correspondent C. has, in in such a dispatch ; and there is no clauze your last number, brought forward some in it by which any one act can be posities *s secret motives, and those very strong ones, justitied. Yet it is such a dispatch under do infiience the determination of our com- whose influence 1 om told our commanders in anders to agree lo a conditionai surrender." acted; and if my information be correct, This Mr. C. must surely be oue of Sir Ai- as I have no doubi it is, their embarrassment, ihur's indiscreet injudicious tiends, or he as to what defence they shall set up, will be never would even hive binied at secret mo- most naturally accounted for.-- But, Sir, fives in a case, from which, of all others, se- let us now look a little farther forward iuto crecy seems niist necessary to be linished. the consequences of this business ; let tis What, in the name of hearel, could be :eo whether it be not possible the secret motives in such a case. wuless some eventual god out of the evil that they consisted in the very convenient, though thus grievously lament. I quite agree with not very bonourable', preference given to you, that to luse our time in fruisessa hining the sori of service that wis to foluw ihe and complaints is to act in a manner very Couventions, over that which must have been unbecvaring men and good citizens
. We ut: dertaken to force Jimnotard his ry 10 are, if we do our duty, to see it sone pricunconditional surrender? As to C.'s guib.
tical good my not hereafter result from ide bling about your expression of " next arri. confidence of the nation baving been thus val," it may, together with his other mi- shamefully abused. - We know from the serable shifts and subierfiges, be safely left language of the throne that an inquiry is to to the corrective energy of yoir own pen, take place.
Whatever may be the sen. which has very propery characterized him tence pronounced in a military, view, and the cause in which lie is embarked. it must be obvious to every body 11.10 tlie Tive while wation will be ir soa testimony sontce of the evil is not altogether of a mi; that it did expect (and not without reason), litary mature, and that it is one which a thit the rest advices of any importance military court of inquiry is not very likely from the army would announce the surren. to notice or to aniinadvell upon with much
barshness. What I allude to, Sir, is the this sort should be made, was absolutely to practice that has obtained of laie years of say to ourally the Prince Regent, “ You shalt military and naval commanders negociating be no longer master of your country. We and binding their country to stipulations have done yout he favour of driving out the which are altogether bevond the competency French for you, but you have no business of their functions. It is a question in my to inquire how they came there, or by mind how far the country is, in honour and whom they liave been aided or abetted. good faith, obliged to abide by conditions You shall be nominal sovereign of Portugal, ihus subscribed to. I am very niuch of opi- | but we will carry on the price for you."nion that the country is under no such obli- In short, it is as completely deibroning lhe gation ; for if you carry the same principle Prince Regent as if we had sent him word but a little farther, it would be a necessary
that he should nor return to Europe now, consequence that if Lord Carlicart, or Gen. that be lias a comfortable home at the Brit. Whitelocke, or Sir H. Dalrymple, or any
zils. - You, Sir, have asked a very pertinent other of your Convention-making generals question : “ What would the French gohad, besides giving up the advantages they vernment have done had its generals made respectively possessed, chosen 10 surrender such a Courention is ours hve made ?" Portsmouth, or Chatham lines, we must In the first place, Buonaparte, who knows how equally bave been bound to adınit an enenıy's to chocse his men, would hardly have engorrison into them. The Duke of York's ployed a general capable of such a transacstipulating for the surrender of 8,000 french iion; or if, from favourism or any family prisoners who were well and securely lodged consideration. --for these do sometiines prein our prison-ships and barrack dots come vaid at St. Cloud also,--le did send such a as near as possible to such a supposition person to comoiand an army, le vould have But if this be a question open for the displaced a proper check upon him in the seCuissions of the learned in the law of na: i cond in command, or in the chief of the lions, I imagine that it is not a matter of Siait. If, bowever, after all, such an act donbt whether it would be better to restrict had been committed, I have very little our generals in future from committing : dubt that he would have instantly distheir country by similar engagement.-Some graced ull The parties concerned in it.
1 discretionary power is no doubt necessary
- The warning he has given Dipont - to the command of an army: but then that of what is to be his fate sufficiently indicates power should be s itach as possible of a what would have been his conduct inire military nature.
The extreme of an evil case you have contemplated. -- I think then, is in some cases its best cure; and it will Sir, that some practical good may arise out now be felt that there is a poim beyond of the Conventions; because I ibink that which a general may not transgress ihe li- they will serve as a warning to minister, what mits of his commani. --To apply this ob- | Instructions they give generals; and as a Seruation to the Conventious, I would ask, waruing to generals not to exceed the pow. what could be so entirely extra military, so ers intrusted io them. T'sey must, I think,
a political consideration as the be productive of a new system in these resacksov leigement contained in the firstarti- pacis; for even if Lord Custlereagh should, dle of Sir A. Wellesler's armistice', oj bis for the misfortune of the country, continue imperial and roval majesty Napoleon 1.? to direct the war depariment, le must still It is no matter whether the said Napoleon see that he will, in ihe end, runico great a would or would not, at some furre day, risk sbonki he always give obscure unintelli
. have been acknowledged hy as in the capa- gible instructions, ani soul! lis generals
, city; it could never belong to a general for want of a better guide, always blunder einmanding an army on a foreign station over their business in the way we have so to determine the time or mode otso doing.-- often witnessud. -The inquiry that will take If i am told that it is an am meaning complio pil.co abani the Portugal Conventions will mentary article, and that Benapole is not
set these matters in their proper light, and it the more an emperor beraie sir c. Wel will also, I trust
, expose':o seblic reprobaJesley chose to call him so, I have only to tion thil niher part of our intercourse with reply, then why do not you upou iluz same foreign powers, whichi, under the specious plea get rid of ihe Conventions altogether? wame of cortciliation, moderation, &c. would - Again, whit could be more an un-milia sacritice the dignity and often the best intetary and political concern than the inquiry : rests of the country to a mistaken notion of into the conduct of the Portuguese during personal ferling and propriety.-) expert to the Bianche occupation of their couniry? hear upon this subject, that it was perfectly To stipul.te inorcover that no inquiry of genteel and well-bred to treat Junut and his
army in the manner we have done after pedition, had no other thought in bis head having beat them in the field : that it was the than how he should land his army; when bias of a great and generous wind, soaring that is done he must take time to look about above litile narrow and vulgar national preju. him; and if unmolested by the enemy be dices, to she w that as we were great so we sits quietly down upon the sbore to consume could be merciful ; and that it might conci. the provisions brought for him in a fleet of Jiate the good-will of other couutries-of victuallers. It is then fortunate if he does France and of Russia, for instance -- to let not thiuk it necessary to send home for fresh them see that when victorious we could set instructious before be proceeds any fartber. bounds to our triumphs, and not carry our At length, up comes the enemy. - You obresentment to extreines. You may believe served, no doubt at the time, that on the 21st
of August our army was the attacked not the the British characier that the nations of the attacking party ; and I have been informy, world want to be inade acquainted. They from very credible authority, that our general give is full credit for disinterestedness, mo- knew so little çf his opponent's movements, deration, and generosity ; they know that that the troops were three times put under we would never strike or insult a fallen ene- arms and as often dismissed in the night of my; but they are not so certain of our acting the 201b; and that it was only at six o'clock with that rigour that would convince both in the mornir.g, when Junoi's main body, was friends and tou's that we are not to be insulted seen within a very short distance of ours
, with impunity; that we are resolred to obtain that we discovered what his intentions really satisfaction proportioned to the injuries that were. -- If it had not been for Jugot's adopt. we receive; that our exertions will not slack. ing the spirited resolution of marching out of en until the just object of our undertakings Lisbon to give us battle, he might, according be accomplished ; and that, at any rate, we to our mode of proceeding, of which the are not to be gulled by the artifices of the having three different commanders-in-chiel first intriguer with whom we may happen to in the course of 36 hours is no immateria have to deal. This is what the people of trait, have puzzled them all three so as pe the continent want to see; they feel ihal baps to be at this moinent in possessione instead of our being Machiavelists, as Buo- that capital
As it was, we were forced to naparte calls us, all the Machiavelism is on fight, and our soldiers fought as they sir? his side, and that we have too ofien carried have done. But was it enough to be liste on our concerns with other powers with an enemy in an encounter whicli in the faith awkwardness, and a want of system border- years' war would have been considered 3 i ing upon silliness. They think that we more than a sharp affair of advanced guard! make inmenge efforts to produce very tri- Where would Buonaparte now be, it, after fling comparative benefits. The nation gives the battle of Auerstadt, be load sat bimself with profusion money and men; the govern- quietly down before the town, concluded an ment is at times active in employing them ; armistice, and enjoyed for ten days the our soldiers and sailors fight most valiantly; tickling compliments which one of the king and yet, in the end, what does it all avail us >
of Prussia's generals might have paid him on -We either fail in our object as at the Hel- the bravery of his troops, or the distinguish. der, or obtain it but partially as in the case of ed condact of any part of them ?-Wby. it Portugal. What can this be owing to but to is probable that the Prussians would have rea defect or to a total want of system? We covered from their panic; collected their see things through too shall a medium, or scattered corps; and taken up some position we do not look far enough into the conse- in which to arrest the conqueror's march: at quences of them. Hence it follows, that all events they would not have been devourwhen we are successful, what with surprise od piecemeal, or compelled to surrender at and joy, we are so confused that we know discretion, before they could reach any tenanot what to do next. The actions of the ble position. But Buonaparte's business was 17th and 21st August, do infinite honour to to take all possible advantage of his victory, the bravery of our troops, and we certainly and to reach Berlin by ihe shortest road. were not behind-hand in bestowing a full Qurs was to reach Lisbon. He marched his measure of applause upon ubeir commande distance in a shorter time than the Prussians, ers; but it is clear to me that those actions We let the French escape and never stirred will be noticed in history, more for the ina- from our ground. He then exemplified the deguate effects which they produced than for principle which we altogether neglect, and any credit that may be due io the persons en the neglect of which is, in my opinion, the gaged in them. It really seems as if a Bri- cause of much of our distress.---Witban tish general, going on the command of an ex- exultation, which is only pardonable when it
is successful, he cries : “ Nothing is done with Portugal, I entertained the hope that whilst any thing remains to be done;" and he would not abandon the sentiments of es
instantly his troops march on to farther con- teem and friendship which he had always E quest and take rest only when their enemy manifested towards me. But when I perbe don is utterly annihilated. We, on the contrary, ceived that his troops advanced towards my her be always take time to surfeit ourselves with joy capital, I felt the urgency there was for colferaet de and congratulations; the enemy is always lecting my army round my person, to pre
active, and after a due portion of expectation sent myself before my august ally in a man. practitiko: and conjecture the public is astonished with ner worthy of the king of Spain. I should be etery! the information that our first success not have removed all his doubts, and have seime, be as having been followed up, it has been either cured my best interests. I gave orders to th: counterbalanced by some success of the ene. my troops to leave Portugal and Madrid, and bave bees my, or tarnished by some want of proper I united them in various parts of my mo
ist: exertion on our own part.- You, Sir, were narchy, not to abandon my subjects, but biedis 3 amongst those who approved of our proceed honourably to support the glory of my brie 2015
ings last year towards Denmark. Ji was at- throne. Besides, my extensive experience
tempted by men of high political considera- convinced me that the emperor of the French was cast tion in this country, to maintain that those might very well entertain wishes conforma. Juno bes: proceedings alienated from us the affections ble to his particular interest, and to the po.
of the continent. Sir, it was no such thing. licy of the vast system of the Continent, u bis intest. The politicians on the continent, many even but which might be inconsistent with the en for der who did not wish well to this country, were interests of my house. What was, in such on of maca unanimous in exclaiming : “ At last the En- circumstances, your conduct? You intro. be nichts glish are roused from their lethargy; at last duced disorder into my palace, and infused
they assume the tone and attitude that be. a spirit of mutiny into my body guard, against comes them; we shall now see, at least in my person. Your father was your prisoner ;
the north of Europe, something like a coun- my prime minister, whom I had appointed om all three terpoise to Buonaparte's overbearing ambi- and adopted into my family, covered with
tion." They admired the wisdom of our blood, was driven from one danger to anplan, and would have admired the energy other. You dishonoured my grey hairs— of the execution, if they had not seen you despoiled me of the crown, possessed us in the month of September drawing with glory by my ancestors, which they had in our horns, and hiding ourselves within preserved without a stain. You seated your
our shells as if afraid of the cold of Qetcoer self upon my throne, and placed yourself at and November. They then thought that we the disposal of the people of Madrid, and of had put ourselves to a great expence, made foreign troops, who were then entering the an amazing uproar in Europe, and subjected capital.---The conspiracy of the Escurial had o'ir moral character as a nation, at least to already accomplished its purposes. The acts some sort of imputation, without obtaining of my administration were brought into any object adequate to so much risk.-If the public contempt. Old, and oppressed by Conventions, and the inquiry that is to be in infirmity, I was not able to surmount this stituted concerning them, should lead to a new misfortune. I resorted to the emperor correction of this most capital defect in our of the French, not as a king at the head of system of foreign policy, I shall think that iny troops, surrounded by the pomp of the disgrace, which they have otherwise royalty ; but as an unhappy and abandoned brought upon us, is not without its counter. prince. I have found refuge and protection Vailing advantage. - I am, yours, &C.-AN in the midst of his camp. I owe to hin my ENGLISHMAS. -Oct. 19, 1803.
own life, that of the queen, and that of the
prime minister. I have arrived at last at EXPOSITION OF THE PRACTICES
Bayonne, and you baye 90 conducted this CUINATIONS WHICH LED TO THE USLR- negociation, that every thing depends upon PATION OF THE CROWY OF SPAIN, AND the mediation and protection of this great THE MEANS ADOPTED BY THE EMPEROR prince.-The idea of resorting to popular OF THE FRENCH TO CARRY IT INTO EX agitation would tend to the ruin of Spain,
and expose yourself, my kingduin, my subFIRST SECRETARY OF STATE
jects, and my family, io the most horrible CATHOLIC MAJESTY, catastrophes. My heart has been fully unPERDINAND VII. (Continued from p. 6 10.) folded to ahe emperor ; he knows all the
While these occupied the right bank of injuries I have received, and the violence the Ebro, and appeared to have for their that has been done to me; he has declared object the maintaining the coinmunication to me, that you shall never be acknowledged
f'is, we were fought ai lhe
il elbought er which in
been conect ir of advance
parle nos idt, be had o ® là 47, 4: yed for te
Eight bare ops, or the It of tben russians OLET panic; azeri
Corcuerei DOC have been impelled y could react honaparte i bar diantage det beste
He there e altogether
as king, and that the enemy of his father į its neglect. I have sacrifced the whole of can never acquire the confidence of foreign my life to my people ; and in the advanced state3. He has, in addition to this, shewn age to which I have arrived, I shall do no. me letters written with your own band. thing in position to their religion, their which clearly shew your aversion to France, tranquillity, and their happiness. I bwe -Things being this situated, my rights are reigned tor ther; I will constantly occupy clear, and my duties are much more 40.
It myself for their sakes ; I will forza all my is incumbent on me to preveat the shedding sacrifices ; and when at last I shall be coj. of the blood of niy subjects, to do nothing vinced that the religion of Spain, the inteat the conclusion of my career, which shali grity of her provinces, ber independence, and carry fire and sword into every part of Spain, her privileges are preserrel, I shall descend and reduce it to the most horrible misery. to the tomb, forgiving those w!! have enCertainly, if faithful to your primary obli- bittered the last years of my life.-Dre! gations, and to the feelings of nature, you from the imperial place of Bayonne, caliel bad rejected those perfidious connseli, and the Government Palace, Muy 2, 1809. placed yourself constan'ly at my side, for No. IX.—Letter written by king Ferdinand the defence of your father, you had waited VII. to his angust Father, ir answer 13 the regular course of nature, which would the precedling have elevated you in a few years to the rank My honourel Father and Lord ;-I re. of royalty. I should have been able to ceived the letter that your majesty condeconciliate the policy and interests of Spain, scended to write to me, dated yesterday, ani with that of all. For six months, no doubt, I will endeavour to answer all the particu. matters have been in a critical situation ; but lurs with that moderating and respect which notwithstanding such difficulties, I should is die to your majesty.-Your majesty have obtained the support of my subjects; speaks, in the first place, with respect to I should have availed myself of the weak the alteration in your political conduct to. means which yet remained to nie, of the wards France, after the peace of Basle ; and moral aid which I should have acquired, in truth, I believe there is no individual ia meeting always my ally with suitable dig. Sprin who has complained of it; rathers! nity, to whom I never give chuse of com- were unaniinous in praising your majesty for plaint ; and an arrangement would have your confidence in, and fidelity to the pa been made which would have accommodated ciples you had adopted. Mine, in partio the interests of my subjects to those of my lar. were entire's similar to your own ; family. But in tearing from my head the I have given irrefragable proof of it from crown, you have not preserved it for your- the moment when vour in jesty abdicated self; you have taken froin it all that is al- the throne in my favour.-11ad the affrir of gust and sacred in the eyes of mankind.--- the Escurial, which your majesty states, oriYour behaviour with respect to me, your ginated in the hatred with which my wife intercepted letters, have put a brazen barrier inspired me against France, your ministers, between yourself and the throne of Spain, my beloved mother, and your roval sell
, and it is neither yo;ir owo interest nor that been examined with all the legal $c-ms, it of the country thai you should reign in it. would have evidently proved the cogirary. Avoid lighting a fire which will unavoidably Notivithstanding I had not the least in. cause your complete ruin, and the degracha. fluence, and no liberty beyond the shew of tion of Spain.---I am king by the righe given | it, gruar ted, as I was, by dolne.tics whom me by my forefathers: my ablication was you pat round me, yet the eleven counselthe result of force and violence; I hive no- lors chosen by your majesty were unani. thing to receive from you; nor can I con- mously of opinion, that there was no ground sent to the convocation of the cortes, ani for the accusation, and that the supposed additional absurdity, suggested by the in- criminals were innocent. --Your majesty experienced perso:3 who attend yoll. --I talks of the distrust created jy the entience have reigned for the happiness of my sub. of so many foreign troops into Spain; and jects, a... I do not wish to bequeathe then that if your majesty recilled from Portugal civil war, matiny, popular juntas, and re- your troops, and united those that were in volution. Every thing should be done for Madrid, atranjuez, anlits neighburbad the people, and nothing by the people : to it was not to abindon your subjects, but to forget this maxim, were to become the ac- support the glory of the throne. complice of all the crimes that must follow
(To be continued.)
Priced by Cox and Baylis, Great Queen Street; published by R. Bagshaw, Bredges Street, CorentGa.den, where former vumbers may be had said also by j, Budd, Crown and Micre, Pall