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aut off the ertemy's retreat through Navarre, between the system of an ambitious and where they will be joined by other troops treacherous government, and that of a and the arined peasantry of that country ; nation wbich cements is felicity by the fairand the 6000 mon that I expect to-morrow est principles of justice, and considers not from Valentia, joined by 4000 men of the as real enemies those who took no share ia army formed on Catalay-ad, will, I trust, be lhe delicious combat of their government. able to overtake the enemy's rear, in order Fiance will long deplore the calamities which to chastise and prevent them from commit. the war with Spain has prepared for ber; ting on this march ibeir usual robberies and and cannot recollect, without the deepest vexations. This fortunate event has been this sense of shame, the means employed to carry day celebrated with the ringing of bells, it 00.-Husbandmen, artizans, Grphans, and 10-morrow the Te Deum will be sung aged and religious persons, ye who have to offer up thanks to the Most High.--It is been reduced to indigence and misery in of great importance to accelerate the meeting consequence of your fields being fired, your of the deputies of all the provinces of Spain, | houses destroyed, and your property, which, and I think it would be expedient to ap- however small, constituted your whole forpoint for that purpose a day in the next tune and all your comfort, robbed by the month of September. I have given the French, be easy ; you have the good for. same advice to the rest of the general and tune of living in Spain, and yours is the supreme councils in the whole kingdom; glory to have defended the capital of Arragon, and should you coincide with me in opinion whereby our enemy was prevented from des on this subject, I hope you will acquaint me solating the rest of this beautiful province : with it.-Joseph DE PALAFOX y Melzi.
bore nip with resignation under your sufHead-quarters, Saragossa, Aug. 13, 1803. ferings, and disregarded your private interest
Manifesto, dated Head quarters, Saragossa, in order to promote ibe general good. I 1: Aug. 15.
cannot look with indifference on deeds of After so many days of pain and affliction, heroism like yours, nor omit any opportunithe period has at lenged'arrived, which I ty of proouring you relief. I have very parcould
expect, from the firmness and valour ticularly charged the intendant general of with which you have defended this illustrious the kingdom, D. Lorenzo Calbo, as soon as capital. -Having witnessed the shameful the most pressing occupation of the present Right of the French slaves, who have aban- period shall permit it, io relieve your wants doned the artillery, ammunition, and pro, by every means in bis power; and I depend visions, which their detestable rapacity had on the generous feelings of all Spaniards, heaped up, let us now perform our principal and on the liberal sentiments of our beloved duty, and ofter op thanks to the Omnipotent king, that all possible exertion will be made
who has inflicted condign puua hment on to indemnify you for yoQr sufferings and 1 those wretched soldiers who profane the losses.-PaLAFOX.
temples, outrage the sacred images of the Manifesto of the Junta of Seville, August Divinity; and are such strangers to morality,
3, 1809. that they are not worthy to have any inter- The defence of our country, and of our
course with the rest of mankind. Let us king, that of our laws, our religion, and of - leave their emperor to the remorse and amic
all the rights of man, trodden down and tions which are the lot of the wicked, and violated, in a manner which is without exbeveech the Most High, that he may vouch- ample, by the emperor of the French, safe to bless again our arms, that the two Napoleon I. and by his troops in Spain, armies which are in pursuit of the fugitive compelled the whole nation to take up armis, robbers, may compleie their destruction.- and to chuse itself a form of government; The fields of Saragossa, its gates, and even and in the difficulties and dangers into which its streets, are stained by the blood of the French had plunged it, all, or nearly all, 8000 Frenchmen, who have paid with the provinces, as it were by the inspiration their lives for the temerity of their chief. of heaven, and in a manner de short of This is the fruit which the French have miraculous, created supreme juntas, delireaped from their entrance in Arragon. All vered themselves up to their guidance, and Europe, vay, the universe, will hear with placed in their hands the rights and the horror the names of their generals Le Febvre ultimate fate of Spain. - The effects have and Verdier, who, unmindfal of the good hitherto nuost happily corresponded with the treatment which the French prisoners, and designs of those who formed them. Tlie all the natives of France experienced in Arra- provinces have armed themselves; one gun, have committed ihe virmost atrocities. have formed large armies of veteran troops, They very justly appreciated the difference and have united to them the enlisted pea.
sants; all, or nearly all, have fought and an alteration into them; the different preare fighting against the French in behalf of texts for this alteration; and, lastly, the their king, Ferdinand VII. with a valour final settlement which was made by the and a constancy, of which neither Greece, cortes of 1789, and which ought in future nor Rome, nor any other nation of the to be the rule. But are we in a situation to world, bad any idea. The French are i'eally talk of these matters? Long live our king amazed and territied, and the hopes of con- and indisputable sovereiga Ferdinand VII. quering them are as sure as hunian certainty and long live his awgust brothers, heirs of can reach.—The only thing which can in the crown, after his attested decease. Why pair or frostrate them, is discord, and the then anticipate those enquiries which can onwant of union anong the provinces thein- ly be necessary in detault of these? This selves. Hence the supreme junta paid its , anticipation may produce, by the diversity first attention to renove that danger, withof opinions which it creates, a cruel diswhich view it printed and published the union, which, of itself alone, will utterly official paper, entitled Precautions, which it ruin the only aim and object which Spain at communicated in every possible manner to present bias in view, and that is, its own eli. all the provinces of Spain. The bringing tire and independent preservation for its 53this plan to perfection, and carrying it into vereign lord and king, Ferdinand VII. and complete execution, is now more than ever bis undisputed successors; and, with its pecessary. Our enemies are anxious 10 king, the preservation of its own rights asi foment our divisions. Human passions, laws, and ihe unity of the holy Ronan Cspersonal interests ill-understood, the igno. tholic apostolical religion, which it has g. rance, the weakness, the blindness of mun, riously professed and defended for so mar may, perhaps, without their knowing it, ages. It is therefore, boil absurd and din assist the evil designs of our enemies, and gerous to dispute about the succession in cases thus destroy a beginning so glorious, and evidently remote; all the provinces of Spa's facilitate and consummate the entire ruin of ought to contine themselves in this respectio Spain. This it is that we are endeavouring this general expression." Hereditary sacra to guard against, urged only by the most sior according to the fundamental law's of *** sacred motives, by our honour, by our loy- | monarchy."—Not so is it with the second alty as affectionate subjects, by our duty as question moved by the various juotas a 120 Spaniards, by our faith as Christians; and kingdom, which certainly keeps the man bere we protest before God and man, whose in a state of disquietude and agitarica i aid we invoke with all fervency, that we the continual object of public conversiin, will write nothing but what is dictated to us and may produce divisions fatal to the gene by the love of our country, the preservation rous design, and the virtuons obligation into of our king, and of vur rights, not mingling which we have entered of defending ourselis with it any thing that appears to partake of against our enemies, and of preserving or passion, of interest, or of any other person- country, our king, our monarchy, our laws
, al motive; but being always ready to hear and our religion. This second question isthe opicions of the other provinces, and to is there a necessity for creating a supreme amend our own errors, wherever it shall be government, which may unite the sover shewn that we have committed any.—Be it reign authority. of all the provinces, till the chief care to avoid every thing which is the restitution of king Ferdinand to his not absolutely necessary, and which may throne ?—This supreme junta declares serve to sow tle sedis of disunion in the openly, that from the beginning to the provinces, and to excite divisions among present time it has been persuaded that such a them; and of this nature we esteem all con- supreme goverument is altogether necessary, versations about the royal house, and of the and that without it the country is iv danger, order of succession in different families and its enemies will find means of completwhich derive a right from it. There is no ing its ruin; and the reasons of this deter
: person so ignorant of the history of Spain, mination and declaration are so erident, and and of the mannes in which she throne has present themselves with such clearness to been occupied, as not to know the changes ine eyes of all, that they cannot fail of comwhich bave taken place in the succession. vincing all who have the least notion of pubIt is also known what are the legislative pro- lic affairs, or a correct insight into the inde ceedings upon this point; what the manner :ure of man, the passions which move him, in which endeavouis were used to introduce and the order of human atfairs in all ages.
(To le continued.) Printed by Cox and Baylis, Greae Queen Street ; published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Stree", CorentGaiden, where former Numbers may be had : sold also by J. Budu, Crowu and Mitre, Pall Mallo
VOL. XIV. No. 16.) LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 15, 1808. [Price 100.
In the London Gaz tre Extraordinary, in which were published, by the government, the several documents relaring to the lace Conventions ia Portugal, the Armistice, which was cbe basis of all that followid, and which, as far as it w.ts departed from, in the subsequent negociations, was rendered less injurious and disgraceful; this Armistice, which was, on our pari, negociated by Sir Arthur Wellesley, and which bure his signature; this Armistice was published, was, by the government, communicated to the people of England, in the French language only, while all the other documents were, in the very same Gazelle Extraordinary, published in the English language only. 577)
(578 SUMMARY OF POLITICS.
Wellesley would not, indeed, have enjoyed CONVENTION IN PORTUGAL. The the praises of this gulled nation for the space fact, a statement of which I bave placed at of a week; a strong and unjust public perthe head of this present Number of my suasion, in his favour, would not have been work, should be constantly borne in mind excited ; but that is all, that is all the mis. by every man in this disgraced and abused chief that could possibly have arisen froin country. It has been the subject of much the delay. But, was there a delay ? I conversation and inquiry ; it was a thing, of doubt it. Did not the bearer of the diswhich the ministers must have been desirous patch bear also the account of the armisto give, or cause to be given, a satisfactory tice, in substance if not in form? It is my explanation; it is notorious, that a whole opinion that he did. Ships do not move ott month has now elapsed without the appear- at a moment's warning, like post-chaises. ance of even any attempt at such expla- The armistice must have been concluded nation; and, tberefore, the public are jus- before the bearer of the bragging dispatch tified in concluding, that their intention, left Portugal; and, though it would have from the first, wis to do all in their power been of little use, perhaps, to send forward to screen Wellesley, let what would become the document in due form, yet the substance of bis associates in the never-to-be-forgotten of it might have been added to the dispaich, transaction. Whether they will persevere and it is not credible that it was not added. in this their evident intention we shall My belief, therefore, is, that the substance soon see ; probably I shall be able to per- uf ihe armistice was inade known to Lord ceive it even before this article be finished ; Castlereagh through the bearer of the disfor, the hero of Oude being arrived, his patch ; and that he, not being bound to newspaper will not be long in niaking communicate that substance to the public, known to us what we have to expect with suffered us to go out, for as long a rinne as respect to bim.In the meanwhile, let possible, applauding the conduct of Welles. us attend to some points which have escaped jeyi-l do not wish to strain any thing. us. The dispatch, giving an account of I have no other motive; I can have no other the victories in Portugal, were dated on the motive, than that of a desire to see impar22d of August ; the bearer of that dispatch tial justice done ; but, this appears to me could not have come away before that day ; to be the fact, and, if it be so, the public ought on that very day. the armistice was negociated to bear it in mind; because it is a circundand concluded, and yet the bearer of the dis- stance strongly corroborating the opinion, patch brought no account of the armistice. now generally prevalent, that the ministry, Was not this something very singular? Say, or a part of them at least, have intended hat the bearer was ready to come off in the and, probably, do intend, to screen Wellesmorning, and that the armistice was not ley at all events.- -From* motives, which concluded until night. But, if there were will, by-and-bye, hecome apparent enough, e vessel ready to send off with another the friends of Wellesley are now questionmessenger at night, why was not the bearer ing the practicability of reducing Jonot Eept until night, that the consequence of the within any reasonable space of time; and a ictory as well as the victory itself might correspondent, whose lerier will be found in ave been announced to us at the sanje another part of this double Number of the Eme? Wbat injury to the service could Register, sets himself seriously to work to ossibly have arisen from the delay, of a controvert the opinion which I
&?!e, to ew hours in the departure of this messen- wit, that, after reading Wellesley's dispe'ci),
Nay, what possible inconvenience we had a right to expect, by the next ould have therefrom arisen? Sir Arthur arrival, an account of the unconditional
surrender of the French. Did any one before less than nine thousand men. After imagine, that, by the “next arrival," all, however, we return to the point : I meavt, or could mean, the very next be his force what it mighi, the whole of it vesel that should come into port from was beaten by about one third of the force the shores of Portugal ? I meant, by the that we had at ihe time of making the Con. next bearer of dispaiches from our army ; l'ention; the whole of it was beaten but the next bearer of any intelligence of im- the day before by one third of that force, portance ; and, I appeal to the language of amongst whom were the very men who had the press, at the time Wellesley's dispatch beaten him ; this is the fact, or.... Welles. was received, for a proof that such was the ley told this nation, this credulous and abus expectation generally entertained. But, sed valion, a shameful lie. Well, sy's was it a reason alle expectation? That is this new defender of Wellesley, but of the question ; and it is, observe, a question what avail would have been a superiority of which lies entiroly between Wellesley and force? We should not have made Junot the public, the other commanders having surrender any thing the sooner on account had no hand in the bragging dispatch. of great superiority of numbers.--No My correspondent now tells me of tu'enty Why then, the complete power of cutting or more than twenty thousand men, whom off succours and of preventing the chance Junot had under his command. But, Wel
of sallies would, in the hands of our generals, lesley told us, that, with half his force, be- bave been useless Besides, what are this fogre he was joined by Burrard, he beat gentleman's ideas of a siege? It is, for the " the while of the French force, commanded most part, a very vulgar atfair ; an affair "b: the Duc d' Abrantes in person." I should much more resenibling ditching and draining like to have seen bin when' be pepped this than any thing else ; and, as iwo labourers last quoted sentence. “ By the Duc d'A- will do twice as much at ditching in a day “ brantes in person !" How he braced up, than one labourer will do, so thirty thousand I dare say, and repeated the words to him. men will, in the same space, do twice as self, with an air of pomposity so insepara- much at making trenches, approaches, and ble from his sect. « In person !” Why, if baiteries, as fifteen thousand men. We there bad been an army of a hundredthousand have, moreover, the authority of that great men, commanded by emperors, the language man, Sir Hew, one of whose motives to and manner could not have been more pom- coming to ternis with Junot was, that the pius. Some one 'bas observed, that the was a doubt, whether Sir John Moon giring of this title to Junot proceeded solely division could be landed at the time. Now, from the vanity of Wellesley; as if nothing acceding to the notion of my correspondent short of a Duke were worthy of the honour more men were not only not necessary, but of measuring swords with a Wellesley; absolutely useless for the purpose of ang and, indeed, it seems difficult to attribute operation that could, at the time alluded to,
any other motive, this cutting and figrant be in contemplation.-But, for the por insult to a prince and a people, whom we pose of storming, would not superiority of went out to rescue from insult and oppres- numbers have been an advantage? Or, sion. To return from this digression : it has not this mode of attack yet found its matters little what were the numliers of Ju. way into the practice of our armies? Why not's force at the date of the negociation ; du we raise all these men ; why do we pray for, whether many or few,“ the whole" of ten thousand officers; why have we a staf his torce had been beaten by “ one half" superior in numbers, and very far superior of the force of Wellesley, and we know, is expence, to Buonaparte, if we are never that the force of the latter became double in to hear of any enterprize of this sort? The number, or nearly double, previous to the greater part of the forts in Portugal, if signing of the Convention. It is a fact pretty my information be correct, were things, generally known, that when transports are to be taken by .storm, with the loss of demanded, double tonnage is expected. Be. perhaps thousand men for each attack sides, the number is now swelled out with of this kind; and, it will require very all sorts of personis, persons, who, observe, ample and very credible evidence to com shur op in forts, would have been a dead vince me, that, with such an army, with weight upon him; and yet my correspon- thirty thousand meu, so able-bodied and so di, ou chooses to believe, that Junot could accustomed to labour, with such a train of hurre brought twenty thousand men into the artillery, and with the whole of the strength, field, though it was positively stated, that lavour, and resources of the country at our he icireated with his whole force betore one disposal, not to mention a considerable are ball or Wellesley's army; that is to say, my of Portuguese actually embodied; it
will require much indeed to convince me, gentle, that he had only to play the bully, ut, with such means, our generals might the robber, and the murderer, and had 10not, in the corerse of one week, biare carried thing to appreber:d in the way of retaliation? a mine ander the rampart of Junot's strong. Judge, reader, of the badness of a can:e, in est fortress. · There would have been no re. support of wbich such an argument is 'regular investiture necessary; no line of cir- sorted to.But, as the reader will percumvallation ; none of the precautions usual- ceive, we are now, it seems, to answer those ly acespied in cases of regular siege ; because who defend the Convention, not those who ailies and saccours were out of the questioni. execrate the Convention and defend Wel. Did ever man conceive, that, under such lesley. Reader, we have heard the defencircumstances, a breach could not be made ders of Wellesley assert, in the most posiin six days ? Never; and, when my cor- tive manner, that he protested against the respondent reminds me of Saragossa and Convention, and against any compromise at other open towns, which have exbibited 10 all with the French; that he had nothing to the world instances of long and successtul do with negociating the armisiice which he resistance, my answer is, that it has not signed ; that the French general wrote it been owing to the strength of the place, but out with his own hand; that Dalrymple, at to the strength and courage of the defenders. Kellerman's request, commanded Wellesley Let bim slew me an instance, wherein the to put his signature to it; and, that, after assailant bad, with a third of his force, very earnest remonstrances, be finally yieldbeaten the assailed but the day before, and ed' obedience to the hateful command. had all the country around for friends, while Those defenders have plyed us with disserhis enemy had nothing but enemies within tations upon military discipline ; they have and without ; let himn shew me an instance told us, that absolute power in the chief and like this, wherein a successful, or a long, implicit obedience in his inferiors are the defence has been maintained, and I will say, soul of an army; and, calling in the territhat he has advanced something worth listen- ble to the aid of the persuasive, they have ing to; but, for an instance of this sort hè reminded us, that if poor Sir Arthur had will search history in vain. As if for the disobeyed the mighty Sir Hew, the latter purpose of furnishing us with a striking in- might have run him through the body! stance of the miserable shifts, to which the Did they not assert and reason thus? Nay, partizans of Sir Arthur Wellesley are driven the gaudy, chariot-lounging, the painted and (for he must, at last, stand responsible for piano-playing strumpets about town, who, the Convention), this writer reminds me, as part of their regular calling, deal in the that the people of Lisbon, the dear good pathetic as well as in lies, irumped up a folks of Lisbon, were at the mercy of Junot; story of Sir Arthur's going upon his knees and, that it was our duty to prevent him, to prevail opon Sir Hew not to bring such by any means whatever, from committing a disgrace upon his country. Did not his any cruelties upon them, which cruelties he defenders say, that he was to be considered, might have committed, if we had refused as to the Armistice, as no more responsihim such terms as he demanded. It is pity ble than the clerk of an attorney or a that this argument has been so long delayed; banker, who signs a document or draft in for it would have applied equally well against the name of his master ? Did they not sending the expedition to Portugal, where throw all the blame, all the responsibility, it has, at an enormous expence, purchased lipon Sir Hew, whose faine they blasted, us deep disgrace, and done intinite injustice and whose carcase they threw down before and injury to our allies of Poriugal, Spain, 115, to be trampled and spit upon ? Did and Sweden. Indeed, it would apply against they not, in support of their great assertion every attempt to drive the enemy out of any respecting the Protest, first publish and ther, town or place. It is a sweeping argument ; quote, as from vouchers of undoubted authe universal argument of the coward: "I thenticity, numerous extracts of " letters "would attack you, bat I am afraid of the from the army," the whole of which ex
consequences." What! did not Junot tracts spoke of the famous Protest, blanted Well know, that, at last, he must become Sir Hew and Burrard, but were particularly really responsible for all the cruelties he com- strong and clear as to the Protest ? Every mitted upon the people of Lisbon ? Did he sycophant in London had this Protest upon not know, that we had cords to hang with his lips. Protest, Protest, “the gallant Sir and inaskets to shoot with? Or, was he ap Arthur's Protest,' the “ Conqueror of prized, by any means, that we were so gen- “ Vineira's Protest !" This was the cry tle a people, or bad committed our armies through the regions of Whitehall, and was to the care and command of generals so faithfully echoed by the punks of the squares.