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OCTOBER 8, 1808.-Spain.

[554 Reared one with the name of communication of that protest to the officers fer or the receiver ? No: and of the army. Attempt no shuffle, I beseech o, in the letter before me, you. Let your friend be where lie is. You

to argue upon the pretended have already besmeared him from liead to

in those letters; takes upon foot; and, it your efforts at whitewashing that their authors are all per- are continuer inuch longer, he will come Onour ; even this man has the oul of your hand, as black as a crow.

to favour either me or the

name. Je it after this fashion most interesting part of the world there is a that I proceed ? Have I dealt in such name- letter, written by Major Cartwright, and less, unowned, documents ? published in the last number of the Register,

No: I have taken the official papers, have to which I beg leave to refer the reader. He Emin

reasoned from their contents, and have, as will there see how the people of Spain forpremises, resorted to no facts, which are merly thought and with what spirit they not universally admitted to be true. --By acied, in matters relating to domestic free. way of conclusion, I will point out a light, dom. It is surprizing how strong a resemin which this pretended protest did not blance there is between what they songbi to before strike me, and in which it does not estabiish, in the reign of Charles V, and appear to have stricken even the editor of what was established in England a century the Times news-paper, who has displayed so later. I sincerely wish, that Major Carimuch acuteness and literary powers of every wright, who with the experience of thriekind, in the course of this interesting dis- score, writes with the clearness and the cussion. The statement of the friends of vigour of the prime of life, and whose reaWellesley, which statement is, in substance, soning and eloquence come recommended repeated by my correspondent, is this : by unquestionable disinteresiedness and Obedience is the soul of an arny ; a com- integrity, may succeed in his zzalous and

mander of an army must be as absolute as the unwearied endeavours to rouse the feel. is Grand Turk; Sir Arthur Wellesley has been ings and direct the judgment of the prebrought up in the school of obedience ; he sent patriots of Spain.

-am not, nor knew how great an injury it must be to the can any rational man be, without soma service, it he publickly prutested against the very serious apprehensions as

to the Convention; and, therefore, he confined result of the contest that is now about man his opposition to a protest privately made to to begin ; but, if a provisional government, alate the commander in chief. This is what they capable of calling out and directing ihe force * have said in bis defence, over and over of the country, be speedily organized, I des again, in various forms of words. Now, shall have great hopes of final success, note then, without asking whether the Wel. wiihstanding any reverses that may, at the

were remarkable for their obe. out-set, be experienced by the Spaniards. dience to the East India Directors, let us For, we seldom lave beard of a whole peo1** put the sincerity of this defence to the test

. ple being subdueil, if they were animated He protested privately, lest, by a public with one soul, and if that soul was bent protest, he should create a division in the upon obtaining freedom The thing to be army, and thereby do great injury to the most feared is, that this all-powerful molile service. Now, ye caniing hypocrites, if may not universally prevail; that the nobles, slich were the fact and such ihe motive, how or the priests, or both, may look beyond the Carne you in possession of the knowledge of inmediate object of the struggle, and may

protest? You are his close friends, per- be grudging in their offers io the people, chance, and so he wrote home, unlocking and also in point of confidence in their interhis bosom to you, easing bis agouized heart course with them. If this should unhappily by communicating to you the proof of his be the case; if the people should be treated

This will not do; this wirb coolness, disglist will speedily sncceed, will not serve your turn; for, you have the cause will soon fall to ruin, and those told us before, that the facts relating to this atiаcks, which in the other case, would have protest have been communicated by the of. called forth the latent fire of patriotism, 13ficers of the army. So that, taking the lent, and valour, will at once, extinguisha whole of your ow!) statement as true ; ad- every motive of resistance. It is quite slock. mitting all that you assert, Wellesley, who ing to think of an ancient nation consisting was convinced that the making of a public of so many millions of people being made protest would be greatly injurious to the ser- over to, and taken possession of by, a man vice, made a private protest to the comman- who was, but yesterday, a person inkron der-in-chief, and then, made an anderhand in ide world; but, he conies backed with



innocence ? No.

terrible power, and to resist that power there | Englaud in particular that one ought to have. must be a motive, and an adequate motive at heart. I ob erve, that, in several of our too.---- In speaking of the operations of the writers, a hatred of Napoleon is the predowar, the Fabian example of the Americans minant feeling; a:al, what is the worst of has been cited. But, we should bear in it, the far greater pari of them do not dismind the vast difference in the circumstances. cover hatred of him in his character of des. The nature of the two countries is, in the pot, but in his character of conquerct. first place, very different. America was as- Now, it is, I presume, in the former chasai'eu by an enemy, who had all his troops, racter, that he is the most decidedly entihis houses, and his artillery, to send across tled to our hatred; but, then, the ditlienlly the sea, a distance of, at least, a thousand is, that there are other despois, whom we leagues, and, it sometimes happened, that profess not to hate at all. We ourselves five or six months elapsed between the em- have been great conquerors in our day. barkation and the landing: Besides, the There are the Nabob Viziers, the Nizams, enemy whom America had to resist was of a the Sultauns, and a long list of sovereigns of very different character. We used no fire; one sort and another, whom we bave conwe sacked no towns; we did not carry the quered, whose territories we have invaded, torch in one hand and the sword in the other. and whose subjects we have taken to ourCur ge erali were not Massenas anci Junots.

selves, not forgetting some small portion A standing toast at our head-quarters ustd to of their property; and we bare sen, that, be, a long war and a merciful one."


instead of curses upon the head of the Lanneses do not give such toasts. No: tle

divers conquerors, we have heaped thanks, Spaniards will want men very different from praises unbounded, and pensions and titles the Washingtons and the Lees. They will not a low. Come, cure, then; let us not have to figlit day after day and every day, be so unjust as io hate and exec rate this man and to withstand that terror, which the

in bis characier of conqueror.

in bis chadestructive 'progress of an arny, accustomed racter of despot, with all my soul; in his to pillage and tv all sorts of cruelty, cannot character of despot-maker ; in his character fail to inspire in the ininds of the weaker of oliy of Russia of the rabble of rascals part of the nation. We must not, thure- upon the Rhine ; in this character I agree fore, conclude, that the Spaniards will suc- to him as much as any man living. —-|| ceed, because the Americans did. If, in- we hate him as a despot, we cannot wise deed, we could prevail upon Buonaparte to see a despotism, of any sort re-established send against them such generals as we sent in Spain. The name of the man who is it to America (ind we might be able, perhaps, be ai the head of the despotism, if a des to point out some such for the service), the potism it is to be, is of no consequence to the Spanish cause would be sase ; but, as ihings i Spaniards, nor is of but very litile conseare, it must be confessed, that the struggle i qience to us. l'eople have often carried on is an object of the uimost anxiety; and, it | bloody wars for a choice of despots ; but, behoves us to think betimes of what our then, each despot was present and active measures ought to be, if the result should biouself. In short, it is absurd to suppose, stat a Buonaparte upon the throne.--- I that, at this day, any nation will undergo like not, I must confess, the seeming bank- fire and sword for the sake of an absent perering afier FERDINAND VII. The Spaniards son, whose former government, they have have declared the late government to bave called infamous; and,

if this absurdity been an infamous one. What sense is should be attempted to be persevered in, there, theo, in their talk about a man, in think, it is very clear, that the Spaniards whose person they must intend (if they in- will be subdued. This, it seems to me, tend to do any thing with him) to restore is the point, upon which the fate of Spain that government? I do not undersiand this,

will turn. Uncoinmon, unheard-of, exerKe las abdicated the throne ; he has given tions are required; new courage, new ta; up bis claims to the sovereignty of Spain, lents, new genius, are demanded. To call in terms as explicit as a man can possibly these forth powerful motives must ex

There appears to be something like ist, and these murives must make their way, ir tatuation in carrying on a bloody war for at once, to the hearts of even the lowest ordim, or in making his restoration any part ders of the people. A choice of despots ; of the objects of such a war.

This is,

a mere choice of persons to whom the peowith me, a chilling circumstance. It takes ple are to be slaves, appears to me to be no largely from the ardour I should feel in the motive at all; and hence I conclude, that, if Spanish canse ; for, after all, it is the good the leaders in Spain persevere in professing to of the world in general and of Spain and of make war for the restoration of ibeir former


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despot, they will be defeated, and that Joseph | connected, shooki very great circumspeca Napoleon, though the son of a green-grocer,

tion, much consideration, and infinite care will stand at the head of thei: new family and anxiety be sliewn ?-?f that be so, and sovereigns. God forbid that this should be when a commandtr-in-chief of such an the case ; but, if the struggle be made for army is appointed, ought not bis character ne better purpose, the failure of the Spani- to be perfectly well known, and his name ards will be a subject of regret with those gaire familiario the public? Should they not only, whose tears of the conqueror in.:vde- also be familiar with his former glory and prived them of the power of reduction. exploits, with his talents, his vigour, his Boiley, Oth Octoler, 150s.

enterprise, and his prudence? Above all,

ought not the army to be, (that is the CONVENTIONS IN PORTUGAL. soldiers) very well acquainted with him? Sir; -Ouzhi dhe tiring of the Park and Ought they not to have a cortidence in him? Tower guns to be considered as a signal of Ought they not to feel that he is able to joys or of grief, Mr. Cobbett? ----Ouglio command ibem ? -Was there ever an they ever to be fired, or can they be so, occasion, when all these things should have without an espress order from the ministers? been more particularly attended to than in And when the public do bear these guns, selecting a general to command our brave are they bound to conclude thal ministers troops in Portugal ? Was it not upon the see cause for rejoicing; that they are thus | success of the first blow we were to strike informed of the arrival of some glorious in this glorious contest, that almost every news; and that the firing of the guns is the thing depended? If it failed, and failed means by which the ministers intend to through dishonour and baseness, what could convey to ihe people their own joy and exal- we expect? Had we a right any longer to tation at the happy tidings they have re- look for trust or confidence on the Conticeived? - Is nine o'clock at night an nent ? Could the brave people in whose unusual hour for these guns to be fired cause we were fighting look upon our miliAnd if unusual, is it reasonable for the tary assistance, but with mistrust and appeople to expect news unusually good prehension? In effect, they might say and glorious ? --In such a ca e is it natural Timeo Danaös et dona ferentes." to be unusually anxious, and impatient for now come, Mr. Cobbett, to a very importhe Gazette?

- The next question I would i tant part of the subject, and one which, at beg leave to ask you, Mr. Cobbett, is this- the present moment, occupies no small Who is Sir Hew Dalrymple? This is a. share of public attention ; I mean the ques. question I have in vain asked of all I am tion with respect to Sir Hew and Sir acquainted wiih, and I fear it is a question Arthur, which I think will resolve itself which will puzzle all the big wigs in this into this: either that Sir Arthur is come kingdom. There is no doubt, however, but pletely innocent, or infinitely more guilty that Junot and Kellermann could answer it. ihan "Sir Hew Dalrymple. Let us inquire Sir Hew's name became immortal (to men- the truth. - - Was the actual command tion no one else at present) on the memorable taken from Sir Arthur the instant that the 30th of Aug. last; a day which never can battle of Vimeira had terminated ? And if be forgotten. Who can wish to krow more so, by whom was it taken ? Certainly of Sir Hew? Read his Convention. Is that not by Sir Hew, for his own dispatch denot enough? - Is it the Commander-in. clares the contrary, and begins thus: “[ Chiet, or the ministers who appoint, or vi have the honour to inform your lordship, ought to appoint the general, who is to act " that I landed in Portugal, and took the in the important situation of commander of command of the army, on Monday the 30,000 men; and to have the sole and entire 22d of Aug. the next day after the battle disposal of so large and fine an arıny as the " of Vimeira." Now, then, we have the British forces in Portugal ----Are those fact that Sir Hew only landed on the 22d. who do appoint in such a case responsible, Iho therefore had the command of our

or in any degree, for the conduct army, our victorious army, from the actual of him whom ihey have appointed ? If termination of hostilities on the 21st till the they are not responsiale for his acts, who is arrival at Cintra of Sir Hew on the 22d ? and to whom are the people to look for re- And what was done during that period ? dress ? --In selecting a general fit for a duty Upon the answer to these questions the of so high, so importani, and so honourable whole will turn. Till we hear the contrary, å nature, in the execution of which, the we are bound to believe that Sir Arthur reinterests of the country at large, and the tained the command. I will, therefore ask, honour of Greai Britain, are w intimately what was Sir dithur doing. How was inis


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army employed, during that most important | niand from Sir Harry, and then, as his interval ? His friends say, that he was

dispatch says,

a few hours after my arriturning lo push on. Was he so ? That pre. " val, General Kellermann came in with a cious interval then, was so employed ? Did

" flag of truce,

&c. and immediately after he, then, after his splendid victory, and " The inclosed contains the several articles without losing an instant, give orders for at first agreed upon and signed ly Sir the troops following up their well carried Arthur ivellesley and General Kellersuccess, by immediate pursuit? Did he “mann."-Pray now were these articles agreed prove that he was " burning to push on?” upon and signed by Sir Arthur, whom wa Did he instantly march towards Lisbon in have supposed to have had no command since order to cut off the retreat of the vanquished the termination of the battle of Vimeira? Janot (I beg his grace's pardon, I mean Are we to suppose, that Sir Hew requested le Due D'Abrantes) and in order to prevent Sir Artbur, as being conversant with the the possibility of bis concentrating his force then state of affairs, to enter into some in stroog positions? Was, or was noi, ail terms of agreement; and are we to supposo or any of these things done? Was that very that he was left entirely to his own judgment precious interval in any u'Qy made use of? and discretion? Or, are we to suppose that

I have not asserted that Sir Arthur did on being so requested, he strongly urged to hove the command during this period, but Sir Hew, the fatal consequences to be as we knw that Sir Hew had not, it remains dreaded from any suspension of hostilities

, tu be shewn whether upun this occasion the That he implored him to listen to nothing culprit was Sir Arthur, or Sir Harry. Ou short of unconditional surrender, and that the hersi of one or the other of these two, he did every thing in his power to prevent will fail the whole consequences resulting any Convention from being acceded to :from the inactivity, or want of decision and That Sir Hew then commanded him to siga pron;tness wbich then took place, which that which his heart revolted at? Are we to must hare prevented our gallant army tron suppose this? - And are we then to suppose intercepting the French from Lisbon, and that tamely and tacitly, with much gentle from following up the decisive blew wbich

resignation, the gallant Sir Arthur obeyed had been struck. The not having done the detested order-Now which of these which, and the vot having intercepted the two, is the most probable case? The former French from Lisbon, are allowed to be the

which supposes him to be only reques only reasons why any Convention became and left to act according to his own jude necessiry, (or rather was thought necessary) ment; or the latter in which he is hard he therefore, (be he wbo he may) the man commanded and left without a particle : who produced this state of things, whose discretionary power?' Is it not on this, that scandalous conduct rendered such a humilia- the whole merit or demerit of his conduct ring alternative necessary, is far more guilly as to the signature rests? But I will not thiao the man who merely ratified the damned ask you, Mr. Cobbett, whether you woch agreenent, -Whilst I am always for per- consider the request of a commander-1 mitting inily " Puimam qui meruit ferat," chief as tantamount to a command? Nes, at the same time I ani equally desirous that whether a command even, should alw3st Cuisim qui meruit ferat. And grieved as and without exception, be implicitly and I should be to blast the fresh laureis on the

tacitly obeyed ? Should the command of victorious brow of Sir Arthur, still, justice, a superior in no instance be departed from? and the injured honour of this country, re- Is there no latitude in any case allowed? And guire, that the culprit, be he who he may, sapposing all these to be answered by decla should be openly dragocd forih to public ring that nothing but passive and implicit riew and to public investigation. We bave obedience, can be tolerated by the niilitary already seen that there must have lon most lau', I would ask you, are there no situation! criminal conduct some:viere between the in which it wonld be both honourable and 215 and the 221, that Sirllew is completely even noble to disobey an express command! out of that scrape, and that it is entirely And if it might be honourable and even liettveen Sir Harry apii Sir Arthur. Now poble in some situations to disobey a colmo Het nis suppose thai Sir Harry, notwithstanda mand, might there not also be circumstances ing his Enerosity on the rieki of battle, under wbich it would be both criminal and di bowever putrede Sir Arthur the mo- buse to oley an express command ? Indeed, meni tlạt le French began to ierteat; and your last Register has already declared your let us suppose that Sir Arthur's advice was opinion on this subject. If any one insisted injectueu, on the following day, the on this meek, homble, non-resisting obe. 324, Sir Hew arrives, and whes the coni, dience, as being indispensable accarding w

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the military law, I would beg to know that is any way connected with it, fires me where such womanish obedience could stop. with indignation, and chills me with horror For instance : when Kellermann was fairly at the bare recollection, still, notwithstandabout it, stipulating on the one hand, and ) ing this, I have been able to read your getting every stipulation as quickly agreed excellent account of the ignominous transto on the otherano matter how framed or actions in that quarter with some degree of how worded-why did it not occur to him, pleasure and satisfaction; a melancholy to stipulate that ihe duke his master, with pleasure indeed and a mournful satisfaction! the whole of the French army, artillery, &c.

Your plain, but nervous language ; your should be immediately conveyed in English unbiassed, but manly conclusions; your do trans; orts to the coast of Ireland, (a frigale just, but ardent colouring, give to the whole

Or 74 being provided for his grace) and there of your statement a tove and character,

be disembarked with all their baggage, plun- which cannot fail, even to the reinotest times, ater in der, &c. &c. and be supplied with

sixty rounds to make every true Briton's heart bleed repetis per man and gun? Why did this not occur within him when he peruses it--whilst at is one to him? Of course it would have been those honest bursts of indignation which it 109 agreed to, and by the convenient non-resist- here and there exbibits, he will be roused to mothering, rule of obedience, the victorious Sir madness, will feel his whole soul on fire, Arthur would, good pliant soul, have put

and will call down curses and vengeance on and be bis hand, when so required, to such a stipu- those who were the authors of his poor

lation !!! Having so done, he might then country's disgrace and ignominy. To have have resumed his situation as commander- all the circumstances which preceded this in-chief in Ireland with great éclat-and fatal Convention (at which name

horresco Adidas with "No Popery" as his watch-word, have referrens ") fairly detailed, and recorded in

had the infinite satisfaction of again encoun- clear and unambiguous language, was fit, at Ax tering his Portuguese antagonists on British was necessary. Every one wbo bas read teen tof ground. Indeed he might, in that case, your last week's Register, will, if they do

possibly, have beheld, the imperial fag, of you justice, readily admit, that lew could arbar"

bis imperial and royal majesty Napoleon 1. bave executed this so well, and none, which waving over the turrets of Dublin castle!

sure, better.
-I am always, Sir,

-P. C. And bis grace of Abrantes might have thien

himself lecome an emperor, a catholic em- CONVENTIONS IN PORTUGAL. o dis oui peror. Strange that all this did not occur to Sir,- Amidst the burst of general and

whose fertile and comprehen- violent indignation, which is so universally sive mind seems to have been always felt by the whole nation, at the termination ulrumque paratus."-Since writing the of the campaign in Portugal, and in which

a most unforlunale letter of Sin you so largely participate ; permit me to Arthur's has made its appearance before the point out some circumsiances, wbich have public, in which (miralile diclu !) he even been either designedly or inadvertently overcongratulates the Portugueseon the Conven- looked. All the public writers have poured tion, in which he sees

out the most virulent invectives against every ABLB"!!! Gracious God! Cao the con- part of the Conventions, without once adqueror of Vimeira think soi-As to the verting to the very important advantages conduct of ministers on this occasion, I which have been gained.

This is not just.

that they will act with the same vigour and conventions ; I think with you that they are promptitude, which, happily for inis coun- highly disgraceful, to those in particular

try, has already marked their career. It is who concluded them, and, also, to the + 20 burt doing them justice to say, that as a whole nation at large, as far as it can be considered Lp fhowever much I may object to certain as a pariy to them. But, let us riot slut oor

component parts) they have done more, and eyes to ide services which have been perwith more spirit, in iheir short reign, than fórmed ; let not a blind and inconsiderato

any administration, which I can recollect, to passion, hurry us cn to deprive ourselves have done in tbe same period. The firing of the consolation of thinking, at least, that of the guns ought to be accounted for! something really essential has been effected.

I cannot entirely dismiss this subject withont We certainly had a just right to expect the w taking notice of what you have written, Nir. absolute surrender of the French army. The

Cobbelt, respecting it. And although that general atrocity which has marked the cont damned Convention in Portugal, which can duct of the French in every part of Europe, Dever cease to be thought of with curses and and in Poringal in particular, together wih secrations by every Englishman, and all 11a victories of Sir Artliur Wellesley, de

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