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tas appears from the opinion of my lord and reason, must have given himn much Mountnorris, who considered the criticism satisfaction. These events are the more g19so extremely clever, that after having read tifying, inasmuch as he shall confess, that it, and the work to which it referred, chap- he had not contemplated Spain, as the counter by chapter, he says, “I should bave try in which a successful resistance to France bought the one, but for the other ;" which is was most likely to originate. The grand equivalent to his having said, that he thought aim of his essay was to awaken bis own Wie volume, to which the criticism referred, country to a sense of her danger, in trustnot worth buying; and, if you think so, ing her defence too much to a standing army ; gentlemen, you will find a verdict for the as well as to the excess of her imprudence, defendants.
and even criminal indifference, in suffering One of the Fury. Is there any thing in her ministers and parliament to evade, in the defendants' book of a libellous tendency, respect of arming, the clear principles of by way of personal attack on the character of the constitution, without remonstrance or the plaintiff, unconnected with bis publica- expostulation. Those of our statesmen tions ?
who talked of armed citizens being only Lord Ellenborough.--Something has been" depositaries of panic," and of an orgareferred to of that kind ; but nothing has nised population being to a regular arıny of been laid before us in proof of it. The invaders" an unresisting medium,” may plaintiff appears to be placed in a ridiculous now feel that they have errors to acknowsituation, in a groupe of figures. He might ledge; but the author of the Ægis is well have been so described by words.
content with the Spanish illustration of his thing bad been said of this plaintiff reflect- | English text.-It is not a little to his purpose ing on his character, unconnected with this that, prior to the fall of the Spanish Bour: book, I should have told you that, in my bons, and the Prince of the Peace, the aropinion, it would hare been a libel; but we mies of Spain had never been held up to us have po proof of that.
as models, formed in the school of the great One of the Jury. If it be contended, that Frederick ; that the Corsican had aruilly there is any personal reflection upon the drawn the Aower of the Spanish army, plaintiff, in this book, unconnected with his such as it was, out of the country, and emwritings, we must go through the contents ployed it in the north of Europe ; and that
with this influence at Madrid, we may be Lord Ellenborough.---We have no proof sure that that army had, for a considerable
time past, been neglected as much as possiThe jury without a minute's consultation, ble. We knew not, indeed, any thing of returned a “VÉRDICT FOR THE DEFEND. I its strength ; but have seen no evidences of
its having been considerable. It has been Lord Ellenborough.-I hope nobody will stated to us, that Castanos himself was at understand, from the result of this trial, first only at the head of 3 or 4,000 men ; that there is the least countenance given to and, either in postscript or a note to the to ridicule any author, any
letter of our own commissioner, Capt. more than any other individual
, unless such Whittinghain, reporting the surrender of ridicule be connected with his works, and the Dupont and Wedel, we were told that “one buthor is embodied with his work ; for courts
“ lialf" of the Spaniards were “ peasantof justice are as tender of the moral charac.
Be that, however, as it may, lers of all men, whether they be anthors or we have grounds for understanding, that a noi, as they are firm in maintenance of the junction of the English force of 6,000 men right of every individual, to give a free under Gen. Spencer was offered, but deopinion, on every publication of a literary clined by Castanos, who felt justly canfident work.
of his strength; when we know the firm
and dignified conduct of the Spaniards, in MAJOR CARTWNG!T on NatioJAL declining English assistance for reducing the DIENCE,
French fleet at Cadiz, our private intelliSir ;-You very rightly estimated the gence respecting a similar conduct in the feelings of the author of The Ægis, when other case becomes the more credible, Had you concluded that the events in Spain, Spain been provided with a regular force, (which have shewn how a nation is io be in any degree considerable, a place of such defended, and how Europe is to be deliver- importance as Saragossa could not have been et) as proving that the principles laid down in wholly without them; and yet Palafox, that work, were the principles of nature Captain General of Arragon, in his letter
that there is.
to the council of Casiile after the retreat of! " to her, were but Germany a free and an the French from Madrid, expressly says :
" armed nation.*". Regarding myseit, I have been more criti- A stronger contrast, between the effect of cally situated than any other commander, right and of wrong principles of defence,
being without a singie soldier, and placed than what we have witnessed in the north “ within immediate reach of the enemy, and the south, buman history cannot afford. “ from my proximity to his frontiers, and The instruction I hope, will not be thrown 6 liable to be attacked from Catalonia,
a way upon lis. Were the emperors Francis “ Castile, and Navarre."- Although Spain, and Alexander, ruling over about sixty milso different from the cas06 of Prussia, Aus- lions of the European population, to give tria, and Russia, was completely taken by their debased subjects real freedom, by the surprize ; and had her country, from Pam. introduction of representative assemblies, peluna to Cordova, absolutely in the power of like the cortes of Spain, or the house of French armies, and a French force also mas- commons of England, and were they liketer of Cadiz, before she knew that Napo- wise to organize what we call a posse comileon was her enemy; yet, to her immortal tatus, would not France be instantly striphonour, we hear but of onę instance of the ped of all her terrors? Would sbe not then armed population, which of course bad see sprung up around her from the south to been very hastily collected, giving way in the north of Europe, an adamantine wall of battle; and even then the disaster produced warriors; a wall she could not pass ; wariino ill effect; the patriots soon rallied, and ors she would have no stomach to provoke? the French veterans were sliortly after con- |--Could any longer kings or emperors tremquered and made prisoners. Even where ble, when the Corsican lion put out a paw, the general was without a single soldier," or was beard to growl? And would they so far are we from hearing that his armed not then contemplate him with the same patriots were a mere “ depositary of panic," .composure as we contemplate a caged lion in what the French armies in their repeated the tower? Would the licentious soldiery of attacks Saragossa were uniformly France, half monkey half tyger, any longer repulsed with great slaughter; and Pala. scamper over all countries doing ridiculous fox was
able to make detach. mischief mingled with rapine and carnage, ments “ to Catalonia, Navarre, and other authors of human calamity, objects of ha
provinces," as lie himself states. The man curses? Would her ierrified tributaries French emperor indeed, like a certain Eng- any longer submit to her insufferable arre lish statesman, judging an armed popula- gance? Would any prince out of the pale tion, to be “ an unresisting medium '' to his
of France thenceforth dare to play the 15. invincibles, directs his deputy usurper to rang? Would any people endure it? And proceed to Madrid, and very coolly appoints would not ihe French themselves, too little the time for his arrival; but, by the counter- sedate for teachers of liberty, then be taught march which was so precipitate, as barely it? The pillaging occupation of their arto allow time for packing up the stolen rega- mies gone, they would no longer feel the lia, it is probable those two great men, curse of conscription. Their vain-glorious Napoleon and Mr. Windham, may by this humour no longerplayed upon to the tormeat time have changed their opinion, on the of Europe, and their energies compressed subject of " an unresisting medium.” Very within national limits, those energies might far am I indeed, from pretending to superior be expected to recoil upon the artfuil tyrant discernment; but, I lay claim to have point- who has misapplied them, extorting from ed out ten years ago the right means of effect- hini that sober, solid liberty, of which his ing - the deliverance of Europe;" my craft, aided by their vaniiy and vices, has words were these : “ Turning then to the hitherto defrauded ihem. map, we see Europe of a size to take care
Such, Sir, I take to be the rational pro" of herself; adverting to the constilutions cess for effecting Europe's deliverance; and “ of the governments which are opposed to as infallible as it is simple. On no other “ each other, we know, ibat it is by alliance, principles can it be effected. As to a mere
not with the English treasury, but with balance of power between despots, to call “ their own degraded subjects, the courts that by the name of deliverance, would be " of Austria, Germany, and Muscovy, may a profanation of the faculty of speech by
etlectually withstand the arms of France. which we are distinguished frona brutes. If " Whether the frontiers of the republic be on right principles we cannot be aiding in “ marked by a Rhine, or a rivulet, it were ' in the way of hostility, equally impassable * Appeal, ?d edit. p. 269.
extending true deliverance beyond the Py- wrong. If too inveterately despotic to tennees, let our country cease to mingle in make their people free, let them, say I, rethe counsels of despotism ; let her decline mai themselves the slaves of the Corsican ! ils pernicious alliance; let her not repeat her Nut with my consent should in that case an expensive follies, by joining in its corrupt English guinea be spent, nor a drop of Engand hateful projects ; let us leave the weak lish blood be shed, to better their condition. and the wicked to fight themselves the bats If too much of tyrants to give, for the sake tles of their own selfish ambition; cleaving of their own emancipation, freedom to their with warm atfection to our new allies, and people, they deserve to be hurled from giving then our best counsel and our best their thrones, and the sooner the betaid towards the establishment of their liber
Should that happen, their subjects
might probably enough te roused, as the Spain, having for her salvation snatched Spaniards have been, to assert their own up her arms, has at this moment actual free- rights. Tame and patient under the tyran. dom. The mode of its presesvation is sim- ny to which by habit they have submitted, ple. She has only to give permanence to French impertinence and insolence night her arms-bearing, by an organization of prove a cure for their phlegm, and provoke her population to that end, on the principles them to an overwhelming resistance; which of an English posse comitatus; and to reno- must produce that deliverance of Europe, vate her cortes on principles equally simple. of which their contemptibl. sovereigns had These being the foundations on which her been incapable. future liberties must stand, her first cortes The distinction between spurious and geought to assemble under instructions from nuine wisdon, which is so beautifully intheir constituents, to make these the primary culcated in Scripture, was never perhaps objects of attention, as the fandumentals of more conspicuous that in what we have their recovered constitution. Spain, so act- witnessed, touching Europe's deliverance. ing, will have nothing to fear from France, Sovereigns, statesmen, generals, and the although abutting upon her very soil and ter- sages of diplomacy, having neither thought ritory, all the way from the Bay of Biscay nor cared about honesty and morality, much to the Mediterranean sea, a distance (accord less the liberties of mankind, and being ing to some maps) of nearly three hundred confounded by the failure of all their unnamiles. Could this be the case with any des- tural projects, are completely bewildered: potic government so circumstanced, whose but the nioment it is taken up by a people, subjects felt no interest in its detence? But
as a question of human right and human armed, free, and proudly independent, may feeling, the mystery vanishes, and the pracSpain stand, despising the Corsican's utinost ticability of the object with ease and cerpower, as much as she must ablıor his per- tainty becomes manifest. This is one of tidy, and disdain his alliance. What she those things which, although long hid from has to expect, should her arins and her free. the wise and prudent, is now revealed to dom be again neglected, she well knows. babes. With such an ally, so strong in Europe, so As expeditiously as could reasonably be rich in America, and with the command of expected, we see all the provinces of Spain the ocean, we may be well content. But about forming a common janta, for giving we must recollect that England is only sepa- union and consistence to measures for the rated from France by a channel, which, common goud; and things everywhere a barrier, is more easily passed chan the Py- | tending also to the formation of one grand rennees; and that, unless we henceforth en- national cortes. But, recollecting what the ter with this ally the virtuous lists of emuja- sword has done for them, they must never tion, in perfecting our own security through forget their obligations to it. Between dethe inedium of arms and liberty, we shall fence by laws, and defence by the sword, Deiiber do our duty to them, nor to ourselves; there is this distinction : the former can be nor to our posterity.
managed, and is best managed, by represenSo acting, how could England and Spaintatives ; but the latter cannot. The nation be long without peace? And so continuing which hires a soldiery to fight for it, gives to act, must not such peace have in it the itself masters instead of engaging servants. principle of permanence, whatever might | Legislation is the office of the few, selected be the conduct of other powers,
for wisdom and honesty, and requires only Should the despotic sovereigns be too void periodical meetings in a single hall or chamof intellect, and too much the tools of cor- ber : but defence, whether against riot, inript statesmen, to be capable of acting | surrection, rebellion, or invasion, is equally right, that cught not to induce us to act the business and ibe duty of all who are able
to use a weapon; and is not perfect, unless -a secret, the earlier knowledge of which there be permanent and equal preparation might have saved our country hundreds of at all times and in all places ; according to millions, streams of blood, and no small the admirable principles of our posse comi- mortification : and what must it not havo tatus. Every country inust have arms and saved to the suffering continent? laws, that is, its sword and its parchments. After the full light which the magnificent If the parchments be stolen, the sword atebievements of the Spanish patriots has compels the robber to surrender them back : cast on the questions of national defence but when the sword is once stolen, the rob- and European deliverance, we must be ber is sure to take the parchments also; and curious to observe the future conduct of our a government once become despotic, soon own statesmen, relative to those objects. becomes weak. Always keeping in mind Will they be any better disposed than herethat the superior energy of the French army tofore to a right system?
Will they open was the immediate effect of liberty, and was their eyes to the truth? Or, will they obafterwards kept up by genius, feeding its stipately shut them, and resist conviction, vanity with victory after victory, over armies by still appearing ignorant that liberty is the which had not a like energy, let us turn our proper motive, and arms in free hands the attention to the states which Trance had to
proper means ? If they cannot sew that encounter. Had the feeblest of these, Prus- the former is not the right motive, and the sia, been free, we may easily conceive, from latter not the right means, how can they what we have seen in Spain, that her repose avoid using their honest endeavours to would not have been disturbed; whereas, reform the infamny of our elections, to purgo notwithstanding the high reputation of her the land of its abominable borough corruptroops, we have seen her conquered even be. tions, and to renovate the ancient vigoar fore the enemy entered her territory; and of the constitution, in its posse comitatus ? that, by a force not consisting of one French- Keeping in mind, that a balance of man to fifteen Prussians capable of bearing despotisms is not a deliverance of Europe, I arms. To humble Austria, took only one hope that Englisbmen will be no more man to twenty, of those which freedom laxed, for hiring emperors to fight in a would have brought into the field'; as to re- cause, in which triumphant success would duce Russia herself to a condition so depen- | only rivet more closely the fetters of their dent that a saucy Frenchman, at St. Peters- own miserable subjects. I remain your burgh, was more like the prime minister of obedient servant, J. CARTWRIGHT the Czar, than the ambassador of another September 6, 1808. state, did not require one French soldier to thirty tighting men of those Rus ians who
OFFICIAL PAPERS. were able to draw the sword. Such is the RUSSIANS in Finland --The following is radical weakness of despotic governments ! extracted from one of the official Reports
, While warring only with brother despots describing the hileous Proceedings of the the Corsican, Sir, seems the very enchanter Russians in Finland. Dated Wusa, July 'of a romance. He smites the pompous ma- 14, 1808. chinery of his foe, it is shivered to frag- As soon as the Swedish troops were ments, and he marches onward, as though known to approach Wasa, the civil governone had opposed him. But the moment uor, Emine, and the cornmandant of the he meets arned freedom, he is constrained town, major-general Kniper, as well as his to halt, his enchaotments fail, and victory, deputy major Stegeman, decamped, so that under whose guidance he had been the major-general Demidoff had the command scourge of tyrants, now waves the banner there duriog the engagement; when this of liberty in hostility, bis legions are given was over, and the Swedish corps, bad teto the edge of the sword, or to captivity, treated, the inhabitants, who had been exand bimself to shame and anguish of soul; posed to all the horrors and mischiet of a those very legions wbich had mowed down constant fire of musquetry and cannot, as stubble the regular defenders of despotic which killed and wounded mapy in their thrones become themselves stubble to em- houses, expected some respite; but almost battled patriots. This the chains, with immediately after, general Demidoff gave which the perfidions Corsican thought to orders to plunder the town, which was done have irrevocably bound to his footstool the in the most cruel and diabolical manner, Iberian nations, there to administer - to his der his personal direction and presence; restless ambition, are suddenly snapped that of the civil governor Emine, and geneasunder, and the whole secret of Europe's rai Kniper, who bad returned, when they deliveranc: is seen to be-arms and liberty; found that theis army had retained possede
sion of the place. These scenes of murder, taken from the inhabitants, so that none of wanfon cruelty, and devastation, continued them had a single fire arm left.-In the until the 30th of the same month, without country about the town, the conduct of the the least intermission, except for a few enemy was no less cruel and barbarous ; they hours, while lieut-gen. Rajewski happened plundered and burned villages, destroyed fields to stop in his way through the town, who ex- and ineadows; insulted the unhappy inhabipressed his utmost deiestation at their con- tants; inconsolable widows and mourning duct, and gave orders that the sacking and children ; fathers, sons, brothers, and friends, plundering of the town should cease; but carried away and pupished in the most abo. he had no sooner left the town, than these minable manner ; grief, lamentation, nisery, murderous proceedings recommenced, and and despair, and the town itself, formerly go the soldiers divided ihemselves into larger Hourishing, now plundered, are the first ob2nd smaller bodies, and thus occupied the jects that present themselves to the traveller, . whole town. Their usual mode of proceed- and inform him by what sort of enemy these ing was, to fire a volley of musquetry places have been visited.--N. E. Von through the windows of 'the houses, and SCHOULTZ.-Dep. Id. lieut. of the county of then to rush in, and with the bayonet destroy whoever' was to be found that had not time, or could not hide themselves in the PORTUGAL. Proclamation by the ComCellars, under straw or rubbish in the baros, manders in Chief of his Brilannic MaOuthouses, lofts, or garrets, and afterwards jesty's Forces, ewployed to assist the loyto plunder and carry away whatever was of al inhabitants of the Kingdom of Porius ang value.-All windows, furniture, china, gal. Dated Laves, Aug: 4. glassware, and every article that could not People of Portugal, -The time is arrived be removed to answer any of their purposes, to rescue your country, and to restore the were broken and utterly destroyed, and all government to your lawful prince. His this under the eye and presence of the offi- Britannic majesty, our most gracious king cers, who went about, and encouraged them, and master, has, in compliance with the calling ont dobra (bravo), raruscho (charm. wishes and ardent supplications for succour ing). No distinction whatever was made from all parts of Portugal, sent to your aid a as to churches or a hovel, between the high- | British army, directed to co-operate with est or lowest of the people; ladies of dis- his fleet already on your coasts.--The Engtinction, women and children of all sorts, lish soldiers who land (pon your shores, do the sick and wounded, the aged and prison- so with equal sentiments of friendship, faith, €rs of war, all fared alike, all were treated and honour.-The glorious struggle in which in the most inbuman, cruel, and detestable you are engaged is for all that is dear to man, mauner, and all were plundered. The sup- the protection of your wives and children, plications, upon their knees, with tears and the restoration of your lawful prince, the intreaties of many of the most respectable independence, nay, very existence, of your ladies in the town, to obtain safeguards, was
kingdom, and for the preservation of your treated by that worse than wild tyger gen.
holy religion : objects like these can only Demidoff, and that complete monster in ha- be attained by distinguished examples of man form, governor Emine, who were gal. | fortitude and constancy.—The noble struggle Joping through the streets to give vigour and against the tyranny and usurpation of France activity to the havoc and devastations carried will be jointly maintained by Portugal, on by the soldiers, with a broad grin of con- Spain, and England, and in contributing to tempt, or the most brutal conduct, and at the success of a cause so just and glorious, best with unmanly threatenings," that if the views of his Britannic majesty are the they ventured to say a word, the town should same as those by wbichr you are yourselves be burned, and levelled with the earth."As animated. (Signed) CHARLES Cotton. a barefaced excase for these cruelties, and
ARTHUR WELLESLEY. for this irreverence to the Swedish nation, Proclamation of the General commanding the Russian commander alledged that some the Portuguese Army, to the Soldiers of of the inhabitants of the town had fired the French Army.in Portugal. from their houses on the Russian troops-an Soldiers of the French army! The mo“accusation equally false and nngrounded as ment is now arrived to speak openly to those the report circulated by some evil-minded who hitherto have refused to listen to the persois, that the inhabitants of the town language of reason. : Open your eyes, had fired from the windows on the Swedish Soldiers, to the deep abyss of evils which troops.' 'All weapons in the town and be.l have grown under your feet, through the Jonging to private persons were long before foolish ambition of your emperor, the iwe