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True value of the Federal principle.--Historical examples.-Coleridge's prophecy.-Early

Mission of the American Union.—How terminated. The American system of Gov-

ernment & mixed one.—The Colonial period.–First proposition of a General Con-

gress.—Declaration of Independence. --Articles of Confederation.—Their occasion

and origin.—Nature of the compact.-Peace-treaty of 1783.—Analysis of the nature

and val of the Confederation.—How it was terminated. The Convention of

1787.-Character of the men who composed it.-Political idolatry in America

Parties in the Convention.—The question of Representation.—The novelty of the

American Constitution the result of an accident.—State Rights.-Amendments to

the Constitution.-Nature of the American Union.-Not a Consolidated nation-

ality.—The Right of Secession.—The Union not the proclamation of a new civil

polity.-Not a political revolution.-A convenience of the States, with no mission

apart from the States. The two political schools of America.-Consolidation and

State Rights.--How the Slavery question was involved.—A sharp antithesisa-

The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions.—Webster and Calhoun, the anti-types of

Northern and Southern statesmanship.-Mr. Calhoun's doctrines.—“Nullification”

a Union-saving measure.--Its ingenuity and conservatism.-Calhoun's profound

statesmanship.-Injustice to his memory.—How the South has been injured by

false party names.



The Federal principle ultimately fatal to the Union.—Other causes of disunion.—The
not the proper term for the institutions of labour in the South.—The Slavery ques-

sectional animosity.-The geographical line in the Union.—How the differences

between North and South produced two distinct communities instead of rival parties

within one body politic.—The theory of a Political North and a Political Southam

Its early recognition in the Convention of 1787.—Declaration of Madison.—Mr.

Pinckney's remarks.—How the same theory was involved in the Constitution

The Treaty” clause between North and South.—The Union not the bond of diverse

States, but the rough companionship of two peoples.-Gen. Sullivan's complaint to

Washington.—The Slavery question, an incident of the sectional animosity

Not an independent controversy, or a moral dispute.--Political history of Negro

Slavery in the South.-How it become the subject of dispute.-The Hartford Con-

vention.—The Missouri Line, the preliminary trace of disunion.—Declaration of

Thomas Jefferson.—Why the North defamed “the peculiar institution" of the South.

-Great benefits of this institution, and its contributions to the world.—"Slavery,”


Material decline of the South in the Union.—Shifting of the numbers and enterprise of

the country from the Southern to the Northern States.—Virginia's rank among the

States at the time of the Revolution.-Commercial distress of the States after the

Revolution.-How New England suffered.—The South then reckoned the seat of

future empire.—The people and strength of America bearing Southwardly.-

Emigration to the South.—Kentucky and the vales of Frankland.–Virginia's pros-

perity.—Her early land system.—The Chesapeake.—Alexandria.—George Wash-

ington's great commercial project.—Two pictures of Virginia: 1789 and 1829.—

An example of the decline of the South in material prosperity.—This decline not

to be attributed to Slavery.-Its true causes.—Effect of the Louisiana purchase on

the tides of emigration.—Unequal Federal legislation, as a cause of the sectional

lapse of the South in the Union. The key to the political history of America.—A

great defect of the American Constitution.—Population as an element of pros-

perity and power.-llow this was thrown into the Northern scale.—Two sectional

measures.—Comparisons of Southern representation in Congress at the date of the

Constitution and in the year 1860.-Sectional domination of the North.-A pro-

tective Tariff.-" The Bill of abominations.”—Senator Benton on the Tariff of 1828.

-His retrospect of the prosperity of the South.—History of the American Tariffs.

– Tariff of 1833, a deceitful Compromise.—Other measures of Northern aggrandize-

ment.-Ingenuity of Northern avarice.—Why the South could not use her Demo-

cratic alliance in the South to protect her interests.—This alliance one only for

party purposes.--Its value.--Analysis of the Democratic Party in the North. The

South under the rule of a numerical majority.–Array of that majority on a sec-

tional line necessarily fatal to the Union.—When and why the South should

attempt disunion....


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“Popular Sovereignty.”—“A short cut to all the ends of Black Republicanism.”

-Douglas as a demagogue.—The true issues in the Kansas controversy.-Import-

ant passages in the Congressional debate.Settlement of the Kansas question.-

Douglas' foundation of a new party.--His demagogueical appeals.—The true situa-

tion.—Loss of the sectional equilibrium.-Serious temper of the South.—“The

John Brown raid.”—Identity of John Brown's provisional constitution and or-

dinances with the subsequent policy of the Republican Party.—Curious fore-

shadow of Southern subjugation.—The descent on Harper's Ferry.-Capture and

execution of Brown.-His declaration.—Northern sympathy with him.-Alarming

tendency of the Republican Party to the Ultra-Abolition school.—“The Helper

Book."-Sentiments of Sixty-eight Northern congressmen.—The conceit and in-

solence of the North.—Affectation of Republicans that the Union was a concession

to the South.-Hypocrisy of this party.-Indications of the coming catastrophe of

disunion.—The presidential canvass of 1860.—Declarations of the Democratic

Party.—The Charleston Convention.-Secession of the Southern delegates.—The

different presidential tickets.-Election of Abraham Lincoln.-Analysis of the

vote.—How his election was a "sectional” triumph.—Ominous importance of it

in that view.-Arguments for sustaining Lincoln's election.-Seward's argument

in the Senate.—Lincoln's election a geographical one.—How there was no longer

protection for the South in the Union.—The Anti-slavery power compact and in-

vincible.- Another apology for Lincoln's election.-Fallacy of regarding it as a

transfer of the Administration in equal circumstances from the South to the North.

-How the South had used its lease of political power.–Senator Hammond's tri-

bute.-Power in the hands of the North equivalent to sectional despotism.—The

North "acting in mass.”—The logical necessity of disunion.....


Preparations of South Carolina to withdraw from the Union.—Passage of her Ordinance

of Secession.—The Federal force in Charleston Harbour evacuates Fort Moultrie,

and occupies Sumter. Description of Fort Sumter.—How the Secession of South

Carolina was entertained in the North.—The levity and inconsistency of the North

with respect to this event.-Doctrine of Secession, and Northern precedents.-

Record of Massachusetts.—Mr. Quincy's declaration in Congress.-A double justifi-

cation of the withdrawal of the Southern States from the Union.The right of Self-

government.—Opinion of Mr. Lincoln.-Opinion of the New York “Tribune.”-

Opinion of Mr. Seward.—The Secession question in the Cotton States.—Hesitation

of Georgie- Project of Alexander H. Stephens.—Secession of all the Cotton States.

-Seizure of Federal forts and arsenals.-Fort Pickens.-Senator Yulee's letter -

The scenes of Secession transferred to Washington.-Resignation of Southern Sena-

tors.-Jefferson Davis' farewell speech to the Federal Senate.-Senator Clay's bill

of indictment against the Republican party.—The Convention at Montgomery.-

Constitution of the Confederate States. Jefferson Davis chosen President.-His per-

sonal history. His character. Why the public opinion about him was so divided

and contradictory.-Measures looking to pacification.—Three avenues through

which it was expected.—Early prospects of pacification in Congress.—The Republi-

can “ultimatum.”—“The Crittenden compromise.”—Measures of compromise and

peace in Congress exclusively proposed by the South, and deliberately defeated by

the North.—The Peace Conference. Its failure.—Disposition of the Border Slave

States.—How mistaken by the North.—The Virginia Convention.—How the Secession

party gained in it. The record of Virginia on the subject of State Rights.-Presi-

dent Buchanan on the Secession question. His weak character and undecided

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Character of Abraham Lincolo in history.--Absurd panegyric.—The personal and

political life of the new President.-His journey to Washington.-His speech at

Philadelphia.—The flight from Harrisburg.--Alarm in Washington.—Military dis-

play in the capital.-Ceremony of inauguration.-Criticism of Lincoln's address.-

What the Republican party thought of it.-Serious pause at Washington.-State-

ment of Horace Greeley.—How the Inaugural Address was received in the Seceded

States.–Visit of Confederate Commissioners to Washington.-Seward's pledge to

Judge Campbell. - The Commissioners deceived.—Military and Naval expeditions

from New York.-Consultation of the Cabinet on the Sumter question.—Capt.

Fox's visit to Charleston.—His project.-Objections of Gen. Scott.—Singular article

in a New York journal.—Lincoln's hesitation.—His final device.—Seward's game

with the Commissioners.—The reduction of Fort Sumter.—Description of the Con-

federate works for the reduction of Sumter. -Beauregard demands the surrender

of the Fort.—The bombardment.-The fort on fire.—The Federal fleet takes no

part in the fight. The surrender.—Great excitement in the North.-Its true

meaning.—The crusade against the South.—Dr. Tyng's exhortation.—Conduct of

Northern Democrats.—Dickinson, Everett, and Cochrane.—President Lincoln's

Proclamation.—His pacific protests to the Virginia Commissioners.—Secession of

Virginia.—Discontent in the Western counties.—Second secessionary movement of

the Southern States.—Violent acts of the Washington Administration.—Prepara-

tions of the Confederate Government for War.-Rush of volunteers to arms.- Pre-

sident Davis' estimate of the military necessity.-Removal of the seat of govern-

ment to Richmond.- Activity of Virginia.—Robert E. Lee. His attachment to the

Union.—Why he joined the Confederate cause. His speech in the State House at

Richmond.—His organization of the military force of Virginia.—Military council

in Richmond.—The early reputation of Lee.....


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the Confederates. Influence of Virginia on the other Border States.—Replies of

these States to Lincoln's requisition for troops.—Secession of Tennessee, Arkansas,

and North Carolina.-Seizure of Federal forts in North Carolina.-Movements in

Virginia to secure the Gosport navy-yard and Harper's Ferry.—Their success.-

Burning of Federal ships.-Attitude of Maryland.—The Baltimore riot.-Chase of

Massachusetts soldiers.Excitement in Baltimore.-Timid action of the Maryland

Legislature.-Military despotism in Maryland. ---Arrests in Baltimore.-A Reign of

Terrour.—Light estimation of the war in the North. Why the Federal Government

sought to belittle the contest.—Lincoln's view of the war as a riot.Seward's

Letter to the European Governments.-Early action of England and France with

respect to the war.-Mr. Gregory's letter to the London Times.—Northern conceit

about the war.–Prophecies of Northern journals.-A “Three months' war.”—Ells-

worth and Billy Wilson.-Martial rage in the North.--Imperfect appreciation of the

Crisis in the South.—Early ideas of the war at Montgomery.-Secret history of the

Confederate Constitution.—Southern opinion of Yankee soldiers.- What was

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Mr. Lincoln's remark about the wolf.—His designs upon Virginia.—Federal occupation

of Alexandria.-Tragedy at the Marshall House. -Jackson, the martyr.—The affair

of Great Bethel.—Easy victory of the Confederates.—Exaggerations of Southern

newspapers.--Apparent lull of hostilities.—New demonstrations of public opinion

in the North.–Financial difficulties at Washington.-Popular clamour against

President Lincoln and Gen. Scott.—Early indications of the real objects of the war.

—The rights of humanity.–Virginia the great theatre of the war.—The Grand

Army of the North.—Consultation of President Davis and Beauregard and Lee.-

Beauregard's line of defence in Northern Virginia.—Sketch of General Beauregard.

-His person and manners.--His opinion of the Yankee.-The Army of the Potomu

and the Army of the Shenandoah.-Gen. Johnson's evacuation of Harper's Ferry.-

"Stonewall” Jackson's first affair with the enemy.--Johnston amusing the

enemy.-Affair of Rich Mountain.-McClellan's march into Northwestern Virginia

-Rosecrans' capture of the Confederate force on Rich Mountain.—Retreat of the

Confederates from Laurel Hill.—Death of Gen. Garnett.-Extent of the disaster to

the Confederates.—The “Grand Army" advancing on Manassas.—Johnston's move

ment to Beauregard's line.—The Battle of Manassas.—The affair of 18th July.--

Longstreet's gallant defence.—Theatre of the great battle.—Beauregard's change

of purpose, and his plan of battle.—The Stone Bridge.—The “Big Forest.”—The

Confederates flanked.—The day apparently lost for them.—The scene at the

Henry House.—Timely arrival of Jackson.-Gen. Beauregard disconcerted.-Ride

from the Hill to the Henry House.—The battle restored.—The bloody plateau.-

Three stages in the battle.—The last effort of the enemy.—The strange flag.-

Arrival of Kirby Smith.—The grand and final Charge.-Rout and panic of the

enemy.-The fearful race to the Potomac.-Scenes of the retreat.-Failure of the

Confederates to pursue, or to advance upon Washington.—A lost opportunity...134

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The victory of Manassas, a misfortune for the Confederates.- Relaxation in Rich

mond.—Plotting among Confederate leaders for the Presidential succession,-

Beauregard's political letter.-Active and elastic spirit of the North.-Resolution

of the Federal Congress.—Energy of the Washington Administration. Its immense

preparations for the prosecution of the war.—The Missouri campaign. The politics

of Missouri.—Sterling Price and his party.-Imprudence and violence of the Federal

authorities in Missonri.—Correspondence between Gens. Price and Harney.—Gov.

Jackson's proclamation.—Military condition of Missouri.—Her heroic choice.-

Affair at Boonoville.---Composition of the patriot army of Missouri.—Engagement

at Carthage.-Confederate reinforcements under McCulloch.—Disagreement be-

tween Price and McCulloch.-Noble conduct of Price.-The Battle of Oak Hill.

McCulloch surprised.—A fierce fight.-Death of Gen. Lyon.—The Federals de-

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