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forciblo abolition of slavery, should be contemplated for a principles of humanity and civilization, working no injury moment.

io private rights and property pot demanded by military In prosecuting the war, all private property and unarmed necessity and recognized by military law among civilizat persons should he strictly protected, subject only to the nations. necessity of military operations; all private property taken And, finally, I understand him to agree with me in the for military use should be paid or receipted for; pillaga and opinion that the sole great objects of this war are the listowaste should be treated as high crimes; all unnecessary ration of the unity of the nation, the proecreation of the trespass sternly prohibited, and offensive demeanor luy the Constitution, and the supremacy of the laws of the country, military towards citizens promptly rebuked. Military Believing our opinions entirely agree upon these points, I arrests should not be tolerated, except in places where would, were it in my power, give to Judge Woodward my active hostilities exist; and oaths, not required by enact. voice and vote. ments, constitutionally made, should be neither demanded I am, very respectfully, yours, nor received.

GEORGE B. MCCLELLAS. Military government should be confined to the preserva- Hon. CHARLES J. BIDDLE. tion of public order and the protection of political right. Military power should not be allowed to interfere with the relations of servitude, either by supporting or impairing the Proposed Censures of Officials. authority of the master, except for repressing disorder, as in other cases. Slaves, contraband under the act of Congress,

OF PRESIDENT LINCOLX. seeking military protection, should receive it. The right of the government to appropriate permanently to its own ser First Session, Thirty-Seventh Congress vice claims to slave labor should be asscrted, and the right of the owner to compensation therefor should be recognized.

IN HOUSE. This principle might be extended, upon grounds of military necessity and security, to all the slaves of a particular State, July 15—Mr. VALLANDIGHAM offered the folthus working manuniission in such state; and in Missouri, lowing: perhaps in Western Virginia also, and possibly even in Maryland, the expediency of such a measure is only a ques. Resolved, that the Constitution of the United States coo. tion of time. A system of policy thus constitutional, and fers upon Congress alone the power to “raise and support porvaded by the influences of Christianity and freedom, armies," and to provide and maintain a navy," and there would receive the support of almost all truly loyal men, fore the President, in the proclamation of May 3, 1961, and would deeply impress the rebel masses and all foreign na- the orders and action, by his authority, or the War and tions, and it might be humbly honed that it would commend Navy Departments, increasing the Army and Navy, and itself to the favor of the Almighty.

calling for and accepting the services of volunteers for three Unless the principles governing the future conduct of our years without warrant of law, usurped powers belonging strugglo shall be made known and approvel, the effort to solely to Congress, and so violated the Constitution. obtain requisite forces will be almost hopeless. A declara 2. That the right to declare a blockade as against an intion of radical views, especially upon slavery, will rapidly dependent power, is a belligerent right, depending apon disintegrate our present armies. The policy of the governs the existence of a state of war; and that as Congrees, and ment must be supported by concentrations of military Congress alope, have the power to declaro or recognize tba power. The national forces should not be dispersed in ex. existence of war, the President has no right to order a peditions, posts of occupation, and numerous armies, but blockade until after Congress shall have declared or reg. should be mainly collected into masses, and bronght to bear nized war with the power whose ports are to be blockaded; upon the armies of the Confederate States. Thoso armies and further, that Congress alone can abolish or shut up the thoroughly defeated, the political structure which they sup- perts of entry of any State within the Union; and that, port would soon cease to exist.

therefore, the President, in blockading and shutting up the In carrying out any system of policy which you may ports of entry in cortain of the states of the Union, withoat form, you will require a commander-in-chief of the army, the authority of Congress, violated the Constitution. one who possesses your confidence, understands your views, 3. That Congress alono have the constitutional power to and who is competent to execute your orders, liy directing suspend the writ of habeas corpus; and that until the writ the military forces of the nation to the accomplishment of has been suspended by act of Congress, it is the daty of the the objects by you proposed. I do not ask that place for President, and all other officers, civil and military, to obey myself. I am willing to serve you in such position as you it; and that, therefore, the President, in suspending said may assign me, and I will do so as faithfully as ever subor- writ himself, or attempting to authorize certain military dinate served superior,

officers to suspend it, or to disobey it, or in sustaining them I may be on the brink of eternity; and as I hope for- in disobedience to it, violated the Constitution. giveness from my Maker, I have written this letter with 4. That by the Constitution “no money shall be drawn sincerity towards you and from love for my country. from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

made by law;" anil that in ordering the drawing from the GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, Treasury of inon'y unappropriated or appropriated for one

Major General Commanding. purpose, and applying the same to purposes for which po His Excellency A. LINCOLN, President.

appropriations had been made by law, the President viola tod tlio Constitution.

5. That the search of certain telegraph offices in the IN FAVOR OF THE ELECTION OF GEORGE W. WOOD

month of May last, by several officers and agrnts of the Er

ecutive, without search warrrant upon prolalle canse, supWARD AS GOVERNOR OF PENNSYLVANIA. ported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing ORANGE, NEW JERSEY, October 12, 1863.

the place to be searched, and the things to be seized; and

tho seizure of papers and despatches in said offices was a DEAR SIR: My attention has been called to an article in violation of the constitutional “right of the people to bo the Philadelphia Press, asserting that I had written to the secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects agita managers of i Democratic meeting nt Allentown, disap wreasonable searches and seizures;" and that the Prero proving the objects of the meeting, and that if I voted or dent, in ordering such search and seizures, violntei the Co spoke it would be in favor of Governor Curtin, and I am stitution. informed that similar assertions have been made throughout 6. That neither Congress, nor the President, nor the jnd). the State.

ciary, have any constitutional power to a bridge the fr*49. It has been my earnest endeavor heretofore to avoid par- of speech or of the press; and that the snapansion of rew, ticipation in party politics. I had determined to adhere to piper prosses by military authority and force, and theyt this course, bint it is obvious that I cannot longer maintain of citizens by military or civil authority, for the exprou silence under such misrepresentations. I therefore request by speech, or through the press, of opinions npon jelitial you to deny that I have written any such letter, or enter- subjects, or subjects of any kind, is a violation of the Car tained any such views as those attributed to me in the Phil-stitution. adelphia Press, and I desire to state clearly and distinctly, 7. That the arrest without civil process of persons art that having some days ago had a full conversation with subject to the rules and articles of war, por in cases Judge Woolwari, I find that our views agree, and I regard arising in the land or paval forces or in the militia, when his election as Governor of Pennsylvania called for by the in actual service, by soldiers in tho service of the United interests of the nation.

States, is a breach of tho Constitution, and a violation of I understand Jurigo Woodward to be in favor of the pros. the constitutional liberty of the person. ecution of the war with all the means at the command of tho loyal States, until the military power of the rebellion is On motion of Mr. LOVEJOY, these resolutioas destroyed. I understand him to be of the opinion that while the war is urged with all possible decision and energy,

were at once laid upon the table-the House the policy directing it should be in consonance with the refusing to order the yeas and days.


Ashlry, Baily, John D. Baldwin, Baxter, Beaman, Blaine,

Francis P. Blair, Boutwoll, Boyd, Broomall, William G. Third Session, Thirty-Seventh Congross. Brown, Ambrose W.Clark, Frrcman Clarke, Cobb, Cole, CresIN SENATE.

woll, Honry Winter Davis, Thomas T. Davis, Dixon, Donnelly,

Driggs, Dumont, Eckley, Eliot, Frank, Gartield, Gooch, Grin1862, Dec. 15-Mr. Davis, of Kentucky, nell, Hale, lligby, Hlooper, Hotchkiss, Asahel W. Hubbard, offered this resolution :

John H. Hubbard, Jenckes, Julian, Kasson, Kelley, Francis

W. Kellogg, Orlando Kellogg, Loan, Marvin, McBride, McResolverl, That after it had become manifest that an insur. Clurg, McIndoe, Samuel F. Miller, Morrill, Daniel Morris, rection against the Unitnd Status was about to break out in Amos Myors, Leonard Myers, Norton, Orth, Patterson, Pike, several of the southern States, James Buchanan, then Pres. Pomeroy, Price, William H. Randall, Edward H. Rolling, ident, from sympathy with tho conspirators and their treas. Schenck, Scofield, Shannon, Smith, Smithers, Spalding, Start, onable project, failed to take necessary and proper Thayer, Thomas, Tracy, Upson, Van Valkenburgh, Ellihu B. measures to prevent it; wherefore he should receive the Washburne, William B. Washburn, Webster, Whaley, Wilcensure and condemnation of the Senate and the American liams, Wilder, Wilson, Windom, Woodbridge-84. people.

NAYS--Messrs. James C. Allen, Ancona, Augustus C. Bald Dec 16–Mr. SAULSBURY offered this amend-win, Bliss, James S. Brown, Chanter, Clay, Cor, Cravens,

Dawson, Denison, Eden, Eldridge, English, Finck, Ganson, ment:

Grider, Harding, Harrington, Herrick, Holman, Hutchins, Resnlved further, That a copy of the foregoing resolution Philip Johnson, William Johnson, Kernan, Law, Lazear, be served upon the said James Buchanan, and that he be Le Bimd, Long, Mallory, Marcy, McAllister, McDowell, Mcnotified that he has liberty to defend himself before the Kinney, Middleton, William I. Miller, James R. Morris, Sonate against the charges in said resolution contained, if Morrison, Nelson, Odill, Pendleton, Pruyn, Samuel J. Ran. he shall choose so to do.

dall, Robinson, Rogers, James S. Rollins, Ross, Scott, John

B. Steele, William G. Steele, Strouse, Sweat, Voorhees, Ward, Same day — The resolution and proposed Chilton 'A. White, Joseph W. White, Winfield, Fernando amendment were laid upon the table-yeas 38, Wood_58. nays 3, as follows:

Mr. SCHENCK then offered this resolution : YEAS-Messrs. Anthony, Arnold, Browning, Carlile, Clark, Resolred, That BENJAMIN G. HARRIS, a Representative Collamer, Cowan, Dixon. Doolittle, Fessenden, Field, Foot, from the fifth district of the State of Maryland, having Foster, Grimes, Halc, Harding, Harlan, Harris, Henderson, spoken words this day in debate, manifestly tending and Kennely, King, Lane of Indiana, Line of Kansas, Latham, designed to encourage the existing rebellion and the eneMorrill, Nesmith, Pomeroy, Powell, Rice, Saulsbury, Sher- mies of this Union, is declared to be an unworthy member man, Ten Eyck, Trumbull, Wade, Willey, Wilson of Miss of this House, and is hereby severely censured. achusetts, Wilson of Missouri, Wright -38. NAYS-Messrs. Davis, Howe, Wilkinson-3.

A motion to table the resolution was lostyeas 23, nays 80; two motions to adjourn were

made and voted down; and the resolution was OF MESSRS. LONG AND HARRIS. First Sossion, Thirty-Eighth Congress.

then adopted-yeas 98, nays 20, as follows: IN HOUSE.

YEAs-Messrs. Alley, Allison, Ames, Anderson, Arnold,

Ashley, Buily, Augustus C. Baldwin, John D. Baldwin, Bax1864, April 9–Mr. COLFAX, the Speaker, (Mr. ter, Beaman, Blaine, F. P. Blair, Boutwell, Boyd, Broomall, Rollins, of New Hampshire, in the Chair,) of- Cobb, Cole, Creswell, Cox, Henry Winter Davis, Thomas T. fered this preamble and resolution :

Davis, Dixon, Donnelly, Driggs, Dumont, Eckley, Eliot, EngWhereas on tho 8th of April, 1864, when the House of rington, Higby, Holman, Hotchkiss, Asahel W. Ilubbard,

lish, Frank, Ganson, Garfield, Gooch, Grindell, Hale, Har. Representatives was in Committee of tho Whole on the John II. Iubbard, Jenckes, Julian, Kasson, Kelley, Francis state of the Union, ALEXANDER LONG, a Representative w. Kellogg, Orlando Kellogg, Kernan, Loan, Marvin, Mofrom the second district of Ohio, declared himself in favor Allister, McBride, McClurg, McIndoc, Middleton, Samuel F. called confederacy now in arms against the Union; and Miller, Morrill, Daniel Morris, Amos Myers, Leonard Myers, whereas, the said so-called confederacy, thus sought to be Price, 'William II. Randall, Edward H. Rollins, Schenck,

Nelson, Norton, Odell, Orth, Patterson, Pike, Pomeroy, recognized and established on the ruins of a dissolved or Scotield, Shannon, Sloan, Smith, Smithers, Spalding, Starr, destroyed Union, has as its chief officers, civil and military, John B. Stele, William G. Strele, Thayer, Thomas, Tracy, those who have added perjury to their treason, and who Upson, Van Valkenburgh, Ellihu B. Washburne, William seck to obtain success for their parricidal efforts by the killing of the loyal soldiers of the nation who are seeking Windom, Winfield, Yeaman--98.

B. Washburn, Webster, Whaley, Williams, Wilder, Wilson, to save it from destruction; and whereas the oath required


C. Illen, Ancona, Bliss, Chanler, of all members, and taken by the said ALEXANDER LONG on the first day of the present Congress, declares that I have ler, Morrison, Pendleton, Pruyn, Samud J. Randall, Ross,

Denism, Exion, Euridge, Law, Le Blond, Long, Wm. H. Milvoluntarily given to aid, countenance, counsel, or encour agement to persons engaged in armed hostility to the Strouse, Voorhees, Chilton A. White, Fernando Wood–20. United States," thereby declaring that such conduct is re The question recurring upon the resolution garded as inconsistent with meinbership in the Congress of offered by Mr. Colfaxthe United States : Therefore,

Resolrad, That ALEXANDER LONG, a Representative from April 14- Mr. BROOMALL offered this amend. 1864, declared himself in favor of recognizing the indepen: cepted : the second' district of Ohio, having, on the 8th of April

, ment, as a substitute, which Mr. Colfax acdence and nationality of the so-called confederacy now in arins aguinst the Union, and thereby "given ail, counte Whereas ALEXANDER LONG, a Representative from tho Dance, and encouragement to persons engaged in armed second district of Ohio, by his open declarations in the nahostility to the United States," is hereby expelled. tional Capitol and publications in the city of New York, has Pending which, April 9, Mr. WASHBURNE, of shown himself to be in favor of a recognition of the so-called

confederacy now trying to establish itself upon the ruins of Illinois, offered this resolution :

our country, thereby giving aid and comfort to the enemy Whereas lion. BENJAMIY G. ILARRIS, a member of the in that destructive purpose-aid to avowed traitors in cro House of Representatives of the United States from the ating an illegal government within our borders-comfort to State of Marylanılhas on this day use the following lan them by assurances of their success, an l aliirmations of the guage, to wit: “The South asked you to let them go in justice of their cause; and whereas such conduct is at the peace. But, no; you said you would bring them into sub

same timo evidence of disloyalty and inconsistent with his jection. That is not done yet, and God Almighty grant that oatlı of office and his duty as a member of this body: Thero it never may be. I hope that you will nevervuojugnto the fore, South.” And whereas such languago in treasonable, and is

Resolved, That the said ALEXANDER Loxo, a Representaa gross disrespect of this llouse : Therefore,

tive from the second district of Ohio, be, and he is hereby, Be it resulrid, That the said BENJAMIN G. HARRIS bo ex- declared to be an unworthy member of the llouse of Repre

sentativce. pelled from this louso.

Rreolecl, That the Speaker shall read these resolutions Which was rejected-yeas 84, nays 58, (two to tho suid ALEXANDER Long during the session of the thirds being required :)

Ilouse. YEAS-Mossrs. Alloy, Allison, Ames, Anderson, Arnold,

Mr. Cox moved to lay the preamble and reso

lution on the table; which was disagreed to- Thayer, Thomas, Upson, Van Valkenburgh, Ellihn B. Wasbyeas 70, nays 80. A division of the question wine, William B. Washburn, Webster, Whaley, Wilder, was called, when

Nus-Messrs. James C. AL., William J. Allen, Arrcoma, The first resolution was agreed to-yeas 80, Augustus ". Bullwin, Bliss, James S. Droun, William G. nays 70, as follows:

Brown, Chanler, (ay, Coisroth, Cor, Deron, berriz,

Eden, Eldridge, Finck, Ganson, Grider, Ha!!, Harding, YEAS-Messrs. Alley, Allison, Ames, Anderson, Arnold, Benjamin G. Harris, llerrici, Llolman, thetrlins, ICE Ashley, Buily, John D. Baldwin, Baxter, Beaman, Blaine, Johnson, Kulliyleisch, Kernun, knipp. Lcw, LT, Jare, Boutwell, Boyd, Broomall, Ambrose W. Clark, Cobb, Cole, McDowall, McKinney, William II. Miller, Jours R. Morris, Creswell, Dawes, Deming, Driggs, Dumont, Eckley, Parns- Morrison, Nelson, Volle, Odell, John O Veill, Persele!mm worth, Frank, Garfield, oorli, Grinn Highy, Hooper, Perry, Prayn, Rodford, Samuel J. Randall, Heliau Hotchkiss, John II. Jlubbard, Jenekes, Julian, Kasson, Rogers, Jumes S. Rollins, Ross, Sot!, Stubini, John D..tres Kelley, Francis W. Kellogg, Orlando Kollorg, loan, Long William G. Steele, Strouse, Suurl, Tvorhers, Ford, FTlit, year, Marvin, McBride, McClurg, McIndoe, Samuel F. Miller, Culion A. White, Joseph W. While, Winfield, Fernando Diorrill, Daniel Morris, Amos Myers, Leonard Myers, Nor-Wood, Ycaman-63. ton, Charles O'Neill, Orth, Patterson, Perham, Pike, Pomeroy, Price, William H. Randall, Alexander II. Rice, John 11. "Rice, Edward H. Rollins, Schenek, Shannon, Sloan, Completed Vote on the Passage in the Smith, Smithers, Starr, Stevens, Thayer, Thomas, Upson, Van Valkenburgh, Ellihu B. Washburne, William B. Wash House, of the Bill to Repeal the Fu. burn, Webster, Whaley, Wilder, Wilson, Windom, Woodbridge-50.

gitive Slave Laws. NAY: Messrs. James C. Allen, William J. Allen, Anoma, Augustus C. Baldwin, Francis P. Blair, Bliss, James si

After the vote given on page 237, was taken, Brown, William G. Brown, Chanler, Clay, Coffroth, Cor, six other members received consent to record Cravens, Dawson, Denison, Eden, Eldridge, Finck, Ganson, their votes, viz: Henry C. Deming, John R. Grider, Hall

, Harding, Harrington, B. G. Harris, Herrick McBride, Edward H. Rollins, and William B. Holman, Hutchins, P. Johnson, Wm. Johnson, Kalbfleisch, Kernan, King, Knapp, Law, Lazear, Mallory, Marcy, Mc-| Washburn in the affirmative, and Philip JoksiDowell, McKinney, William H. Miller, James R. Morris, son and Samuel J. Randall in the negativeMorrison, Nelsom, Noble, Odell, John O'Neill Pendleton making the full vote, as recorded on the JourRogers, James S. Rollins, Ross, Scott, Stebbins, John B. nal, yeas 90, nays 62, as follows: Steele, William G. Sleele, Strouse, Stuart, Sweat, Voorhees, Ward, Whecler, Chilton A. White, Joseph W. White, Win- John D. Baldwin, Baxter, Beaman, Blaine, Blair, Blow,

YEA8—Messrs. Alley, Allison, Ames, Arnold, Ashley, field, Fernando Wood, Yeaman70.

Boutwell, Boyd, Brandegee, Broomall, Ambrose W'. Clark, The second resolution was laid on the table-Freeman Clarke, Cobb, Cole, Creswell, Honry Winter Davis, yeas 71, nays 70, as follows:

Thomas T. Davis, Dawes, Deming, Dixon, Donnelly, Drir

Eckley, Eliot, Farnsworth, Fouton, Frank, Garfield, Gooch, YEAs-Messrs. James C. Allen, William J. Allen, Ancona, Griswold, Higby, Hooper, Hotclikiss, Asahel W. Hubbard, Baily, Augustus C. Baldwin, Bliss, James S. Brown, Wm. G. John H. Hubbard, Hulburd, Ingersoll, Jenckes, Julian, Brown, Chanler, Clay, Coffroth, Cor, Dawson, Denison, Kelley, Francis W. Kellogg, Orlando Kellogg, Littlejohn, Eden, Eldridge, Finck, Ganson, Grider, Hall, Harding, Har- Loan, Longyear, Marvin, McBride, McClurg, McIndoe, rington, Benjamin G. Harris, Herrick, Holman, Hutchins, Samuel F. Miller, Moorhead, Morrill, Daniel Morris Amos William Johnson, Kalbfleisch, Kernan, King, Knapp, Law, Myers, Leonard Myers, Norton, Chas. O'Neill, Orth. PatterLazear, Mallory, Marcy, McDowell, McKinney, William H. sun, Perham, Pike, Price, Alexander II. Rice, Johu II. Rice, Miller, James R. Morris, Morrison, Nelson, Noble, Odell, Edward H. Rollins, Schenck, Scofield, Shanuon, Sloan, John O'Neill, Pendleton, Perry, Pruyn, Radford, Samuel J. Spalding, Starr, Stevens, Thayer, Thomas, Tracy, Upson, Randall, William H. Randall, Robinson, Rogers, James S. Van Valkenburgh, Wm. B. Washburn, Webster, Whaley, Rollins, Ross, Scott, Smith, Stebbins, John B. Štcelé, William Williams, Wilder, Wilson, Windom, Woodbriuge-00. G. Steele, Strouse, Stuart, Sweat, Voorhees, Ward, Webster, NAY8-Messrs. James C. Allen, William J. Allen, Ancora, Wheeler, Chilton A. White, Joseph W. White,' Winfield, Augustus C. Baldwin, Bliss, Brooks, James S. Broon, Chat Fernando Wood, Yeaman-71.

ler, Coffroth, Cox, Crarens, Dawson, Denison, Eden, Edger NAY-Messrs. Alley, Allison, Ames, Anderson, Arnold, ton, Eldridge, English, Finck, Ganso'l, Grider, Harding, Ashley, John D. Baldwin, Baxter, Beaman, Blaine, Bout- Harrington, Charles M. Harris, Herrick, Holman, Iutchins, well, Boyd, A. W. Clark, Cobb, Colo, Creswell, Dawes, Dem- Philip Johnson, Kalbfleisch, Kernan, King, Knapp, lou, ing, Driggs, Dumont: Eckley, Farnsworth, Frank, Garfield, Lazcar, Le Blond, Mallory, Marcy, McDororll, acKinney, Gooch, Grinnell, ligby, Hooper, Hotchkiss, J. H. Hubbard, William H. Miller, James R. Morris, Morrison, Odell, Pen Jenckes, Julian, Kasson, Kelley, Francis W. Kellogg, Ordleton, Pruyn, Radford, Samuel J. Randall, Robinia, lando Kellogg, Loan, Longyear, Marvin, McBride, McClurg, James S. Rollins, Ross, Smithers, John B. Slcele, la McIndoe, Morrill, Daniel Morris, Amos Myers, Norton, G. Steele, Stiles, Strouse, Stuart, Swcal, Wadsworth. Farch Charles O'Neill, Orth, Patterson, Perham, Pike, Pomeroy, Wheeler, Chilton A. White, Joseph W. White, Fernando Price, Alexander H. Rice, John H. Rice, Schenck, Shannon, Wood-62. Sloan, Smithers, Starr, Stevens, Thayer, Upson, Van Valkenburgh, Ellihu B. Washburne, William B. Washburn, Wilder, Wilson, Windom, Woodbridge—70.

California Representatives The preamble was then agreed to-yeas 78, IN THE THIRTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS. Days 63, as follows:

By an accident, the names of the Represents. YEAS-Messrs. Alley, Allison, Ames, Anderson, Arnold, tives from California in the Thirty-Seventh Ashley, Baily, John V. Baldwin, Baxter, Beaman, Blaine, Congress, were not inserted on page 122, as they Creswell, Dawes, Driggs, Dumont, Eckley, Frank, Garfield, should have been. They were not elected in Gooch, Grinnell, Higby, Hooper, Hotchkiss, John H. Hub- time to be present at the first session of that bard, Jenckes, Julian, Kasson, Kelley, Francis W. Kelloge: Congress, in July, 1861. Messrs. Timothy G. Clurg, McIndoc, Samuel F. Miller, 'Morrill, Daniel Morris, Phelps and Aaron A. Sargent qualified DecemAmos Myers, Leonard Myers, Norton, Charles O'Neill, Orth, ber 2, 1861, the first day of the regular session. Patterson, Perham, Pike, Pomeroy, Price, William H. Ran- Frederick F. Low, now Governor

of the State, Schenck, Shannon, Sloan, Smith, Smithera, Starr, Stevens, I was admitted to a seat June 3, 1862.



In the slaveholding States, a considerable example, in this point of view, to us. If the thing was right body of men have always been disaffected to in itself, there could be no just argument drawn against the the Union. They resisted the adoption of the of Government to guard against abuses, by prudent

appointNational Constitution, then sought to refine ments and watchful attention to officers. That as to chang: away. the rights and powers of the General ing the kind of rum, I thought the collection bill would

provide for this, by limiting the exportation to the original Government, and by artful expedients, in a se casks and packages. I said a great deal more, but really ries of years, using the excitements growing did not feel much interest either way. But the debates out of passing questions, finally perverted the were very lengthy.

Butler blamed away, and THREATENED A DISSOLUTION OF sentiments of large masses of men, and pre- The Union, with regard to his State, as sure as God was in pared them for revolution.

the firmament. Ho scattered his remarks over the whole I had prepared an extensive collection of impost bill, calling it partial, oppressive, &c., and solely

calculated to oppress South Carolina, and yet ever and anon statements and facts bearing upon this point, declaring how clear of local views and how candid and disbut am obliged to omit them for want of space. passionato he was: He degenerates into mere declamation.

Ilis State would live free, or die glorious. The well-read in our politics can readily recur to a multitude of proofs. I append a few con Richard Henry Lee, grandfather of General spicuous points, the first of which is less well Robert E. Lee, writing in 1790 on the national known, being from an unpublished journal by Constitution, is reported as saying: Hon. William Maclay, United States Sepator

When we (the South) attain our natural degree of popufrom Pennsylvania, from March 4, 1789, to lation, I flatter myself that we shall have the power to do March 3, 1791, being the First Congress under ourselves justice, with dissolving the bond which binds us the Constitution. This journal is the property

together. of his relative, George W. Harris, Esq., of Har Referring to the modus operandi of southern risburg, Pa.

disunionists, General Jackson's recently-dis

covered letter to Rev. A. J. Crawford is curious An early Threat of Dissolution.

for the keenness of its perceptions, and the FROM SENATOR MACLAY'S JOURNAL. accuracy of its prediction : 1789, June 9-In relation to the Tariff bill, the affair of

[“ Privato.") confining the East India Trade to the citizens of America had been negatired, and a committee had been appointed to

WASHINGTON, May 1, 1833. report on this business. The report came in with very “MY DEAR SI: * * * I have had a laborious task here, high duties, amounting to a prohibition. But a new pho- but nullification is dead; and its actors and courtiers will nomenon hasi marle its appearance in the House (meaning only be remembered by the people to be execrated for their the Senate) since Friday.

wicked designs to sever and destroy the only good GovernPierce Butler, from South Carolina, had taken his seat, ment on the globe, and that prosperity and happiness wo and flamed like a meteor. IIe arraigned the whole Im- enjoy over every other portion of the world. Ilaman's post law, and then charged (indirectly) the whole Congress gallows ought to be the fate of all such ambitious men with a design of oppressing South Carolina. He cried out who would involve their country in civil war, and all the for encouraging the Danes and Swedes, and foreigners of evils in its train, that they might reign and ride on its overy kind, to come and take away our produce. In fact, whirlwinds and direct the storm. The freo people of these he was for a navigation act reversed.

United States bave spokon, and consigned these wicked June 11- Attended at the hall as usual,

demagogues to their proper doom. Take care of your nullMr. Lard and Mr. Buller opposed the whole of the draw- ifiers; you have them among you; let them meet with the backs in every shape whatever.

indignant frowns of every man who loves his country. The Mr. Gruysont of Virginia, warm on this subject, said wo tariff, it is now known, was a mere pretext-its burden were not ripe for such a thing. We were a new nation, and was on your coarse woolens. By the law of July, 1832, had no business for any such regulationsma nation sui gen coarse woolen was reduced to five per cent. for the benefit eris.

of the South. Mr. Clay's bill takes it up and classes it Mr. L'et said drawbacks were right, but would be so with woolens at fifty per cent., reduces it gradually down much abused, he could not think of admitting them. to twenty per cent., and there it is to remain, and Mr. Cal

Jir. Elsworth said New England rum would be ex houn and all the nullifiers agree to the principle. The port d, instead of West India, to obtain the drawback. cash duties and home valuation will be equal to fifteen por

I thought it best to say a few words in reply to each. We cent. more, and after the year 1842, you pay on coarso * re a new nation, it was true, but we wero not a new pere woolens thirty-five per cent. If this is not protection, I jk. We were composed of individuals of like manners, cannot understand; therefore the tariff was only the prehabits, and customs with tho European nations. What, text, and disunion and a southern confederacy the real obe therefore, had been found useful among them, came well ject. The next pretert will be the negro or slavery question. recommended by experience to us. Drawbacks stand as an “My health is not good, but is improving a little. Pre

Bent me kindly to your lady and family and helievo me to * Rulpb. + William. Richard Henry, from Virginia. be your friend. I will always be happy to hear from you. Oliver, of Connecticuta


Benton in his Thirty Years' View, says: gencer of November 4, 1861, makes these re

The regular inauguration of this slavery agitation dates marks: from the year 1835; but it had commenced two years before,

However busy Mr. Pickens may have been in the cauct and in this way: nullification and disunion had commenced

after it met, the most active man in getting it up and preverite in 1830, upon complaint against protectivo tariff. That, ing the southern members to go into it was Mr. R. B. Khett, being put down in 1833 under President Jackson's procla- also a member from South Carolina. The orcasion, or almation and energetio ineasures, was immediately substitut: leged cause of this wit rurawal from the House into secret ed by tho slavery agitation. Mr. Calhoun, when he went deliberation was an anti-slavery speechof Dr. Slade, Vers home from Congress in the spring of that year, told his mont, which Mr. Rhett violently denounced, and propean friends that "the South could never be united against the North on the tariff question—that the sugar interest of conclave in one of tho committeo rooms, which they gener

to the southern members to leave the House and go into Louisiana would keep her out-and that the basis of southern union must be shifted to tho slave question." Then all the ally did, if not all of them. Wo are able to state, bor papers in his interest, and especially the one at Washing that at least three besides himself of those who did attend

ever, what may not have been known to Governor Thodu, ton, published by Mr. Duff Green, dropped tariff agitation, it went there with a purpose very different from an iuterand commenced upon slavery, and in two years had the

tion to consent to any treasonable measure. These three agitation ripe for inauguration on the slavery question.

men were llenry A. Wise, Balie Peyton, and Wm. Cost JohaAnd in tracing this agitation to its present stage, and to comprehend its rationale, it is not to be forgotten that it is

son. Neither of them opened his lips in the caucus; they a mere continuation of old tariff disunion, and preferred Mr. Pickens or Mr. Calhoun (whom he names) or any one

went to observe; and we can assure Governor Thoinas that it because more availablo.-Thirty Years in the Senate, vol. 2.

else had presented a distinct proposition luking to disMr. Clay, in a letter to an Alabamian in union, or revolt, or secession, he would have witnessed a 1864, (see his private correspondence, p. 490,) scene not soon to be forgotten. The threo whom we have said:

mentioned were as brave as they were determined. Forto

nately, perhaps, the man whom they went particularly to From the developments now being made in South Caro- watch remained silent and passive. lina, it is perfectly manifest that a party exists in that State seeking a dissolution of the Union, and for that purpose

EARLY HOPES OF THE REBELS.* employ the pretext of the rejection of Mr. Tyler's abominable treaty. South Carolina boing surrounded by slave

Mr. LAWRENCE M. Keitt, when declaiming in States, would, in the event of a dissolution of the Union, Charleston in November, 1860, in favor of the suffer only comparative ovils; but it is otherwise with Ken separate secession of that State, used this lanhundred miles on three free States. What would our con- guage, as reported in the Charleston Mercury: dition be in the event of the greatest calamity that could But we have been threatened. Mr. Amos Kendall wrote befall this nation?

a letter, in which he said to Col. Orr, that if the State went Hon. Nathan Appleton, of Boston, member out, three hundred thousand volunteers were rady to of Congress in 1832-3, in a letter dated Decem- march against her. I know little about Kendall-and the

less the better. He was under General Jackson; bot for ber 15, 1860, said that when in Congress he him the Federal treasury seemed to have a magnetic at“made up his mind that Messrs. Calhoun, traction. Jackson was a puro man, but he had to many Hayne, McDuffie, &c., were desirous of a sep-ries. (Applause.) And this Amos Kendall had the same aration of the slave States into a separate con- good fortune under Van Buren. Ho (Kendall) threatened federacy, as more favorable to the security of us on the one side, and John Ilick inan on the other. Jela slave property.”

Ilick man said, defiantly, that if we went out of tbe Union,

eighteen millions of Northern men would bring us back About 1835, some South Carolinians at

Let me tell you, there are a million of Democrats in the tempted a disunion demonstration. It is thus North, who, when the Black Republicans attempt to mar described by Ex-Governor Francis Thomas of upon the South, will be found a wall of fire in the front Maryland, in his speech in Baltimore, October (Cries of “ that's so!” avd applause.) 29, 1861:

Recently-found letters in Fredericksburg, Vir. Full twenty years ago, when occupying my seat in the

ginia, noticed editorially in Harpers' Weekly of House of Representatives, I was surprised one morning,

May 28, 1864, show that the South calculated after the assembling of the house, to observe that all tho members from the slaveholding States were absent. Whilst of men at the North. The Weekly, commenting

confidently upon the defection of large masses reflecting on this strange occurrence, I was asked why I was not in attendance on the Southern caucus assemblod on M. F. Maury's letters, says: in the room of the Committee on Claims. I replied that I had received no invitation.

How far Maury and his fellow-conspirators were justified I then proposed to go to the committce room, to see what in their hopes of seducing Now Jersey into the rebellka, was being done. When I entered I found that little cock may be gathered from the correspondence that took place spurrow, Governor Pickens of South Carolina, addressing in the spring of 1861 between Estovernor Price, of New the meeting, and strutting about like a rooster around a Jersey, who was one of the representatives from that Stato barn-yard coop, discussing the following resolution, which

in the Peace Congress, and L. W. Barnet, Esq., of Newark. he was urging on the favorable consideration of the meets Mr. Price, in answering the question what ought New Jer. ing:

sey to do, says: “I believe the Southern Confederation “Resolverk, That no member of Congress representing a

permanent. The proceeding has been taken with fure Southern constituency shall again take his seat until a re- thought and deliberation-it is no hurried impulse, but an solution is passed satisfuctory to the South on the subject irrevocable act, based upon the sacred, as was suppareth of slavery."

'equality of the States, and in my opinion every siare I listened to his language, and when he had finished, I State will in a short period of time be found united in one obtained the floor, asking to be permitted to take part in confederacy. * Before thit event happens we cannot the discussion. I determined at once to kill the treasona- act, however much we may suffer in our material interest ble plot hatched by John C. Calhoun, the Catalino of Amer. It is in that contingency, then, that I answer the second ica, by asking questions. I said to Mr. Pickens, “What part of your question- what position for Now Jerrey will next do you propose we shall do? Are we to tell the


best accord with her interests, honor, and the patri die inple that Republicanism is a failure? If you are for that I stincts of ber people ?' I say emphatically she smell go am not. I came here to sustain and uphold American in- with the South from every wise, prudential, and patriotic stitutions; to defend the rights of the North as well as the reason.Ex Governor Price proceeds to say that he is conSouth; to secure harmony and good fellowship between all fident the States of Ponnsylvaniat and New York will sections of our common country." Thoy dared not answer

“choose also to cast their lot with the South," and after these questions. The southern temper had not then been them the western and northwestern States. gotten up. As my questions were not answered, I moved an adjournment of the caucus sine die. Mr. Craig, of Vir

See page 20. ginia, seconded the motion, and the company was broken up. We returned to the House, and Mr. Ingersoll, of Penn

† January 16, 1861-A meeting of Democrats was held in sylvania, a glorious patriot then as now, introduced a reso

National Mall, Philadelphia, Charles Macalester presiling, lution which temporarily calmed the excitement.

at which Robert P. Kano offered this, anong other room

tions which were put to the meeting, and declared adipted, Respecting this event, the National Intelli. I and which, road in the light of this revelation, appear to

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