« PreviousContinue »
Onton, standing on this national platform, will abide by (opment of our growing power, requires that we should and adhere to a faithful execution of the acts known as bold sacred the principles involved in the MONROE doc the Compromise Measures, settled by the Congress of trine. Their bearing and import admit of no miscon1850 : “ the act for reclaiming fugitives from service or struction, and should be applied with unbending rigid. labor" included; which act, being designed to carry out ity. an express provision of the Constitution, cannot, with 8. Resoloed, That the great highway, which nature as fidelity thereto, be repealed, or so changed as to destroy well as the assent of States most immediately interested or impair its efficiency.
in its maintenance has marked out for free communica8. That the Democratic Party will resist all attempts tion between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, conat renewing, in Congress or out of it, the agitation of the stitutes one of the most important achievements realized Slavery question, under whatever shape or color the at- by the spirit of modern times, in the unconquerable tempt may be made.
energy of our people; and that result would be secured 4. That the Democratic Party will faithfully abide by by a timely and efficient exertion of the control which and uphold the principles laid down in the Kentucky we have the right to claim over it; and no power on and Virginia resolutions of 1797 and 1798, and in the earth should be suffered to impede or clog its progress report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature in 1799 by any interference with relations that it may suit our --that it adopts these principles as constituting one of policy to establish between our Government and the the main foundations of its political creed, and is re- government of the States within whose dominions it lies; solved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and we can under no circumstance surrender our preponimport.
derance in the adjustment of all questions arising out And that we may more distinctly meet the issue on
of it. which a sectional party, subsisting exclusively on 4. Resolved, That, in view of so commanding an interSlavery agitation, now relies to test the fidelity of the est, the people of the United States cannot but sympeople, North and South, to the Constitution and the pathize with the efforts which are being made by the Union
people of Central America to regenerate that portion of 1. Resolved, That claiming fellowship with and desir- the continent which covers the passage across the intering the coöperation of all who regard the preservation oceanic isthmus. of the Union under the Constitution as the paramount 5. Resolved, That the Democratic Party will expect of issue, and repudiating all sectional parties and platforms the next Administration that every proper effort be made concerning domestic Slavery, which seek to embroil the to insure our ascendency in the Gulf of Mexico, and to States and incite to treason and armed resistance to law maintain permanent protection to the great outlets in the Territories, and whose avowed purpose, if con- through which are emptied into its waters the products summated, must end in civil war and disunion, the raised out of the soil and the commodities created by American Democracy recognize and adopt the principles the industry of the people of our western valleys and of contained in the organic laws establishing the Territories the Union at large. of Nebraska and Kansas, as embodying the only sound Resolved, That the Administration of FRANKLIN and safe solution of the Slavery question, upon which Pierce has been true to Democratic principles, and the great national idea of the people of this whole coun. therefore true to the great interests of the country; try can repose in its determined conservation of the in the face of violent opposition, he has maintained the Union, and non-interference of Congress with Slavery in laws at home, and vindicated the rights of American the Territories or in the District of Columbia.
citizens abroad; and therefore we proclaim our unquali
1; 2. That this was the basis of the compromises of 1850, fied admiration of his measures and policy. confirmed by both the Democratic and Wbig parties in National Conventions, ratified by the people in the election of 1852, and rightly applied to the organization of the Territories in 1854.
WHIG CONVENTION-1856. 3. That by the uniform application of the Democratic principle to the organization of Territories, and the ad.
A Whig National Convention met at Baltimission of new States with or without domestic Slavery, more on the 17th of Sept., 1856–Edward Bates, as they may elect, the equal rights of all the States will of Missouri, presiding. The nominations of be preserved intact, the original compacts of the Constitution maintained inviolate, and the perpetuity and ex. Millard Fillmore for President, and Andrew J. pansion of the Union insured to its utmost capacity of Donelson for Vice-President, were unanimously embracing, in peace and harmony, every future Ameri- concurred in. The Convention adopted the can State that may be constituted or annexed with a republican form of government.
following Resolved, That we recognize the right of the people of
PLATFORM: all the Territories, including Kansas and Nebraska, acting through the legally and fairly expressed will of the Resolved, That the Whigs of the United States, now majority of the actual residents, and whenever the num. here assembled, hereby declare their reverence for the ber of their inhabitants justifies it, to form a Constitu- Constitution of the United States, their unalterable attion, with or without domestic Slavery, and be admitted tachment to the National Union, and a fixed determinainto the Union upon terms of perfect equality with the tion to do all in their power to preserve them for themother States.
selves and their posterity. They have no new principles Resoloed, finally, That in view of the condition of
to announce; no new platform to establish; but are popular institutions in the Old World (and the danger content to broadly rest-where their fathers restedous tendencies of sectional agitation, combined with the upon the Constitution of the United States, wishing no attempt to enforce civil and religious disabilities against safer guide, no higher law. the rights of acquiring and enjoying citizenship in our Resolved, That we regard with the deepest interest own land), a high and sacred duty is involved with in and anxiety the present disordered condition of our creased responsibility upon the Democratic Party of this national affairs-a portion of the country ravaged by country, as the party of the Union, to uphold and main civil war, large sections of our population embittered by tain the rights of every State and thereby the Union of mutual recriminations; and we distinctly trace theso the States—and to sustain and advance among us con. calamities to the culpable neglect of duty by the present stitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all monopolies national administration. and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the Resolved, That the Government of the United States expense of the many, and by a' vigilant and constant was formed by the conjunction in political unity of wide adherence to those principles and compromises of spread geographical sections materially differing, not Constitution – which are broad enough and strong only in climate and products, but in social and domestic enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it was, the institutions;
and that any cause that shall permanently Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be-in the full array the different sections of the Union in political hosexpression of the energies and capacity of this great and tility and organized parties founded only on geographical progressive people.
distinctions must inevitably prove fatal to a continuance 1. Resowed, That there are questions connected with of the National Union. the foreign policy of this country which are inferior to Resolved, That the Whigs of the United States declare, no domestic question whatever. The time has come for as a fundamental article of political faith, an absolute the people of the United States to declare themselves in necessity for avoiding geographical parties. The danger, favor of free seas, and progressive free trade throughout so clearly discerned by the Father of his Country, has the world, and, by solemt manifestations, to place their now become fearfully apparent in the agitation now moral influence at the side of their successful example. convulsing the nation, and must be arrested at once it
2. Resoloed, That our geographical and political posi- we would preserve our Constitution and our Union from tion with reference to the other states of this continent, dismemberment, and the name of America from being 20 less than the interest of our commerce and the devel- | blotted out from the family of civilized nations.
Resoloed, That all who revere the Constitution and those present and voting should be required tu the Union, must look with alarm at the parties in the nominate candidates. The following Platform field in the present Presidential campaign-one claiming only to represent sixteen Northern States, and the other was adopted, and, without taking a ballot for appealing mainly to the passions and prejudices of the President, the Convention again adjourned. Southern States ; that the success of either faction must add fuel to the flame which now threatens to wrap our
PLATFORM OF 1860. dearest interests in a common ruin. Resobed, That the only remedy for an evil so appal
Resoloed, That we, the delegated representatives of the liug is to support a candidate pledged to neither of the Republican electors of the United States, in Convention geographical sections now arrayed in political antagon: stituents and our country, unite in the following decla.
assembled, in discharge of the duty we owe to our conism, but holding both in a just and equal regard. We
rations: congratulate the friends of the Union that such a candidate exists in Millard Fillmore.
1. That the history of the nation, during the last four Resolved, That, without adopting or referring to the years, has fully established the propriety and necessity peculiar doctrines of the party which has already se- of the organization and perfetuation of the Republican lected Mr. Fillmore as a candidate,
we look to him as a party, and that the causes which called it into existence well-tried and faithful friend of the Constitution and the are permanent in their nature, and now, more than ever Union, eminent alike for his wisdom and firmness—for before, demand its peaceful and constitutional
triumph. his justice and moderation in our foreign relations--for in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the
2. That the maintenance of the principles promulgated his calm and pacific temperament, so well becoming the Federal Constitution, " That all men are created equal; head of a great nation--for his devotion to the Constitu- that they are endowed by their Creator with certain in tion in its true spirit-his inflexibility in executing the laws; but, beyond all these attributes, in possessing the alienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and one transcendent merit of being a representative of the pursuit of happiness ; that, to secure these rights, neither of the two sectional parties now struggling for just powers from the consent of the governed,” is essen.
governments are instituted among men, deriving their political supremacy.
Resolved, That, in the present exigency of political af- tial to the preservation of our Republican institutions ; fairs, we are not called upon to discuss the subordinate and that the Federal Constitution, the Rights of the questions of administration in the exercising of the States, and the Union of the States, must and shall be Constitutional powers of the Government. It is enough preserved.
3. That to the Union of the States this nation owes its to know that civil war is raging, and that the Union is in peril ; and we proclaim the conviction that the restora: velopment of material resources, its rapid augmentation
unprecedented increase in population, its surprising detion of Mr. Fillmore to the Presidency will furnish the best of wealth, its happiness at home and its honor abroad; if not the only means of restoring peace.
and we hold in abhorrence all schemes for Disunion, come In the election which ensued, Mr. Fillmore from whatever source they may: And we congratulate received the vote of Maryland only, while Mr. uttered or countenanced the threats of Disunion so often
the country that no Republican member of Congress has Buchanan obtained those of the 14 other Slave made by Democratic members, without rebuke and with States, and of New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, applause from their political associates ; and we denounce Illinois and California, making 172 in all. Coll those threats of disunion, in case of a popular overthrow
of their ascendency, as denying the vital principles of a Fremont received the votes of the eleven other free government, and as an avowal of contemplated treaFree States, making 114 in all. Pennsylvania son,
which it is the imperative duty of an indignant
ce. and Illinois, had they voted for Col. Fremont, ple sternly to rebuke and forever sil
4. That the maintenance in violate of the rights of the would have given him the election.
States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its ows
judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of powREPUBLICAN CONVENTION—1860.
ers on which the perfection and endurance of our politi.
cal fabric depends; and we denounce the lawless invasion A Republican National Convention assembled by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no
matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of at Chicago, Illinois, on Wednesday, May 16th, crimes. 1860, delegates being in attendance from all the 5. That the present Democratic Administration has far Free States, as also from Delaware, Maryland, serviency to the exactions of a sectional interest, as es
exceeded our worst apprebensions, in its measureless subVirginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Texas,* the Ter-pecially evinced in its desperate exertions to force the ritories of Kansas and Nebraska, and the Dis- infamous Lecompton Constitution upon the protesting trict of Columbia.
people of Kansas; in construing the personal relation
between master and servant to involve an unqualified Gov. Morgan, of New-York, as Chairman of property in persons; in its attempted entorcement, everythe National Executive Committee, nominated where, on land and sea, through the intervention of ConDavid Wilmot as temporary Chairman, and he sress and of the Federal Courts of the extreme preten,
sions of a purely local interest; and in its general and was chosen. The usual Committees on perma- unyarying abuse of the power intrusted to it by a confidnent organization, credentials, etc., were ap- ing people., pointed, and the Convention was permanently extravagance which pervades every department of the
6. That the people justly view with alarm the reckless organized by the selection of George Ashmun, Federal Government; that a return to rigid economy of Massachusetts, as President, with a Vice and accountability is indispensable to arrest the systePresident and a Secretary from each State and matic plunder of the public treasury by favored partiTerritory represented. A Committee, of one and corruptions at the Federal metropolis, show that an
sans; while the recent startling developments of frauds from each State and Territory, was appointed entire change of administration is imperatively dem to draft suitable resolutions, or in other words manded.
7. That the new dogma that the Constitution, of its a Platform, and the Convention adjourned.
own force, carries Slavery into any or all of the Territo. On the following day, an interesting debate ries of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy, arose on a proposition
to require a vote equal at variance with the explicit provisions of that instru: to a majority of full delegations from all the legislative and judicial precedent; is revolutionary in its
ment itself, with cotemporaneous exposition, and with States to nominate candidates for President and tendency, and subversive of the peace and harmony of Vice-President; which, with the delegates actu- the country, ally in attendance, would have been about United States is that of freedom: That as our Republican
8. That the normal condition of all the territory of the equivalent to a two-third rule. This proposition fathers, when they had abolished Slavery in all our nawas voted down, and the Convention decided, tional territory, ordained that "no person should be de. by a vote of 331 to 130, that only a majority of prived of life, liberty, or properiy, without due procese
of law," it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever
such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provisioni * The delegation from Texas has since been proved fraudulent, of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it; and i baving been got up in Michigan to effect a personal end. we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legis
lature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to
9. That we brand the recent re-opening of the African
New Hampshire 1
Massachusetts, .21 4
Rhode Island...nors, of the acts of the Legislatures of Kansas and Ne
Connecticut... 2 1
Delaware. 11. That Kansas should, of right, be immediately ad
Virginia.. mitted as a State under the Constitution recently formed
Kentucky 5 6 2 and adopted by her people, and accepted by the House
8 of Representatives,
22 courage the development of the industrial interests of the
4 whole country: and we commend that policy of national
Wisconsin. .10 exchanges which secures to the working men liberal
2 2 wages, to agriculture remunerating prices, to mechanics
California..... and manufacturers an adequate reward for their skill,
Minnesota..... 8 labor, and enterprise, and to the nation commercial pros
Oregon.... perity and independence.
Territories. 13. That we protest against any sale or alienation to
6 others of the Public Lands held by actual settlers, and
Nebraska.. 2 1 against any view of the Homestead policy which
regards Dis. of Columbia 2 the settlers as paupers or suppliants for public bounty ; and we demand the passage by Congress of the complete Total.... 173} 102 3 501 48 12 1 49 14 1 1 10 and satisfactory Homestead measure which has already passed the House.
Whole number of votes, 465. Necessary to 14. That the Republican Party is opposed to any change a choice, 233. in our Naturalization Laws or any State legislation by The second ballot was then taken. which the rights of citizenship hitherto accorded to immigrants from foreign lands shall be abridged or impaired;
Mr. Cameron's name was withdrawn.
for the accommodation and security of an existing com-
New Hampshire property of its citizens.
24 ciples and views, we invite the coöperation of all citi
6 Eens, however differing on other questions, who substan
8 14 tíally agree with us in their affirmance and support.
14 On the following day, Friday, May 18th, the Ohio...
26 Chair having announced that the naming of
18 candidates for President was in order, Wm. Michigan.
Total.........1844 181 35 2 8 424 10 Lincoln. Mr. Austin Blair, of Michigan, seconded The third ballot was taken amid excitement, the nomination of Mr. Seward; so also did Carl and cries for “the ballot.” Intense feeling Schurz, of Wisconsin, Mr. Worth, of Minnesota, existed during the voting, each vote being and Mr. Wilder, of Kansas.
awaited in breathless silence and expectancy. Mr. Corwin, of Ohio, nominated Judge Mc- The progress of the ballot was watched with
most intense interest, especially toward the Mr. Delano, of Ohio, seconded the nomination last, the crowd becoming silent as the contest of Mr. Lincoln, as did also one of the delegates narrowed down. The States, as called, voted as from Iowa.
* Previously withdrawn.
TU! | C. M. Clay.
1111 | loull || Chase.
jolli i i C. M. Clay.
181 || Banks.
| H. W.Davis.
Inc 1 colo
THE SECOND BALLOT.
10 Massachusetts.... 8
10 Rhode Island.. 1
Massachusetts.. 20 1 Connecticut.. 1
Rhode Island.. New-York.......70
Connecticut.. 2 1
9 New Jersey...... 5
4 2 11 85
New Jersey... 1 Pennsylvania...
6 Maryland... 2
Pennsylvania..... 41 24 24 7 11
1 2 Kentucky
Indiana. Michigan. 12
8 Texas.. 6
2 Wisconsin. .10
5 California. 8
Kansas. 8 Dist. of Columbia 2
Dist, of Columbia.. 2 180 22 244 2311
Total.. ..1011 387 51 58 194 1 This gave Lincoln 231} votes, or within 24 of Total 461. Necessary to a choice, 232. a nomination.
Before the result was announced, Mr. Cartter, of Ohio, said- I rise, Mr. Chairman, to an- States.
Hamlin, Clay. Hickman. nounce the change of four votes from Ohio, Maine..
16 from Mr. Chase to Abraham Lincoln.
10 This announcement, giving Mr. Lincoln a Massachusetts.
26 majority, was greeted by the audience with the Rhode Island.
8 most enthusiastic and thundering applause.
10 Mr. McCrillis, of Maine, making himself heard, New Jersey
14 said that the young giant of the West is now of Pennsylvania.
54 age. Maine casts for him her 16 votes. Maryland..
Delaware. Mr. Andrew, of Massachusetts, changed the
Virginia.. vote of that State, giving 18 to Mr. Lincoln and Kentucky. 8 to Mr. Seward.
12 Mr. B. Gratz Brown, of Missouri, desired to
13 change the 18 votes of Missouri to the gallant son Michigan. of the West, Abraham Lincoln. Iowa, Con- Illinois. necticut, Kentucky, and Minnesota also changed
Wisconsin their votes. The result of the third ballot was Iowa.... announced:
Minnesota.... Whole number of votes cast .466
Oregon.. Necessary to a choice...... ..234
Kansas. Abraham Lincoln had received 354, and was Nebraska. declared duly nominated.
District of Columbia.
2 On motion of Wm. M. Evarts, of New-York,
Massachusetts withdrew the name of Mr. On motion of Mr. Evarts, of New-York, the Banks, and cast 26 votes for Mr. Hamlin. Convention now took a recess till 5 o'clock, to Pennsylvania withdrew the name of Gov. afford time for consultation as to Vice-President. Reeder, and cast 54 votes for Mr. Hamlin.
At 5 o'clock the Convention rëassembled, On motion of Mr. Blakey, of Kentucky, the
Mr. J. R. Giddings, of Ohio, offered and the
Resoloed, That we deeply sympathize with those men
others from the States of their adoption, and are now [NOTE.-Col.Fremont had sent a letter by one exiled from their homes on account of their opinions ; of the delegates from California, withdrawing and we hold the Democratic party responsible for the his name from the list of candidates for Presi- gross violations of that clause of the Constitution which dent. This letter was published before the declares that citizens of each State shall be entitled to
all the privileges and immunities of citizens of the meeting of the Convention.]
Mr. Aslımun made a brief speech, and the Resoloed, That it is both the part of patriotism and Convention adjourned sine die, with nine hearty THE CONSTITUTION OF THE COUNTRY, THE UNION OF THE
of duty to recognize no political principle other than rheers for the ticket.
STATES AND THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAws, and that, as representatives of the Constitutional Union men of
the country in National Convention assembled, wo NATIONAL REPUBLICAN COMMITTEE. hereby pledge ourselves to maintain, protect and de.
fend, separately and unitedly, these great principles of The Convention previous to its adjournment public liberty and national safety, against all enemies made choice of the following gentlemen as the at home and abroad, believing that thereby peace may National Committee for the next four years :
once more be restored to the country, the rights of the
People and of the States reëstablished, and the Govern Maine-CHARLES J. GILMAN, Brunswick
ment again placed in that condition, of justice, fraternity New-Humpshire-GEORGE Ġ. Fogo, Concord.
and equality, which, under the example and Constitution Vermont-LAWRENCE BRAINARD, St. Albans.
of our fathers, has solemly bound every citizen of the Massachusetts-John Z. GOODRICH, Stockbridge. United States to maintain a more perfect union, estabRhode Island–THOMAS G. TURNER, Providence.
lish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for Connecticut-GIDEON WELLES, Hartford.
the common defense, promote the general welfare, and New-York-EDWIN D. MORGAN, Albany.
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our Nero-Jersey-DENNING DUER, N. Y. City.
A Democratic National Convention assembled Indiana,SOLOMON MEREDITH, Centerville.
at Charleston, S. C., on the 23d of April, 1860, Illinois-NORMAN B. JUDD, Chicago. Michigan-Austin BLAIR, Jackson.
with full delegations present from every State Wisconsin-CARL Schurz, Milwaukee.
in the Union, and double delegations from Iowa—ANDREW J. STEVENS, Des Moines.
Illinois and New York, One of the New York Minnesota-John McKUSICK, Stillwater,
delegations was elected by the State Nominating Missouri -Asa S. Jones, St. Louis. Kentucky-CASSIUS M. CLAY, Whitehall.
Convention which met at Syracuse the precedCalifornia-D. W. CHEESMAN, Oroville.
ing autumn; while its rival was elected by Oregon-W. FRANK Johnson, Oregon City.
districts, and led by Fernando Wood, Mayor of Kansas-WILLIAM A. PHILLIPS, Lawrence. Nebraska~0. H. IRISH, Nebraska City.
the commercial emporium. From Illinois, one Dist. of Columbia, JosEPH GERHARDT, Washington. of the delegations was favorable to Senator At a meeting held in Chicago, May 18th, Douglas, and the other opposed to that gentle1860, the Committee organized by choosing the man. Tickets of admission were given by the Hon. E. D. Morgan, of New.York, Chairman, National Committee to the former or "Soft” and George G. Fogg, of New-Hampshire, Secre Delegation from New York, thus deciding, so tary. Subsequently, the following persons were | far as their power extended, against the Wood constituted the Executive Committee:
or “ Hard" contestants, who were understood E. D. MORGAN, of New-York.
to be opposed to the nomination of Douglas. GIDEON WELLES, of Connecticut.
Francis B. Flournoy, of Arkansas, was choN. B. JUDD, of Illinois.
sen temporary chairman, and the Convention CARL SCHURZ, of Wisconsin. JOHN Z. GOODRICH, of Massachusetts.
opened with an angry and stormy debate on the DENNING DUER, of New-Jersey.
question of the disputed seats. Mr. Fisher, of GEO. G. FOGG, of New-Hampshire.
Va., presented a protest from Mayor Wood,
on behalf of his delegation, against their CONSTITUTIONAL UNION CONVENTION-exclusion from the Hall. The reading of the 1860.
protest was ruled out of order, and, after a
wrangling debate, committees were appointed A Convention of Delegates, coming from
on Permanent Organization and Credentials, twenty States, and claiming to represent the and the communication of Mayor Wood was "Constitutional Union Party,” met at Baltimore ref cred witho reading the latter. on the 9th of May, and nominated for President
On the following day, the Committee on Jobh Bell, of Tennessee, and for Vice-President Organization reported the name of Caleb CushEdward Everett, of Massachusetts. The ballot-ing, of Mass., for President, with one Viceingy for President resulted as follows :
President and one Secretary from each State, 1st. 2d.
2d. which report was adopted. They also reported Johfi Bell, 68; 138 Edward Everett,.. 25 9 Son Houston,
a rule “ that in any State in which it bas not 57 69 Wm. L. Goggin,... 8 Job M. Botts,.... 91 Wm. A. Graham,.. 22 18 “been provided or directed by its State ConJobur McLean,.. 21 Wm. L. Sharkey,.
7 84 vention how its vote may be given, the J.J Crittenden, .
“ Convention will recognize the right of each fecessary to a choice, 1st ballot, 128; second delegate to cast his individual vote.” Whicb ball bt, 127.
was also adopted. 1 he nomination of Mr. Bell was thereupon A Committee on Resolutions and Platform ma de unanimous.
was now appointed; and it was voted that no Ir. Everett was unanimously nominated for ballot for President and Vice-President should Vice-President.
be taken till after the adoption of a Platform. be Convention adopted the following as Adjourned. the fr
On the following day, the only progress made PLATFORM.
by the Convention was the settlement of the hereas, Experience has demonstrated that Plat- question of contested seats, by confirming the forn as adopted by the partisan Conventions of the sitting delegates ; that is, the “Softs” from cor atry have had the effect to mislead and deceive the New-York, and the Douglas men from Illinois. been ble, and at the same time to widen the political On the 26th, no progress was made, though diri sions of the country, by the creation and encourageben t of geographical and sectional parties; therefore, there was much angry debate and many threats