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DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION-1852. of the people, and calculated to place the business of the

country within the control of a concentrated money This Convention assembled at Baltimore on power, and that above the laws and the will of the people; the 1st of June, John W. Davis, of Indiana, and that the results of Democratic legislation, in this and presided, and the two-thirds rule was adopted all other financial measures, upon which issues have been

made between the two political parties of the country have Gen. Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, was demonstrated to candid and practical men of all, parties, nominated for President on the 49th ballot, as their soundness, safety, and utility, in all business pursuits. follows:

Resoloed, That the separation of the moneys of the Government from Banking Institutions, is indispensable for the safety of the funds of the Government, and the

rights of the people, Ballots.

Resoloed, That the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanc

tioned in the Constitution, which makes ours the land of 116 93 20 27


liberty, and the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, 118 95 23 27


have ever been cardinal principles in the Democratic 119 94 21 26


faith ; and every attempt to abridge the privilege of be-
115 89 31 25

coming citizens and the owners of soil among us, ought 114 88 84 26

18 1

to be resisted with the same spirit which swept the alien 114 88 84 26 1 8


and sedition laws from our statute book. 113 88 84 26 1

13 1

Resoloed, That Congress has no power under the Con. 113 88 84 26 1


stitution to interfere with, or control the domestic insti. 112 87 89 27 1

13 1

tutions of the several States, and that such States are the 10. 111 86 40 27 1 8

14 1

sole and proper judges of everything appertaining to 101 87 50 27 1 8

18 1

their own affairs, and prohibited by the Constitution ; 98 88 51 27 1 9


that all efforts of the Abolitionists or others, made to 98 88 51 26 1 10

13 1

induce Congress to interfere with questions of Slavery, 99 87 51 26 1 10

13 1

or to take incipient steps in relation thereto, are calcu. 99 87 51 26 1 10

18 1

lated to lead to the most alarming and dangerous conse99 87 51 26 1 10 18 1

quences; and that all such efforts have an inevitable 99 87 50 26 1 11

13 1

tendency to diminish the happiness of the people, and 96 85 56 25 1 11

13 1

endanger the stability and permanency of the Union, and 89 85 63 26 1 10

18 1

ought not to be countenanced by any friend of our politi81 92 64 26 1 10 - 18 1

cal institutions. 60 102 64 26 18 9 18 1

Resoloed, That the foregoing proposition covers, and is 53 104 77 26 15 9

18 1

intended to embrace, the whole subject of Slavery agita37 103 78 26 19 11 13 1

tion in Congress; and therefore, the Democratic party of 33 108 80 26 23 9 13 1

the Union, standing on this National Platform, will abide 25. 34 101 81 26 24 9

13 1

by, and adhere to, a faithful execution of the acts known 26. 33 101 80 26 24 10 13 1

as the Compromise measures settled by the last Congress 32 98 85 26 24 9

13 1

--the act for reclaiming fugitives from service or labor 23 96 88 26 25 11


included; which act, being designed to carry out an 29. 27 93 91 26 25 12

13 1

express provision of the Constitution, cannot with fidelity 83 91 92 26 20 12 13

thereto be repealed, nor so changed as to destroy or im64 92 26 16


pair its efficiency. 98 74 80 26 1

Resolved, That the Democratic party will resist all 83. 123 72 60 25 2


attempts at renewing in Congress, or out of it, the agita. 130 49 53 23 1


tion of the Slavery question, under whatever shape or 35. 131 39 52 44 1


color the attempt may be made. 122 28 43 58 1

1 120 28 87 70 1

[Here follow the Resolutions of 1848, against 107 28 33 84 1 106 23 33 85

the distribution of the proceeds of the Public 1 40. 106 27 83 85

Land Sales, and against the abridgment of the 107 27 33 85 1

veto power of the President.] 42. 101 27 83 91 1

1 101 27 33 91


Resoloed, That the Democratic party will faithfully 44. 101 27 83 91 1

29 abide by and uphold the principles laid down in the 96 27 82 97 1

1 29 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1792 and 1798, and 78 28 82 97

44 in the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature 75 28 83 95 1

49 in 1799 ; that it adopts those principles as constituting 48. 73 29 83 90


1 55 one of the main foundations of its political creed, and is 49. 2


282 resolved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and

import. The first vote for Vice-President was as fol- Resolved, that the war with Mexico, upon all the lows:

principles of patriotism and the law of nations, was a

just and necessary war on our part, in which no Ameri. Wm. R. King, of Ala... 126 Wm. O. Butler, of Ky... 27 can citizen should have shown himself opposed to his G. J. Pillow, of Tenn... 25 Roht. Strange, of N. O... 28 country, and neither morally nor physically, by word or D. R. Atchison, of Mo.. 25 S. U. Downs, of La.... 80 deed, given aid and comfort to the enemy. T. J. Rusk, of Texas,.. 12 J. B. Weller, of Cal.... 28 Resowed, That we rejoice at the restoration of friendly Jeff. Davis, of Miss..... 2 Howell Cobb, of Ga.... 2 relations with our sister Republic of Mexico, and earnest Wm. R. King, of Alabama, was unanimously we desire for her all the blessings and prosperity which

enjoy con. nominated on the second ballot.

gratulate the American people on the results of that war

which have so manifestly justified the policy and conduct THE PLATFORM.

of the Democratic party, and insured to the United States The Platform was made up of resolves. Here indemnity for the past, and security for the future.

Resoloed, That, in view of the condition of popular follow 1, 2, and 3, of that of 1848, with 1, 2, 3, institutions in the old world, a high and sacred duty is and 4 of that of 1840, (see them heretofore), to devolved with increased responsibility upon the Demowhich were added the following:

cracy of this country, as the party of the people, to up

hold and maintain the rights of every State, and thereby Resoloed, That it is the duty of every branch of the the Union of States, and to sustain and advance among Government to enforce and practice the most rigid them constitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the more revenue ought to be raised than is required to few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and defray the necessary expenses of the Government, and constant adherence to those principles and compromises for the gradual but certain extinction of the public debt. of the CONSTITUTION, which are broad enough and Resoloed, That Congress has no power to charter a strong enough to embrace and

uphold the Union as it is, National Bank; that we believe such an institution one and the Union as it should be, in the full expansion of of leadly hostility to the best interests of the country, the energies and capacity of this great and progressive dangerous to our republican institutions and the liberties people.

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FREE vivvüATIC CONVENTION-1852. 10. That no permanent settlement of the Slavery

question can be looked for except in the practical reThe Free-Soil Democracy held a National cognition of the truth that Slavery is sectional and FreeConvention at Pittsburgh, on the 11th August, dom national; by the total separation of the General 1852, Henry Wilson, of Mass., presiding. All Government from slavery, and the exercise of its legiti

mate and constitutional influence on the side of Freethe Free States were represented, together with dom; and by leaving to the States the whole subject of Delaware, Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland. Slavery and the extradition of fugitives from service. John P. Hale, of N.H., was nominated for Presi- soil; and that as the use of the soil is indispensable to

11. That all men have a natural right to a portion of the dent, with Geo. W. Julian, of Indiana, for Vice- life, the right of all men to the soil is as sacred as their President. The Convention adopted the fol- right to life itself. lowing:

12. That the Public Lands of the United States belong

to the People, and should not be sold to individuals nor PLATFORM:

granted to corporations, but should be held as a sacred Having assembled in National Convention as the De- trust for the benefit of the people, and should be granted mocracy of the United States, united by a common in limited quantities, free of cost, to landless settlers. resolve to maintain right against wrong, and Freedom

18. That a due regard for the Federal Constitution, against Slavery : confiding in the intelligence, patriot- a sound administrative policy, demand that the funds ism, and discriminating justice of the American people, of the General Government be kept separate from Bank. putting our trust in God for the triumph of our cause: reduced to the lowest possible point; that no more revenue

ing institutions ; that inland and ocean postage should be and invoking his guidance in our endeavors to advance it, we now submit to the candid judgment of all men should be raised than is required' to defray the strictly the following declaration of principles and measures :

necessary expenses of the public service, and to pay off 1. That governments, deriving their just powers from the public Debt; and that the power and patronage of the the consent of the governed, are instituted among men

Government should be diminished, by the abolition of all to secure to all those inalienable rights of life, liberty, unnecessary offices, salaries, and privileges, and by the and the pursuit of happiness with which they are election, by the people, of all civil officers in the service endowed by their Creator, and of which none can be of the United States, so far as may be consistent with deprived by valid legislation, except for crime,

the prompt and efficient transaction of the public busi2. That the true mission of American Democracy is to

ness. maintain the Liberties of the People, the Sovereignty of

14. That River and Harbor Improvements, when necesthe States, and the perpetuity of the Union, by the im- sary to the safety and convenience of commerce with partial application to public affairs, without sectional foreign nations, or among the several States, are objects discriminations of the fundamental principles of hu- of national concern; and it is the duty of Congress, in man rights, strict justice and an economical administra. the exercise of its constitutional powers, to provide for tion,

the same. 3. That the Federal Government is one of limited 15. That emigrants and exiles from the old world powers, derived solely from the Constitution, and the should find a cordial welcome to homes of comfort and grants of power therein ought to be strictly construed by fields of enterprise in the new; and every attempt to all the departments and agents of the Government, and abridge their privilege of becoming citizens and owners it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful con

of the soil among us, ought to be resisted with inflexible stitutional powers.

determination. 4. That the Constitution of the United States, ordained

16. That every nation has a clear right to alter or to form a more perfect Union, to establish Justice and change its own government, and to administer its own secure the blessings of Liberty, expressly denies to the concerns in such manner as may best secure the rights General Government all power to deprive any person of and promote the happiness of the people; and foreign life, liberty or property without due process of law; and, interference with that right is a dangerous violation of therefore, the Government having no more power to the law of nations, against which all independent governmake a slave than to make a king, and no more power ments should protest, and endeavor by all proper means to establish Slavery than to establish a Monarchy,

to prevent; and especially is it the duty of the Amerishould at once proceed to relieve itself from all respon can Government, representing the Chief Republic of sibility for the existence of Slavery, wherever it possesses the world, to protest against, and by all proper means constitutional power to legislate for its extinction.

to prevent the intervention of kings and emperors against 5. That, to the persevering and importunate demands Nations seeking to establish for themselves Republican of the Slave power for more Slave States, new Slave or constitutional governments. Territories and the nationalization of Slavery, our dis

17. That the Independence of Hayti ought to be tinct and final answer is-no more Slave štates, no recognized

by our Government, and our commercial Slave Territory, no nationalized Slavery, and no national relations with it placed on the footing of the most Legislation for the extradition of Slaves.

favored nations. 6. That Slavery is a sin against God, and a crime

18. That as by the Constitution, “the citizens of each against man, which no human enactment nor usage can State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immuni. make right; and that Christianity, humanity, and patriot-ties of citizens in the several states," the practice of ism alike demand its abolition.

imprisoning colored seamen of other States, while the 7. That the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, is repugnant vessels to which they belong lie in port, and refusing to the Constitution, to the principles of the common law, the exercise of the right to bring such cases before the to the spirit of Christianity, and to the sentiments of Supreme Court of the United States, to test the legality the civilized world. We therefore deny its binding force of such proceedings, is a flagrant violation of the Con. upon the American people, and demand its immediate stitution, and an invasion of the rights of the citizens and total repeal.

of other States utterly inconsistent with the professions 8. That the doctrine that any human law is a finality, made by the slaveholders, that they wish the provisions and not subject to modification or repeal, is not in of the Constitution faithfully observed by every State accordance with the creed of the founders of our Govern- in the Union. ment, and is dangerous to the liberties of the people.

19, That we recommend the introduction into all trea. 9. That the Acts of Congress, known as the Compro- ties hereafter to be negotiated between the United States mise Measures of 1850, by making the admission of a and foreign nations, of some provision for the amicable sovereign State contingent upon the adoption of other settlement of difficulties by à resort to decisive arbimeasures demanded by the special interest of Slavery ;

trations. by their omission to guarantee freedom in the free Terri

20. That the Free Democratic Party is not organized tories; by their attempt to impose unconstitutional to aid either the Whig or Democratic wing of the great limitations on the power of Congress and the people-to Slave Compromise party of the nation, but to defeat them admit new States ; by their .provisions for the assump-both; and that repudiating and renouncing both, as tion of five millions of the State debt of Texas, and for hopelessly corrupt, and utterly unworthy of confidence, the payment of five millions more, and the cession of a the purpose of the Free Democracy is to take possession large territory to the same State under menace, as an of the Federal Government, and administer it for the inducement to the relinquishment of a groundless claim, better protection of the rights and interests of the whole and by their invasion of the sovereignty of the States people. and the liberties of the people through the enactment

21. That we inscribe on our banner, Freo Soil, Free of an unjust, oppressive, and unconstitutional Fugitive Speech, Free Labor and Free Men, and under it will Slave Law, are proved to be inconsistent with all the fight on and fight ever until a triumphant victory shall principles and maxims of Democracy, and wholly inade- reward our exertions. quate to the settlement of the questions of which they 22. That upon this Platform the Convention presents are claimed to be an adjustment.

to the Apóxican people as a candidate for the office of

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President of the United States, JOHN P. HALE, of New-person should be deprived of life, liberty or property
Hampshire, and as a candidate for the office of Vice- without due process of law, it becomes our duty to mairi-
President of the United States, GEORGE W. JULIAN, of tain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts
Indiana, and earnestly commend them to the support to violate it for the purpose of establishing Slavery in
of all Freemen and all parties.

any territory of the United States, by positive legislation,

prohibiting its existence or extension therein. That wo The result of this contest was an overwhelm- deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislaing triumph of the regular Democracy : Pierce ture, of any individual or association of individuals, to and King carrying every State except Massachu- give legal existence to Slavery in any territory of the

United States, while the present Constitution shall be setts, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee, which maintained. cast their votes for Gen. Scott. The Free Demo- Resobed, That the Constitution confers upon Congress cratic vote in several States would have given sovereign power over the territories of the Ünited States

for their government, and that in the exercise of this those States to Scott, had it been cast for him. power it is both the right and the duty of Congress to

prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism

-Polygamy and Slavery.
REPUBLICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION— States was ordained and established by the people in

Resolved, That while the Constitution of the United

order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice,

insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common des This Convention met at Philadelphia on the sense, and secure the blessings of liberty, and contains 17th of June, and chose Col. Henry S. Lane, of ample provisions for the protection of the life, liberty

and property of every citizen, the dearest constitutional Indiana, as presiding officer. An informal bal- rights of the people of Kansas have been fraudulently lot for President resulted as follows:

and violently taken from them-their territory has been
invaded by an armed force--spurious and pretended
legislative, judicial and executive officers have been set
over them, by whose usurped authority, sustained by the

military power of the Government, tyrannical and unStates.


constitutional laws have been enacted and enforced Maine, 13 11 Indiana


21 the rights of the people to keep and bear arms have New-Hampshire.. 15 Illinois.

14 19 been infringed-test oaths of an extraordinary and enVermont


tangling nature have been imposed, as a condition of Massachusetts... 39



exercising the right of suffrage and holding office-the Rhode Island.. 12



right of an accused person to a speedy and public trial Connecticut 18


3 by an impartial jury has been denied-the right of the New-York.... 93 8 Kansas..

9 people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and New-Jersey 7 14 Nebraska..

8 effects against unreasonable searches and seizures has Pennsylvania. 10 71 Kentucky

been violated—they have been deprived of life, liberty Delaware.

9 California..


and property without due process of law-that the free. Maryland.... 4

dom of speech and of the press has been abridged—the Ohio.. 30 89

859 196 right to choose their representatives has been made of New-York also gave two votes for Sumner no effect-murders, robberies and arsons have been insti

gated and encouraged, and the offenders have been and one for Seward.

allowed to go unpunished-that all these things have Col. John C. Fremont was thereupon unani- been done with the knowledge, sanction and procure. mously nominated.

ment of the present Administration, and that for this William L. Dayton was nominated for Vice-manity, we arraign the Administration, the President, his

high crime against the Constitution, the Union and Hu. President, receiving, on the informal ballot, advisers, agents, supporters, apologists and accessories, 259 votes to 43 for David Wilmot; 110 for either before or after the facts, before the country and Abraham Lincoln ; 7 for Thomas Ford; 35 for before the world, and that it is our fixed purpose to

bring the actual perpetrators of these atrocious outrages,
Charles Sumner; 4 for Cassius M. Clay; 15 for and their accomplices, to a sure and condign punishment
Jacob Collamer; 2 for J. R. Giddings; 2 for hereafter.
W. F. Johnston; 46 for N. P. Banks ; 1 for A. ted as a State of the Union, with her present free Consti-

Resoloed, That Kansas should be immediately admit-
C. M. Pennington ; 5 for Henry Wilson ; 9 for tution, as at once the most effectual way of securing to
John A. King ; 3 for Henry C. Carey; and 8 for her citizens the enjoyment of the rights and privileges to
Gen. S. C. Pomeroy of Kansas. Å formal bal- which they are entitled; and of ending the civil strife

now raging in her territory. lot was then taken, when Mr. Dayton was nomi- Resored, That the highwayman's plea, that "might nated unanimously.

makes right,” embodied in the Ostend Circular, was in The Convention adopted the following

every respect unworthy of American diplomacy, and

would bring shame and dishonor upon any government PLATFORM:

or people that gave it their sanction.

Resoloed, That a railroad to the Pacific Ocean, by the This Convention of Delegates, assembled in pursuance most central and practicable route, is imperatively deof a call addressed to the people of the United States, manded by the interests of the whole country, and that without regard to past political differences or divisions, the Federal Government ought to render immediate and who are opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compro- efficient aid in its construction; and, as an auxiliary mise, to the policy of the present Administration, to the thereto, the immediate construction of an emigrant route extension of Slavery into Free Territory ; in favor of

on the line of the railroad. admitting Kansas as a Free State, of restoring the action Resolved, That appropriations by Congress for the of the Federal Government to the principles of Washing- improvement of rivers and harbors, of a national characton and Jefferson, and who purpose to unite in present-ter, required for the accommodation and security of our ing candidates for the offices of President and Vice-existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution, President, do resolve as follows:

and justified by the obligation of government to protect Resowed, That the maintenance of the principles pro- the lives and property of its citizens. mulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Federal Constitution is essential to the

This contest resulted in the election of the
preservation of our Republican Institutions, and that Democratic nominees, Buchanan and Breckin.
the Federal Constitution, the rights of the States, and ridge, who received the electoral votes of
the Union of the States, shall be preserved.

Resolved, That with our republican fathers we hold it New-Jersey, 7; Pennsylvania, 27; Delaware, 8; Vir.
to be a self-evident truth, that all men are endowed with ginia, 15; North Carolina, 10 ; South Carolina, 8;
the inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of Georgia, 10; Alabama, 9; Mississippi, 7; Louisiana, 6;
happiness, and that the primary object and ulterior de- Tennessee, 12; Kentucky, 12; Indiana, 13; Illinois, 11;
signs of our Federal Government were, to secure these Missouri, 9; Arkansas, 4; Florida, 3; Texas, 4; Califor-
rights to all persons within its exclusive jurisdiction; nia, 4.-174.
that, as our republican fathers, when they had abolished For Fremont and Dayton: Maine, 8; New Hampshire,
Slavery in all our national territory, ordained that nc 10; Vermont, 8; Massachusetts, 13; Rhode Island, 4;

Connecticut, 6; New-York, 85; Ohio, 28; Michigan, 6; viency to the stronger, and an insolent and cowardly Iowa, 4; Wisconsin, 5-114.

bravado toward the weaker powers; as shown in reFillmore and Donelson, Maryland, 8.

opening sectional agitation, by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; as shown in granting to unnaturalized for. eigners the right of suffrage in Kansas and Nebraska; ax

shown in its vacillating course on the Kansas and NeAMERICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION- braska question; as shown in the corruptions which per. 1856.

vade some of the Departments of the Government; ae

shown in disgracing meriterious naval officers through The American National Council met in Phila- prejudice or caprice: and as shown in the blundering

mismanagement of our foreign relations. delphia February 19, 1856. All the States ex

14. Therefore, to rem existing evils, and prevent cept four or five were represented. E. B. the disastrous consequences otherwise resulting thereBartlett, of Ky., President of the National Coun- from, we would build up the “ American Party” upop cil presided, and, after a rather stormy session

the principles herein before stated.

15. That each State Council shall have authority to of three days, devoted mainly to the discussion amend their several constitutions, so as to abolish the of a Party Platform, the following, on the 21st, several degrees and substitute a pledge of honor, instead was adopted :

of other obligations, for fellowship and admission into


16. A free and open discussion of all political princ! 2 An humble acknowledgment to the Supreme Being, ples embraced in our Platform. for his protecting care vouchsafed to our fathers in their On the following day (Feb. 22,) the America: successful Revolutionary struggle, and hitherto mani. National Nominating Convention, composed fested to us, their descendants, in the preservation of mostly of the same gentlemen who had deliberthe liberties, the independence, and the union of these ated as the National Council, organized at PhilaStates.

2. The perpetuation of the Federal Union and Consti- delphia with 227 delegates in attendance, tution, as the palladium of our civil and religious liber. Maine, Vermont, Georgia, and South Carolina, ties, and the only sure bulwarks of American Indepen- being the only States not represented. Ephraim dence.

8. Americans must rulo America ; and to this end Marsh, of New-Jersey, was chosen to preside, native-born citizens should be selected for all State, and the Convention remained in session till the Federal and municipal offices of government employ 25th, and, after disposing of several cases of ment, in preference to all others. Nevertheless,

4. Persons born of American parents residing tempo- contested seats, discussed at considerable length, rarily abroad, should be entitled to 'all the rights of and with great warmth, the question of the Dative-born citizens.

5. No person should be selected for political station power of the National Council to establish a (whether of native or foreign birth), who recognizes any Platform for the Convention, which should be allegiance or obligation of any description to any foreign of binding force upon that body. Finally, Mr. prince, potentate or power, or who refuses to recognize Killinger, of Pennsylvania, proposed the fol the Federal and State Constitutions (each within its sphere) as paramount to all other laws, as rules of polit- lowing: ical action.

Resoloed, That the National Council has no authority 6. The unqualified recognition and maintenance of the to prescribe a Platform of principles for this Nominating reserved rights of the several States, and the cultivation Convention, and that we will nominate for President and of harmony and fraternal good will between the citizens Vice-President no man who is not in favor of interdictof the several States, and to this end, non-interference ing the introduction of Slavery into Territory north 86° by Congress with questions appertaining solely to the 30' by congressional action. individual States, and non-intervention by each State with the affairs of any other State.

A motion to lay this resolution on the table 7. The recognition of the right of native-born and was adopted, 141 to 59. A motion was then naturalized citizens of the United States, permanently made to proceed to the nomination of a candiresiding in any territory thereof, to frame their constitution and laws, and to regulate their domestic and social date for President, which was carried, 151 to affairs in their own mode, subject only to the provisions 51, the Anti-Slavery delegates, or North Ameriof the Federal Constitution, with the privilege of admission into the Union whenever they have the requisite cans, as they were called, voting in the

negapopulation for one Representative in Congress : Pro- tive, and desiring to postpone the nomination. cided, always, that none but those who are citizens of But being beaten at all points, they (to the numthe United States, under the Constitution and laws ber of about 50) either withdrew or refused to thereof, and who have a fixed residence in any such take any further part in the proceedings of the Territory, ought to participate in the formation of the Constitution, or in the enactment of laws for said Terri- Convention, and many of them subsequently tory or State.

supported Col. Fremont for President. 8. An enforcement of the principles that no State or Territory ought to admit others than citizens to the right

An informal ballot was then taken for Presi of suffrage, or of holding political offices of the United dent, which resulted as follows: States.

M. Fillmore, of N. Y..... 71 | John Bell, Tennessee... 5 9. A change in the laws of naturalization, making a George Law, N. Y..... 27 Kenneth Raynor, N. O.. 2 continued residence of twenty-one years, of all not here. Garrett Davis, Ky.

Erastus Brooks, N. Y.... 3 tofore provided for, an indispensable requisite for citizen- John McLean, Ohio.... Lewis D. Campbell, Ohio, 1 ship hereafter, and excluding all paupers, and persons R. F. Stockton, N. J..... 8 John M. Clayton, Del.... 1 convicted of crime, from landing upon our shores; but Sam. Houston, Texas... no interference with the vested rights of foreigners.

10. Opposition to any union between Church and A formal ballot was then taken, when Mr. State; no interference with religious faith or worship, Fillmore was nominated as follows: and no test oaths for office. 11. Free and thorough investigation into any and all Davis, 10; Houston, 3.

Fillmore, 179 ; Law, 24; Raynor, 14; McLean, 18; alleged abuses of public functionaries, and a strict econ- Necessary to a choice, 122. omy in public expenditures. 12. The maintenance and enforcement of all laws con

Millard Fillmore was then declared to be the stitutionally enacted until said laws shall be repealed, nominee, or shall be declared null and void by competent judicial A ballot was then taken for Vice-President, authority.

18. Opposition to the reckless and unwise policy of the and Andrew Jackson Donelson, of Tennessee, present Administration in the general management of was nominated as follows: our national affairs, and more especially as shown in re

A. J. Donelson, Ten., 181; Percy Walker, Ala., 8 moving “ Americans" (by designation) and Conservatives in principle, from office, and placing foreigners and Henry J. Gardner, Mass., 8; Kenneth Raynor, n. 2., 8 Tilmaists in their places ; as shown in a truckling subser:

Mr. Donelson was then declared to be unani.




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mously nominated, and the Convention ad- and ample protection of persons and property trose

domestic violence and foreign aggression. journed.

6. That it is the duty of every branch of the Govern.

ment to enforce and practice the most rigid economy in DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION— ought to be raised than is required to defray the neces

conducting our public affairs, and that no more revenue 1856.

sary expenses of the government, and gradual but certain

extinction of the public debt. This Convention met at Cincinnati on the 2d 6. That the proceeds of the public lands ought to be of June, and chose John E. Ward, of Georgia, Constitution, and that we are opposed to any law for the

sacredly applied to the national objects specified in the to preside, and nominated James Buchanan on distribution of such proceeds among the States, as alike the 17th ballot, as follows:

inexpedient in policy, and repugnant to the Constitution.

7. That Congress has no power to charter a National Ballots. Buchanan. Pierce. Douglas, Cass. Bank ; that we believe such an institution one of deadly 1. 185 122 83

hostility to the best interests of this country, dangerous 189 1191 84

to our republican institutions and the liberties of the peo1391 119

57 ple, and calculated to place the business of the country 1413 119

within the control of a concentrated money power and 140 1194

above the laws and will of the people; and the results of 6. 155 117*

the Democratic legislation in this and all other financial 7. 1431 89

measures upon which issues have been made between the 8. 1473 87

two political parties of the country, have demonstrated 9. 146 87

to candid and practical men of all parties their sound10. 1504 80+

ness, safety and utility in all business pursuits. 11. 1474 80

8. That the separation of the moneys of the Govern. 12. 148 79

ment from banking institutions is indispensable to the 18. 150 774

safety of the funds of the Government and the rights of 14. 1524 75

the people. 15.

9. That we are decidedly opposed to taking from the 16. 163

President the qualified Veto power, by which he is ena17. 296

bled, under restrictions and responsibilities amply suffiMr. Buchanan having been unanimously

cient to guard the public interests, to suspend the passage

of a bill whose merits cannot secure the approval of twonominated for President, the Convention pro-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, until ceeded to ballot for a candidate for Vice-Presi- the judgment of the people can be obtained thereon, and dent, the first ballot resulting as follows:

which has saved the American people from the corrupt

and tyrannical dominion of the Bank of the United J. A. Quitman, Miss ... 59/ J. C. Breckinridge, Ky.,. 55 States, and from a corrupting system of general internal Linn Boyd, Ky.,... 33 B. Fitzpatrick, Ala....... 11 improvements. A. V. Brown, Tenn.,... 29 H. V. Johnson, Ga.,.... 31 10. That the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in J. A. Bayard, Del.,..., 31 Trusten Polk, Mo.,...... 5 the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the T. J. Rusk, Texas,..... 2/ J. C. Dobbin, N. C.,..... 13 Constitution, which makes ours the land of liberty and

On the second ballot, the name of Gen. Quit. the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, have ever man was withdrawn, as were also those of other every attempt to abridge the privilege of bec

been cardinal principles in the Democratic faith; and

citileading candidates, and Mr. Breckinridge was zens and the owners of soil among us ought to be reunanimously nominated.

sisted with the same spirit which swept the alien and se

dition laws from our statute books. The Convention adopted the following

And whereas, Since the foregoing declaration was unt

formly adopted by our predecessors in National Conven. PLATFORM:

tion, an adverse political and religious test has been se Resoloed, That the American Democracy place their cretly organized by a party claiming to be exclusively trust in the intelligence, the patriotism, and the discrimi- American, and it is proper that the American Democracy aating justice of the American people.

should clearly define its relations thereto; and declare Resoloed, That we regard this as a distinctive feature its determined opposition to all secret political societies, of our political creed, which we are proud to maintain by whatever name they may be called. before the world as a great moral element in a form of

Rosoled, That the foundation of this Union of States government springing from and upheld by the popular having been laid in, and its prosperity, expansion, and will; and we contrast it with the creed and practice of preëminent example of free government, built upon enFederalism, under whatever name or form, which seek 3 tire freedom in matters of religious concernment, and no to palsy the will of the Constituent, and which conceives respect of persons in regard to rank, or place of birth, no imposture too monstrous for the popular credulity.

no party can justly be deemed national, constitutional, Resolved, therefore, That entertaining these views, the or in accordance with American principles, which bases Democratic party of this Union, through their delegates, its exclusive organization upon religious opinions and assembled in general Convention, coming together in a accidental birth-place. And hence a political crusade in spirit of concord, of devotion to the doctrines and faith the nineteenth century, and in the United States of Ameof a free representative government, and appealing to rica, against Catholics and foreign-born, is neither justified their fellow.citizens for the rectitude of their intentions, by the past history nor future prospects of the country, renew and reassert before the American people, the nor in unison with the spirit of toleration, and enlight declarations of principles avowed by them, when, on

ened freedom which peculiarly distinguishes the Ameriformer occasions, in general Convention, they have pre- can system of popular government. sented their candidates for the popular suffrage.

Resowed, That we reiterate with renewed energy of 1. That the Federal Government is one of limited power, purpose the well considered declarations of former cop derived solely from the Constitution, and the grants of' ventions upon the sectional issue of domestic slavery power made therein ought to be strictly construed by all and concerning the reserved rights of the Statesthe departments and agents of the Government, and that

1. That Congress has no power under the Constitution it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful con.

to interfere with or control the domestic institutions of stitutional powers.

the several States, and that all such States are the sole 2. That the Constitution does not confer upon the and proper judges of everything appertaining to their General Government the power to commence and carry efforts of the Abolitionists or others made to induce Cone

own affairs not prohibited by the Constitution; that all on a general system of internal improvements.

8. That the Constitution does not confer authority upon gress to interfere with questions of Slavery, or to tako the Federal Government, directly or indirectly, to assume incipient steps in relation thereto, are calculated to lead the debts of the several States, contracted for local and to the most alarming and dangerous consequences, and internal improvements, or other State purposes, nor

that all such efforts have an inevitable tendency to diwould such assumption be just or expedient.

minish the happiness of the people and endanger the 4. That justice and sound policy forbid the Federal stability and permanency of the Union, and ought not Government to foster one branch of industry to the detri. to be countenanced by any friend of our political instiment of another, or to cherish the interests of one portion

tutions. of our common country; that every citizen and every

2. That the foregoing proposition covers and was insection of the country has a right to demand and insist tended to embrace the whole subject of Slavery agitation upon an equality of rights and privileges, and a completel in Congress, and therefore the Democratic party of the

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