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emigrants in general to be. Consider, then, their hard case with the attention that it deserves.
* I have left out the concluding words of the Sermon. To place any thing in the form of a benediction at the end of such an address, is something approaching very near to blasphemy.
I have only to add, that, in spite of the Doctor's pathetic conclusion, he extracted only about seven dollars from the pockets of his hearers, which is no more than one pound, eleven shillings, and sixpence, a sum not sufficient to supply the “ poor emigrants” with tobacco for the space of twentyfour hours.
Since writing the above notes (in May 1801), I have had put into my hands the following most infamous decoy, printed upon a quarter of a sheet of dirty-coloured paper, and intended for circulation in Wales, whence a copy of it was brought by a gentleman, who wished to see the practices of the land-jobbers exposed. “ The Welch People residing in Cambria, in the State of Pennsyl
vania, to their Brethren in Wales, greeting:--- America, printed in September, 1800, and reprinted by W. EDWARDS, Oswestry, in April, 1801.
“ We have received many letters from you of late, which have occasioned us much sorrow. It grieves us that we are not able to stretch unto you an hand of relief across the ocean. In answer to your inquiries, we need not say that in the United States there are almost all sorts of soils and climates. In the more southern ones, the weather is hot, and the summer long. In the northern ones though the summer is sufficiently warm, the winter is long and cold. The states of New York and Pennsylvania are esteemed the best for Europeans; the latter, on various accounts, should have the preeminence. In regard to our settlements, perhaps there may be many places easier to cultivate, and more convenient for a market; but it is not every where that the poor can have land before they pay for it. The soil here is rich enough to bear all kinds of grain, and very good for hay and pasture. Well adapted for rearing cattle, and the making of chesse and butter. Our springs are numerous, and as pure as in any part of the world. We have
plenty of brooks to erect mills, and navigable rivers to the east within twenty or thirty miles, and to the west within twelve. No country abounds more with sugar canes, so that every family can make it for their own use. Hitherto we have a market for every thing we have to dispose of at Beula, a town in the middle of our settlement. There is a sufficient quantity of land for some' thousands of people, and it is certain that three-fourths of it is sufficiently good to cultivate. It may now be purchased from gs. to 18s. per acre. fourth or one-fifth part of the money be paid at the time of purchasing, credit may be had for the remainder for five or seven years.
The poor may have a lease for seven or ten years for nothing more than to build a cottage on the land, and cultivate as many acres as will be sufficient to support them. Though there be some difficulties at first in every new settlement, yet we think such places answer better for the diligent than to purchase land at a high price near the great towns.
“ There are some among us that were worth but little, who have now corn and cattle to sell.
“ Our end in establishing this settlement was for the general good of the Welcb, particularly that they may have the privilege of hearing the gospel in their own language. There are in Cambria preachers of different denominations, living together in peace and amity. We have three or four Welch sermons every first day in the week, and there are English preachers in Beuln. There are 350 lots in (and some near) ihe town given to support a school; more than 1000 books have been purchased for a general library, and 200 acres of land for the support of the preachers, not of any one particular sect or party, but such as are esteemed worthy, of every denomination, and profess that Jesus is the Son of God, and saviour of men. We do not mention the above privileges to alJure you into this neighbourhood, if you can do better in any other. Some of the Welch have propagated an evil report of this place, and published great falsehoods of certain persons who live and have possessions among us, and for what reasons we know not, except it be that the common enemy raises obstacles and oppositions to every place and plan that tends to general good.
Though having met with many difficulties, as it is natural to expect the first years, we now increase our stock every year. Within the last four years, upwards of 100 families have come to our neighbourhood, and 100 more may get a comfortable livelihood here. Should any of you be disposed to come over here, we would advise you to consult the captain of the vessel with respect to victuals that will be necessary for your voyage, with a sufficient quantity of bread, water, salt meat, potatoes, oatmeal, and malt liquor.
“ After landing in America, many sorts of people will be met with ; some will
this the best place, and some another. All who are acquainted with our nation know it is easy to impose upon a Welchman ; therefore, we would advise them to be upon their guard. They who have families would do well to get a waggon immediately after their landing, and remove their goods out of the ship into it, and convey them to the place of their destination without delay. If they come hither (though they abide not), it will be cheaper for them to leave their families with us until they can find a place to their satisfaction, than in the cities, which in the summer are unhealthy to strangers, but the country round is as healthy as any part of Wales. Should any of the poor be disposed to come, and not able to bear the expense of their voyage,-if their friends be able to assist them, and can depend on their faithfulness, they will not be long here before they are repaid with thankfulness.
“ The following table will inform you of the prices of different articles here (ihis present year), and the market rises and falls as in other countries.
" Wheat, 3s. to 4s. 6d. per bushel.-Rye, 25. to 25. 60.Oats, 18. 3d. to ls. 6d.-Indian Coro, 2s. to 2s. 60.- Potatoes, Is. 3d. to 1s. 6d.-Turnips, 6d. to 9d.-Butter, 4d. to 6d. per pound.-Cheese, 3d. to 5d.-Beef, 2d. to 2 d.-Bacon, 2 d. to 3d.-Workmens' Wages, 2s. to 25. 6d. per day, and board.
“ We have here set down the prices in English money, that you may understand them better. Every article is dearer in the towns than in the country, except such commodities as are imported from other countries.
Simon James, &c."
Never was there, in so small a compass, so many falsehoods. -At the time this pamphlet was printed, wheat was nine shillings a bushel at Philadelphia, salt butter ten pence a pound, and pork six pence a pound. - Sugar canes, every man of any
information knows, are not to be found in the United States; and, in short, the whole pamphlet is a base and infamous trick to decoy the poor Welch from their home, to go and augment the population, and the value of the land, at Cambria, where Tbeopbilus Rees, and his relation Morgan Rees, have purchased great quantities of land, and where they have already ruined hundreds of poor creatures, whom they have deluded thither.
END OF VOL. IX.
Printed by T. Baylis,