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April 21.- The United States War Department -Indiana votes $500,000 to arm its troops, and to takes possession of the Philadelphia and Baltimore provide for the defense of the State. Railroad, and proceeds to repair it for military use. May 1.-State Convention bill passes the North
--Thousands of “war sermons” preached in Carolina Legislature. Rhode Island Legislature Northern cities. The clergy are alınost unanimously meets. That State is pronounced " loyal to the patriotic and loyal. The effect on the public mind core." is highly inspiriting.
May 2.-Judge Campbell, of Alabama, one of the April 22.–United States arsenals seized at Fay- United States Supreme Court Judges, resigns. etteville, North Carolina, and at Napoleon, Arkan. Judge Catron, of Tennessee, and Judge Taney, of sas. Great appropriations of funds by city authori- Maryland, still retain seats on the Supreme Bench. ties to aid in equipping troops. Great Union de- May 3.—The President of the United States issues monstration in Lexington, Kentucky,- which State
a second call for troops, viz : 42,000 additional rolis pronounced to be for the Constitution and the
unteers " to serve for three years, or for the war;" Union, in spite of Breckenridge's defection.
22,000 additional regulars; 18,000 additional sea-The Vermont Legislature assembles in extra This will give the Union an army of 176,000 session to provide for the emergencies of war. The Massachusetts Sixth regiment lands at Annapolis, - The Connecticut Legislature votes $2,000,000 and immediately seizes the railway to Washington. for war purposes. The Annapolis Naval School disorganizes—the New
May 4.-Meeting at Cleveland, Ohio, of the Gov. York Seventh, occupying its grounds. The old
ernors of Western and Middle States to concert plans ship Constitution is saved from seizure.
for a co-operation. Committee of the Maryland LeApril 23.—Martial law is proclaimed in Balti- gislature visit Mr. Lincoln to learn his purposes. more. Governor Hicks, of Maryland, protests
May 5.—Brigadier - General Butler in possession against the occupation of Annapolis.
of the Relay House station, Maryland. This serves - The First South Carolina regiment starts for as a menace to the Maryland mob and secures dithe North.
rect railway communication with Washington. -Troops from Georgia and Mississippi are under --Expiration of the “day of grace" allowed by orders for Virginia.
President Lincoln for those in rebellion to return to April 24.–Fort Smith, in Arkansas, seized. Ex- their allegiance. tra session of the Kentucky Legislature called. No - The Confederate Congress formally declares fears apprehended that Governor Magoffin can war as existing with the United States. affect its loyalty.
May 6.–Virginia admitted to the Southern ConApril 25.--Major Sibley, of the United States' federacy-seventeen days prior to the day on which Army, surrenders 450 troops to the rebels, “ upon the people of that State are permitted to vote on the demand," at Saluria, Texas. Fort Smith, in Ark. Ordinance. ansas, seized by a force of cut-throats under Solon
--The Arkansas State Convention passes an OrdiBorland.
nance of Secession. Vote 69 to 1. The Ordinance - The New York Seventh regiment reaches Wash is not to be submitted to the people. ington. It is received with great joy, and the Capi
-The Confederate Government proclaims the tal is regarded as safe.
War and Privateer act. -Virginia "annexed” to the Southern Confeder
--The Kentucky Legislature meets in extra sesacy, by proclamation of Governor Letcher. The
sion. people have had no voice in the matter.
- The Tennessee Legislature pass a “declaration -United States Senator Douglas declares for the
of independence," which is to be submitted to a Union, and the enforcement of the law3. He takes
vote of the people, June 8th. strong grounds in support of the Administration.
May 7.-Governor Harris, of Tennessee, anApril 26.-Governor Brown, of Georgia, prohib- nounces a “ league" with the Confederate States. its the payment of debts due to citizens of the Free It throws the State under control of the ConfedStates, ordering the amounts due to be paid into
erate army, and awes the Unionists into submission. the State Treasury. North Carolina Legislature Union sentiments soon become treasonable. called in extra session. More bridges burned in Maryland, by the secessionists. Large numbers of
---Michigan Legislature meets. secessionists passing into Virginia from Maryland. May 8.-The Governor of Ohio calls for 100,000 Governor Burton, of Delaware, issues his call for troops to be held as a militia reserve, organized and troops in response to the President's proclamation. ready for service. April 27.- The President issues a supplementary
May 9.-First landing of Federal troops in Baltiproclamation, announcing the blockade of ports in more (by steamers) since the 19th of April. Virginia and North Carolina. Twenty-one thousand -The Confederate Congress authorizes President troops reported to be in Washington. The rebels Davis to accept all volunteers that offer, in regi. are concentrating forces to menace Washington, ments, battalions, companies or singly. which thus becomes the strategic point. General
May 10.-—Major-General Robert E. Lee, of Vir. Scott in full command of the United States forces.
ginia-late Colonel in the United States army April 29.–Maryland declares against secession placed in command of the army of Virginia. by a strong vote in its Legislature. Three steamers
--The mob in St. Louis attack the Government seized in New Orleans, by the rebels. The Collect-recruits, who fire into the crowd, killing seven of the or's office at Nashville, Tennessee, seized.
rioters. General Lyon, in command at St. Louis. - The Confederate Congress meets in extra session. surrounds and compels the surrender of a brigade
of Secessionists, encamped near St. Louis. The Wi. | the line of the Potomac from Alexandria to George Dans steam gun captured near the Relay House, town. Colonel Ellsworth assassinated in an Alex. Maryland, on its way into Virginia.
andria hotel. The assassin bayonetted on the spot. May 11.-Government troops in St. Louis again Portion of a rebel cavalry company captured. This assailed in St. Louis. Four of the mob killed. Im onward movement gives great satisfaction to the mense Union demonstration in San Francisco.
loyal States. It relieves the Capital from danger
of a bombardment. Butler moves his troops out of -Charleston harbor blockaded by the United
the Fortress Monroe and occupies Virginia soil. States steam frigate Niagara.
May 26.- Western Virginia, at a vote ordered for May 13.-Federal Hill in Baltimore occupied by delegates to the Provisional - Government ConvenBrigadier-General Butler. It commands the entire
tion, declares overwhelmingly for the Union. city. This occupation finally opened the route to Washington for the passage of troops, stores, &c.
May 27.--Major-General Butler, in command at
Fortress Monroe, receives over one hundred run-A Convention assembles at Wheeling, Virginia, away negroes, and refuses to give them up to their composed of delegates from thirty - five counties, rebel masters, declaring them to be “ contraband It repudiates the act of secession and proposes of war." His decision was sustained by the War a division of the State on the line of the Blue Ridge Department and approved by the President. Mountains.
-Chief-Justice Taney, of the United States Su--Blockade of the Mississippi River established at Cairo. All mails stopped.
preme Court, issues a habeas corpus writ for the per
son of one John Merrymun, a Baltimore mob ring. – The Queen of England issues a proclamation of leader, confined by General Cadwalader, in Fort neutrality. (See Appendix, Vol. II.)
McHenry. The General refuses to comply with the May 14.--The Maryland Legislature adjourns, hav. writ, by denying the United States Marshal entrance ing taken little or no action on National affairs. to the Fort. This case afterwards became a prece
--Governor Hicks, of Maryland, issues a call for deut for other seizures of persons charged with the Maryland quota of troops for the United States
treason, and greatly excited the class of citizens service. Large seizures of arms in Baltimore by the
who believed in making the military subsidiary to
the civil power. United States troups. Ross Winans arrested and
The seizures though arbitrary sent to Fort McHenry.
were justified by the people. May 15.-Massachusetts Legislature offers to loan
--Mobile is blockaded by Federal vessels of war. the Federal Government seven millions of dollars. May 28.–Savannah blockaded. Newport News,
— The Wheeling (preliminary) Convention ad. Virginia, occupied by Federal troops. journs. The permanent “provisional” Convention May 29.-Jefferson Davis reaches Richmond. He is to assemble June 12th.
makes a violent harangue in response to the crowd. May 16.—Brigadier-Generals Butler and McClel. June 1st he addressed the people, characterizing lan made Major-Generals. Harper's Ferry is forti- Lincoln as “an ignorant usurper." fied by the rebels, and bridges on the Baltimore and May 30.--N. P. Banks and John C. Fremont com. Ohio Railroad are destroyed.
missioned Major-Generals in the United States Army. May 17.-All communication by letters, expresses -Grafton, Virginia, in possession of the Union or otherwise, with the South, prohibited.
troops, under Colonel Kelly. - The Slave-trader yacht Wanderer (rebel) cap- May 31.— The gunboat Freeborn, Captain Ward, tured off Key West.
attacks the rebel batteries at Acquia Creek. BatteMay 18.- Arkansas admitted to the Southern Con
ries silenced. Gallant dash of Lieutenant Tompkins federacy.
with seventy-five mounted men into the enemy's
lines at Fairfax Court House. Union loss one killed, The first naval operation of the war. The
one missing and four wounded. Rebel loss ten United States ganboats dislodge a rebel battery at killed, a number wounded and five brought away Sewall's Point, Virginia.
prisoners. Captain Lyon commissioned BrigadierMay 20.-Governor Magoffin proclaims Ken. General, and supercedes Harney in Missouri. tucky's “ neutrality," and forbids any troops to oc
June 3.--Battle of Phillippi, Virginia. The Ohio cupy her soil, but her own State Guards.
and Indiana volunteers route the rebels and secure General seizure of telegraphic dispatches 'tents, stores, &c. Colonel Kelly, of the First throughout the North, by the Government. It Virginia, in command of the Federals, is seriously "spots' a great many disunionists, and gives a clue wounded. Rebel loss sixteen killed, ten prisoners. to their designs.
Federal loss two killed, seven wounded. May 21.—The North Carolina State Convention --Senator Douglas dies at Chicago. adopts an Ordinance of Secession. The Confederate --Border State Convention assembles at Frank Congress adjourns to July 20th, having passed all fort, Kentucky. A very slender attendance. necessary acts to empower the Confederate Execu
-General Beauregard assumes command of the tive to prosecute the war. It also authorised the seat of Government to be transferred to Richmond. tion, which is being rapidly fortified upon an ex
Confederate army: head-quarters at Manassas Juno Among its acts was one providing for the issue of
tensive scale. Centreville is also being fortified by Treasury Notes, and one to compel the payment, the rebels. into the Confederate treasury, of all debts due to
June 6.--The gunboat Harriet Lane engages the Northern creditors by citizens or corporations in
rebel batteries at Pig Point, Virginia, with little re the Confederacy.
sult. Five of her crew wounded. May 24.-The Federal army at daylight moves
June 8.--The North Carolina Convention ratifies into Virginia, occupying Arlington Heights and the Confederate Constitution.
--Major-General Patterson advances from Cham- ginia. Daniel Palsly elected Lieutenant-Governor. bersburg toward Harper's Ferry via Hagerstown.
Both are strong Union men. June 10.-- Battle at Big Bethel, Virginia. The
June 23.-Enormous destruction of property of Federalists forced to retire before Magruder's the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, at Martinsburg, strongly-intrenched position, after an obstinate but Virginia, by the rebels. Forty-eight locomotives, badly conducted attack. Union forces commanded shops, machinery, &c., broken up and fired. by Brigadier-General Pierce, of Massachusetts. June 24.-Governor Harris, of Tennessee, proUnion loss : killed fourteen, wounded forty-nine, and claims the State out of the Union, declaring the refive missing. Among the killed were the gallant cent vote to have been: for secession, 104,019; Lieutenant Greble, of the United States regular ar. against secession, 47,238. The Virginia vote on the tillery, and Major Theodore Winthrop, Aide-de-camp question of secession is announced as : for seces. to Major-General Butler-a brilliant officer. Rebel sion, 128,884 ; against secession, 32,134. The eleeloss : none killed, nine wounded. The Federals tion both in Tennessee and Virginia was a mere numbered (engaged) about four thousand the mockery, done under Confederate bayonets. rebels eleven hundred and sixty-five.
June 15.-The Iowa Legislature votes a war loan - Major-General Banks assumes command of the of $600,000. Department of Annapolis.
June 26.---The Government instituted by the June 11.- The rebels, six hundred strong, driven Wheeling Convention acknowledged by the Presi. out of Romney, Virginia, by the Indiana Zouaves. dent of the United States as the de facto Government under command of Colonel Lewis Wallace. Union of Virginia.. loss none, Confederate loss two killed. Consider
-Scout skirmish at Patterson's Creek, Virginia. able plunder was secured, and the rebels given a Rebels routed. Rebel loss eight killed out of forty. great scare. It was a bold affair.
one. Union loss one killed. The Union scouts - The Wheeling Constitutional Convention as- numbered only thirteen, belonging to Colonel Walsembles. Over forty counties are represented, most lace's Indiana Zouaves. of them fully.
June 27.-Marshal Kane, of Baltimore, arrested by June 13.—Day of fasting and prayer in the Con- order of Major-General Banks, and confined in Fort federate States.
McHenry, on a charge of treason. Colonel Kenly June 14.—The rebels evacuate Harper's Ferry, appointed Provost Marshal of the city. Intense exhaving first destroyed by fire and powder all the citement prevailing among the Secessionists. public works at that place, including the fine rail. -Engagement with the rebel batteries at Mathias road bridge over the Potomac and an immense Point, Virginia, by the gunboats Pawnre and Freequantity of locomotives, cars and railway property born. Captain Ward, of the latter, is killed in an atat Martinsburg. They also destroyed bridges at tempt to land, and eight seamen of the small boat several points above and below the Ferry.
wounded. Captain Ward was a gallant and efficient June 15.- General Lyon occupies Jefferson city, commander. Enemy's loss not known. Missouri. The rebel force, under General Sterling -A large Convention assembles at Knoxville, Price, gathering at Boonville.
East Tennessee. It adopts a declaration protesting June 16.--Skirmish at Seneca Mills. Rebel loss against the acts of usurpation by which the State three killed.
was thrown into the arms of the Southern ConfedJune 17.-The Wheeling Convention unanimously eracy; and assuming that the State was still in the votes the independence of Western Virginia, and re
June 28.-Skirmish at Falls Church, Virginia. solves upon a separate State organization.
One Unionist killed and two rebels. Skirmish at -- Another mob attack in St. Louis on Govern- Shooters Hill, Virginia. One Unionist killed, two ment troops. Six of the rioters killed.
rebels killed and seven wounded. --The rebels at Vienna, Virginia, fire into a rail- June 29.-Grand council of war in Washington. road train from a masked battery, killing eight Federal troops.
July 1.- Arrest in Baltimore of four Police Com
missioners, by order of Major-General Banks. Es- Battle of Boonville, Missouri. General Lyon cape of the privateer Sumter from the Mississippi routs the rebels under General Price and Governor river. Engagement at Buckhannorf, Virginia. The Jackson. Large quantity of arms, horses, &c., cap. rebels routed. Rebel loss twenty-three killed and tured. Rebel loss fifteen killed, nineteen wounded. wounded and two hundred prisoners. Skirmish at Union loss four killed, nine wounded.
Farmington, Missouri. Rebel loss five killed and June 18.-Skirmish at Edwards' Ferry. Union two prisoners. loss one killed. Rebel loss not known.
July 2.-General Patterson's advance divisions -Skirmish at Cola, Missouri. The l’nion Home cross (by wading) the Potomac at Williamsport. Guards overcome with a loss of fifteen killed, forty | An engagement follows. The rebels under Jackson wounded and taken prisoners. The rebels were in are routed and pursued for two miles. They left strong force. The Guards were only partially armed. eight dead upon the field. Union loss three killed
June 19.—The Wheeling Convention reorganizes and fifteen wounded. This engagement is variously the Provisional State Government of Virginia. Cap. called the battle of Martinsburg, Hokes Ran, and ture of thirty-five rebels at Liberty, Missouri, by the Haynesville. Unionists. The rebels occupy Piedmont, Virginia. - The new Virginia Legislature organized at
June 20.—Major-General McClellan assumes field Wheeling. command in Western Virginia. The Wheeling Con- July 3.-A company of (ninety four) rebels capvention elects Frank H. Pierpont Governor of Vir- tured at Neosho, Missouri.
PROOFS OF THE DESIGN то
“COERCE" THE UNITED BTATES. DAVIS' CALL FOR MORE TROOPS. THE PRIVATE ER PROCLAMATION. LINCOLN'S
COUNTER-PROCLAMATION OF BLOCKADE AND PIRACY. ON TO WASHINGTON! VIRGINIA'S MOVEMENTS, LETCHER'S TREASON. HIS “RECOGNITION" OF THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY. THE VIRGINIA ORDINANCE OF SECESSION.
The Federal Govern
The proclamation of Mr. | er offensive schemes were The Federal Govern.
Lincoln was construed, in matured, there is good reament to be Coerced.
ment to be Coerced. the Southern States, as a son to state, prior to the declaration of war. Prior to its appearance, bombardment of Fort Sumter. How steeped in however, the Confederate Government was hypocrisy, then, must have been the Southern making every effort to "prosecute a quick leaders who called heaven and earth to witness campaign." The hesitating Border States that they were guiltless of the great crime of could only be won by vigorous action; and, civil war! It was not an act of war to bomnow that the first assault had been made, it bard a United States fort, to persecute and was determined to force the United States outlaw its citizens, to scorn and contemn Government into a virtual, if not actual, re- the Federal Government; it was a Southcognition of the Southern Confederacy. That ern right to treat Uncle Sam as the Souththis " coercion" of the Union was determined erners saw fit; and any Federal act of upon before the call of the Federal Executive resentment, of defense, of protection, the imfor troops, is manifest in the declaration made pious scoundrels who proclaimed revolution by the Confederate Secretary of War, on the presumed to treat as the first step towards evening of Friday, April 12th. In answer to civil war! We cannot discover in the whole a serenade in honor of the bombardment of page of history a pusillanimity so great, a Sumter, the Secretary said, in substance, that sense of honor so perverted, an hypocrisy so the Confederate flag would wave over the contemptible. Unlike the open and fair rebel, dome of the Capitol at Washington by May who, defying the restraints of authority, ap1st—a sentiment which, the telegraph report pealed to arms to decide the issue, the Coninformed the public, was received with un- federate whined over the contest his crimes bounded enthusiasm.
had provoked; and through all the bloody The idea of granting letters of marque and drama on which he raised the curtain, he did reprisal, the act of confiscation and ap- not fail to illustrate that most contemptible propriation of debts due the North, the form of human nature typified in Aminadab constructive treason in entertaining Union Sleek. sentiments, the creation of a Southern navy Intimidation was a part of the scheme arand a fleet of privateers—these and many oth-ranged, at an early moment, to compel the
The Privateer Proc
Union Administration to terms, When the “And I do further notify all
The Privateer Proo secret archives - if such archives, indeed, applicants aforesaid, that be
lamation. have been allowed to exist — of the peripa- fore any commission or Letter tetic Government of Jefferson Davis are ex
of Marque is issued to any vessel, the owner or own. plored, and the truth is told, it will, unques- will be required to give bond to the Confederate
ers thereof, and the commander for the time being, tionably, be found that the scheme of forcing States, with at least two responsible sureties, not the United States to accept the conditions interested in such vessel, in the penal sum of five of settlement proposed by the South, was
thousand dollars; or if such vessel be provided with matured months before the attack on Sumter, more than one hundred and fifty men, then in the and only awaited some act on the part of the penal sum of ten thoasand dollars, with condition Washington authorities, to excuse to their that the owners, officers, and crew who shall be people the final appeal to arms.
employed on board such commissioned vessel, shall The Confederate Gov- observe the laws of these Confederate States, and Davis' Second Levy. ernment made a second the instructions given to them for the regulation of
levy upon the Seceded their conduct. That they shall satisfy all damages States for troops, April 16th, calling for done contrary to the tenor thereof by such vessel
during her commission, and deliver up the same thirty-two thousand men—thus giving, with
when revoked by the President of the Confederate previous enlistments, a force equal to that
States. called into the field by the Federal author
" And I do further specially enjoin on all persons ities.
holding offices, civil and military, under the author. April 17th, the Letters of que and Re- ity of the Confederate States, that they be vigilant prisal Proclamation was made public. It and zealous in discharging the duties incident thereread as follows:
'to; and I do, moreover, solemnly exhort the good Whereas, Abraham Lincoln, people of these Confederate States, as they love
the President of the United their country, as they prize the blessings of free lamation.
States, has, by proclamation, government, as they feel the wrongs of the past, announced the intention of invading this Confed and these now threatened in aggravated form by eracy with an armed force, for the purpose of cap
those whose enmity is more implacable because unturing its fortresses, and thereby subverting its in- provoked, that they exert themselves in preserving dependence, and subjecting the free people thereof order, in promoting concord, in maintaining the auto the dominion of a foreign power; and whereas, it thority and efficacy of the laws, and in supporting has thus become the duty of this Government to re
and invigorating all the measures which may be pel the threatened invasion, and to defend the rights adopted for the common defense, and by which, and liberties of the people, by all the means which under the blessings of Divine Providence, we may the laws of nations and the usages of civilized war.
hope for a speedy, just, and honorable peace. fare place at his disposal :
“ În testimony whereof, I have hereunto set “Now, therefore, I, Jefferson Davis, President of
my hand, and caused the Seal of the Conthe Confederate States of America, do issue this my
federate States to be affixed, this scventeenth Proclamation, inviting all those who may desire, by
day of April, 1861. service in private armed vessels on the high seas,
“By the President, to aid this Government in resisting so wanton and
(Signed) JEFFERSON DAVIS. wicked an aggression, to make application for com- “R. TOOMBS, Secretary of State.” missions or Letters of Marque and Reprisal, to be This was expected by the enterprising issued under the Seal of these Confederate States.
spirits of the South. It was put forth to in“ And I do further notify all persons applying for fict injury of magnitude upon the high seas' Letters of Marque, to make a statement in writing,
commerce of the Northern States---conceipgiving the name and a suitable description of the
ing their commerce to be their most vulnera. character
, tonnage, and force of the vessel, and the ble point. Leading journals in the South name and place of residence of each owner concerned therein, and the intended number of the crew,
had often recurred to it as a certain step in and to sign said statement, and deliver the same to event of hostilities. Although Southern the Secretary of State, or to the Collector of any men, from the time of John Randolph, had port of entry of these Confederate States, to be by characterized the “Yankees” as a race of him transmitted to the Secretary of State.
money-getters, and, in contrast, had exalted