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of Secessionists, encamped near St. Louis. The Wi- the line of the Potomac from Alexandria to George Dans steam gun captured near the Relay House, town. Colonel Ellsworth assassinated in an AlexMaryland, on its way into Virginia.

andria hotel. The assassin bayonetted on the spot. May 11.–Government troops in St. Louis again Portion of a rebel cavalry company captured. This assailed in St. Louis. Four of the mob killed. Ini

onward movement gives great satisfaction to the mense Union demonstration in San Francisco.

loyal States. It relieves the Capital from danger

of a bombardment. Butler moves his troops out of -Charleston harbor blockaded by the United

the Fortress Monroe and occupies Virginia soil. States steam frigate Niagara. May 13.—Federal Hill in Baltimore occupied by delegates to the Provisional - Government Conven

May 26.- Western Virginia, at a vote ordered for Brigadier-General Butler. It commands the entire

tion, declares overwhelmingly for the Union. city. This occupation finally opened the route to Washington for the passage of troops, stores, &c.

May 27.--Major-General Butler, in commandat

Fortress Monroe, receives over one hundred run-A Convention assembles at Wheeling, Virginia, away negroes, and refuses to give them up to their composed of delegates from thirty - five counties,

rebel masters, declaring them to be “ contraband It repudiates the act of secession and proposes

of war." a division of the State on the line of the Blue Ridge Department and approved by the President.

His decision was sustained by the War Mountains.

--Chief-Justice Taney, of the United States Sn. --Blockade of the Mississippi River established at Cairo. All mails stopped.

preme Court, issues a habeas corpus writ for the per

son of one John Merrymun, a Baltimore mob ring. - The Queen of England issues a proclamation of leader, confined by General Cadwalader, in Fort neutrality. (See Appendix, Vol. II.)

McHenry. The General refuses to comply with the May 14.— The Maryland Legislature adjourns, hav. writ, by denying the United States Marshal entrance ing laken little or no action on National affairs. to the Furt. This case afterwards became a prece-Governor Hicks, of Maryland, issues a call for

dent for other seizures of persons charged with the Maryland quota of troops for the United States

treason, and greatly excited the class of citizens

who believed in making the military subsidiary to service. Large seizures of arms in Baltimore by the

the civil power. United States troops. Ross Winans arrested and

The seizures though arbitrary sent to Fort McHenry.

were justified by the people. May 15.-- Massachusetts Legislature offers to loan

-Mobile is blockaded by Federal vessels of war. the Federal Government seven millions of dollars. May 28.--Savannah blockaded. Newport News,

- The Wheeling (preliminary) Convention ad. Virginia, occupied by Federal troops. journs. The permanent “ provisional” Convention May 29.-Jefferson Davis reaches Richmond. He is to assemble June 12th.

makes a violent harangue in response to the crowd. May 16.-- Brigadier-Generals Butler and McClel. June 1st he addressed the people, characterizing lan made Major-Generals. Harper's Ferry is forti

Lincoln as “ an ignorant usurper." fied by the rebels, and bridges on the Baltimore and May 30.--N. P. Banks and John C. Fremont comOhio Railroad are destroyed.

missioned Major-Generals in the United States Army. May 17.-All communication by letters, expresses -Grafton, Virginia, in possession of the Union or otherwise, with the South, prohibited.

troops, under Colonel Kelly. —The Slave-trader yacht Wanderer (rebel) cap- May 31.— The gunboat Freeborn, Captain Ward, tured off Key West.

attacks the rebel batteries at Acquia Creek. BatteMay 18.- Arkansas admitted to the Southern Con.

ries silenced. Gallant dash of Lieutenant Tompkins federacy.

with seventy-five mounted men into the enemy's

lines at Fairfax Court House. Union loss one killed, The first naval operation of the war.


one missing and four wounded. Rebel loss ten United States gunboats dislodge a rebel battery at

killed, a number wounded and five brought away Sewall's Point, Virginia.

prisoners. Captain Lyon commissioned BrigadierMay 20.-Governor Magoffin proclaims Ken- General, and supercedes Harney in Missouri. tucky's " neutrality," and forbids any troops to oc

June 3.--Battle of Phillippi, Virginia. The Ohio cupy her soil, but her own State Guards.

and Indiana volunteers route the rebels and secure - General seizure of telegraphic dispatches | tents, stores, &c. Colonel Kelly, of the First throughout the North, by the Government. It

Virginia, in conimand of the Federals, is seriously "spots” a great many disunionists, and gives a clue wounded. Rebel loss sixteen killed, ten prisoners. to their designs.

Federal loss two killed, seven wounded, May 21.—The North Carolina State Convention --Senator Douglas dies at Chicago. adopts an Ordinance of Secession. The Confederate --Border State Convention assembles at Frank Congress adjourns to July 20th, having passed all fort, Kentucky. A very slender attendance. necessary acts to empower the Confederate Execu

-General Beauregard assumes command of the tive to prosecute the war. It also authorised the seat of Government to be transferred to Richmond. tion, which is being rapidly fortified upon an ex

Confederate army: head-quarters at Manassas Juno Among its acts was one providing for the issue of Treasury Notes, and one to compel the payment, the rebels.

tensive scale. Centreville is also being fortified by into the Confederate treasury, of all debts due to Northern creditors by citizens or

June 6.—The gunboat Harriet Lane engages the

corporations in the Confederacy.

rebel batteries at Pig Point, Virginia, with little re

sult. Five of her crew wounded. May 24.- The Federal army at daylight moves

June 8.--The North Carolina Convention ratifies into Virginia, occupying Arlington Heights and

the Confederate Constitution.


--Major-General Patterson advances from Cham- | ginia. Daniel Palsly elected Lieutenant-Governor. bersburg toward Harper's Ferry via Hagerstown.

Both are strong Union men. June 10.-- Battle at Big Bethel, Virginia. The

June 23.-Enormous destruction of property of Federalists forced to retire before Magruder's the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, at Martinsburg, strongly-intrenched position, after an obstinate but Virginia, by the rebels. Forty-eight locomotives, badly conducted attack. Union forces commanded shops, machinery, &c., broken up and fired. by Brigadier-General Pierce, of Massachusetts. June 24.-Governor Harris, of Tennessee, proUnion loss : killed fourteen, wounded forty-nine, and claims the State out of the Union, declaring the re. five missing. Among the killed were the gallant cent vote to have been : for secession, 104,019 ; Lieutenant Greble, of the United States regular ar. against secession, 47,238. The Virginia vote on the tillery, and Major Theodore Winthrop, Aide-de-camp question of secession is announced as : for seces. to Major-General Butler-a brilliant officer. Rebel sion, 128,884 ; against secession, 32,134. The eleclose: none killed, nine wounded. The Federals tion both in Tennessee and Virginia was a mere numbered (engaged) abont four thousand the mockery, done under Confederate bayonets. rebels eleven hundred and sixty-five.

June 15.-The Iowa Legislature votes a war loan - Major-General Banks assumes command of the of $600,000. Department of Annapolis.

June 26.--The Government instituted by the June 11.- The rebels, six hundred strong, driven | Wheeling Convention acknowledged by the Presi. out of Romney, Virginia, by the Indiana Zouaves. dent of the United States as the de facto Government under command of Colonel Lewis Wallace. Union of Virginia.. loss none, Confederate loss two killed. Consider

-Scout skirmish at Patterson's Creek, Virginia. able plunder was secured, and the rebels given a Rebels routed. Rebel loss eight killed out of forty. great scare. It was a bold affair.

Union loss one killed. The Union scouts - The Wheeling Constitutional Convention as- numbered only thirteen, belonging to Colonel Walsembles. Over forty counties are represented, most lace's Indiana Zouaves. of them fully.

June 27.–Marshal Kane, of Baltimore, arrested by June 13.–Day of fasting and prayer in the Con- order of Major-General Banks, and confined in Fort federate States.

McHenry, on a charge of treason. Colonel Kenly June 14.— The rebels evacuate Harper's Ferry, appointed Provost Marshal of the city. Intense ex. having first destroyed by fire and powder all the citement prevailing among the Secessionists. public works at that place, including the fine rail- -Engagement with the rebel batteries at Mathias road bridge over the Potomac and an immense Point, Virginia, by the gunboats Pawnee and Freequantity of locomotives, cars and railway property | born. Captain Ward, of the latter, is killed in an atat Martinsburg. They also destroyed bridges attempt to land, and eight seamen of the small boat several points above and below the Ferry.

wounded. Captain Ward was a gallant and efficient June 15. - General Lyon occupies Jefferson city, commander. Enemy's loss not known. Missouri. The rebel force, under General Sterling -A large Convention assembles at Knoxville, Price, gathering at Boonville.

East Tennessee. It adopts a declaration protesting June 16.–Skirmish at Seneca Mills. Rebel loss against the acts of usurpation by which the State three killed.

was thrown into the arms of the Southern Confed. June 17.—The Wheeling Convention unanimously eracy; and assuming that the State was still in the

Union. votes the independence of Western Virginia, and re

June 28.-Skirmish at Falls Church, Virginia. solves upon a separate State organization.

One Unionist killed and two rebels. Skirmish at - Another mob attack in St. Louis on Govern- Shooters Hill, Virginia. One Unionist killed, two ment troops. Six of the rioters killed.

rebels killed and seven wounded. - The rebels at Vienna, Virginia, fire into a rail- June 29.-Grand council of war in Washington. road train from a masked battery, killing eight Federal troops.

July 1.- Arrest in Baltimore of four Police Com

missioners, by order of Major-General Banks. Es. --- Battle of Boonville, Missouri. General Lyon cape of the privateer Sumier from the Mississippi routs the rebels under General Price and Governor river. Engagement at Buckhannon, Virginia. The Jackson. Large quantity of arms, horses, &c., cap. rebels routed. Rebel loss twenty-three killed and tured. Rebel loss fifteen killed, nineteen wounded.

wounded and two hundred prisoners. Skirmish at Union loss four killed, nine wounded.

Farmington, Missouri. Rebel loss five killed and June 18.-Skirmish at Edwards' Ferry., Union two prisoners. loss one killed. Rebel loss not known.

July 2.-General Patterson's advance divisions --Skirmish at Cola, Missouri. The l'nion Home cross (by wading) the Potomac at Williamsport. Guards overcome with a loss of fifteen killed, forty | An engagement follows. The rebels under Jackson wounded and taken prisoners. The rebels were in are routed and pursued for two miles. They left strong force. The Guards were only partially armed. eight dead upon the field. Union loss three killed

June 19.--The Wheeling Convention reorganizes and fifteen wonnded. This engagement is variously the Provisional State Government of Virginia. Cap. called the battle of Martinsburg, Hokes Run, and ture of thirty-five rebels at Liberty, Missouri, by the Haynesville. Unionists. The rebels occupy Piedmont, Virginia. - The new Virginia Legislature organized at

June 20.-Major-General McClellan assumes field Wheeling. command in Western Virginia. The Wheeling Con- July 3.--A company of (ninety four) rebels cap. vention elects Frank H. Pierpont Governor of Vir- tured at Neosho, Missouri.

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The Federal Government to be Coerced.

The Federal Government to be Coerced.

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The proclamation of Mr. | er offensive schemes were
Lincoln was construed, in matured, there is good rea-

the Southern States, as a son to state, prior to the declaration of war. Prior to its appearance, bombardment of Fort Sumter. How steeped in however, the Confederate Government was hypocrisy, then, must have been the Southern making every effort to "prosecute a quick leaders who called heaven and earth to witness campaign.” The hesitating Border States that they were guiltless of the great crime of could only be won by vigorous action; and, civil war! It was not an act of war to bomnow that the first assault had been made, it bard a United States fort, to persecute and was determined to force the United States outlaw its citizens, to scorn and contemn Government into a virtual, if not actual, re- the Federal Government; was a Southcognition of the Southern Confederacy. That ern right to treat Uncle Sam as the Souththis “coercion" of the Union was determined erners saw fit; and any Federal act of upon before the call of the Federal Executive resentment, of defense, of protection, the imfor troops, is manifest in the declaration made pious scoundrels who proclaimed revolution by the Confederate Secretary of War, on the preşumed to treat as the first step towards evening of Friday, April 12th. In answer to civil war! We cannot discover in the whole a serenade in honor of the bombardment of page of history a pusillanimity so great, a Sumter, the Secretary said, in substance, that sense of honor so perverted, an hypocrisy so the Confederate flag would wave over the contemptible. Unlike the open and fair rebel, dome of the Capitol at Washington by May who, defying the restraints of authority, ap1st—a sentiment which, the telegraph report pealed to arms to decide the issue, the Coninformed the public, was received with un- federate whined over the contest his crimes bounded enthusiasm.

had provoked; and through all the bloody The idea of granting letters of marque and drama on which he raised the curtain, be did reprisal, the act of confiscation and ap- not fail to illustrate that most contemptible propriation of debts due the North, the form of human nature typified in Aminadab constructive treason in entertaining Union Sleek. sentiments, the creation of a Southern navy Intimidation was a part of the scheme arand a fleet of privateers—these and many oth- ranged, at an early moment, to compel the

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The Privateer Proo

The Privateer Proc

Union Administration to terms. When the “ And I do further notify all secret archives — if such archives, indeed, applicants aforesaid, that be.

lamation. have been allowed to exist — of the peripa- fore any commission or Letter

of Marque is issued to any vessel, the owner or own. tetic Government of Jefferson Davis are ex

ers thereof, and the commander for the time being, plored, and the truth is told, it will, unques will be required to give bond to the Confederate tionably, be found that the scheme of forcing States, with at least two responsible sureties, not the United States to accept the conditions interested in such vessel, in the penal sum of five of settlement proposed by the South, was

thousand dollars; or if such vessel be provided with matured months before the attack on Sumter, more than one hundred and fifty men, then in the and only awaited some act on the part of the penal sum of ten thoasand dollars, with condition Washington authorities, to excuse to their that the owners, officers, and crew who shall be people the final appeal to arms.

employed on board such commissioned vessel, shall The Confederate Gov- observe the laws of these Confederate States, and Davis' Second Levy. ernment made a second the instructions given to them for the regulation of

levy upon

the Seceded their conduct. That they shall satisfy all damages States for troops, April 16th, calling for done contrary to the tenor thereof by such vessel thirty-two thousand men-thus giving, with during her commission, and deliver up the same

when revoked by the President of the Confederate previous enlistments, a force equal to that

States. called into the field by the Federal author

" And I do further specially enjoin on all persons ities.

holding offices, civil and military, under the authorApril 17th, the Letters of Marque and Re-ity of the Confederate States, that they be vigilant prisal Proclamation was made public. It and zealous in discharging the duties incident there. read as follows:

to ; and I do, moreover, solemnly exhort the good “Whereas, Abraham Lincoln, people of these Confederate States, as they love

the President of the United their country, as they prize the blessings of free lamation.

States, has, by proclamation, government, as they feel the wrongs of the past, announced the intention of invading this Confed

and these now threatened in aggravated form by eracy with an armed force, for the purpose of cap

those whose enmity is more implacable because un. turing its fortresses, and thereby subverting its in- provoked, that they exert themselves in preserving dependence, and subjecting the free people thereof order, in promoting concord, in maintaining the auto the dominion of a foreign power; and whereas, it thority and efficacy of the laws, and in supporting has thus become the duty of this Government to re

and invigorating all the measures which may be pel the threatened invasion, and to defend the rights adopted for the common defense, and by which,

under the blessings of Divine Providence, we may and liberties of the people, by all the means which the laws of nations and the usages of civilized war

hope for a speedy, just, and honorable peace. fare place at his disposal :

“In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set Now, therefore, I, Jefferson Davis, President of

my hand, and caused the Seal of the Conthe Confederate States of America, do issue this my

federate States to be affixed, this seventeenth Proclamation, inviting all those who may desire, by

day of April, 1861. service in private armed vessels on the high seas, "By the President, to aid this Government in resisting so wanton and

“ (Signed)

JEFFERSON DAVIS. wicked an aggression, to make application for com- “R. TOOMBS, Secretary of State." missions or Letters of Marque and Reprisal, to be This was expected by the enterprising issued under the Seal of these Confederate States.

spirits of the South. It was put forth to inAnd I do further notify all persons applying for fict injury of magnitude upon the high seas? Letters of Marque, to make a statement in writing, commerce of the Northern States---conceivgiving the name and a suitable description of the

ing their commerce to be their most vulnera. character, tonnage, and force of the vessel, and the name and place of residence of each owner concern

ble point. Leading journals in the South ed therein, and the intended number of the crew,

had often recurred to it as a certain step in and to sign said statement, and deliver the same to

event of hostilities, Although Southern the Secretary of State, or to the Collector of any men, from the time of Jolin Randolph, had port of entry of these Confederate States, to be by characterized the “Yankees” as a race of hiin transmitted to the Secretary of State.

money-getters, and, in contrast, had exalted

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Lincoln's Counter


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the patriotic, high-toned character of their / ports within the States aforeown fellow-citizens, visions of suddenly said, in pursuance of the laws though dishonorably acquired wealth dazzled of the United States, and of the the Southern sight, and did not fail to render a laws of nations in such cases provided. For this purlarge class very hopeful and happy for the pose a competent force will be posted so as to prevent moment. It would offer matter for not very if, therefore, with a view to violate such blockade,

entrance and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid." complimentary comment to quote the terms

a vessel shall approach, or shall attempt to leave of the various notes of commendation be

any of the said ports, she will be duly warned by stowed by the secession press upon the Pri- the Commander of one of the blockading vessels, vateer Proclamation. The amendatory action who will indorse on her register the fact and date of the Confederate Congress, which after- of such warning; and if the same vessel shall again ward affixed a price per capita on Union attempt to enter or leave the blockaded port, she men, live and dead, taken on the high seas, will be captured and sent to the nearest convenwill not enhance the good reputation of the ient port, for such proceedings against her and her men who promulgated the act, and the people cargo, as prize, as may be deemed advisable. who hoped to profit by it.

“And I hereby proclaim and declare, that if any But, all this dream of person, under the pretended authority of said States,

or under any other pretense, shall molest a vessel Proclamation of wealth to be had for the Blockade and Piracy.

of the United States, or the persons or cargo on mere " seizing," was cut board of her, such person will be held amenable to short by the Proclamation of Blockade, is- the laws of the United States for the prevention and sued April 19th, by the President of the

panishment of piracy. United States. It was a checkmate to King “ By the President, ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Stork, even before the board could be opened : “ WILLIAM H. SEWARD), Sec. of State.

Whereas, an insurrection against the Govern- “ WASHINGTON, April 19th, 1861." ment of the United States has broken out in the No time was lost in enforcing this importStates of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, ant measure, though the paucity of vessels Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, and the laws of available for purposes of blockade, rendered the United States for the collection of the revenue it a work of many months to seal up the recannot be efficiently executed therein, conformably bellious ports over the vast and intricate to that provision of the Constitution which requires coast line, stretching from Hampton Roads duties to be uniform throughout the United States :

to Brownsville. "And whereas, a combination of persons, engaged

Prior to the publication in such insurrection, have threatened to grant pre- of this order of blockade,

On to Washington. tended letters of marque, to autborize the bearers thereof to commit assaults on the lives, vessels, and Virginia had plunged into property of good citizens of the country lawfully the vortex of the revolution and stood arengaged in commerce on the high seas, and in rayed against the Union — thus directly waters of the United States :

menacing Washington. The Capital and " And whereas, an Executive Proclamation has Government archives were in imminent danbeen already issued, requiring the persons engaged ger of seizure. Ben McCullough flitted back in these disorderly proceedings to desist therefrom, and forth between Richmond and Baltimore, calling out a militia force for the purpose of re

organizing his cut-throat brigade for the despressing the same, and convening Congress in

perate service. It became whispered abroad extraordinary session to deliberate and determine that Maryland was to “ Co-operate," and thus thereon:

the more effectually to isolate the District of “Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, with a view to the same pur

Columbia. The plot only awaited the sccesposes before mentioned, and to the protection of

sion of Virginia for its development. That the public peace, and the lives and property of such a scheme existed has been denied by · quiet and orderly citizens pursuing their lawful oc

some writers in the interest of secession; but cupations, until Congress shall have assembled and numerous evidences attest the existence and deliberated on the said unlawful proceedings, or the maturity of the conspiracy for occupyuntil the same shall have ceased, have further ing Washington, there to inaugurate the deemed it advisable to set on foot a blockade of the Montgomery Government, Departments and

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