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ture of the Constitution* | pire. France, in round numMr. Stephens' Expo

Mr. Stephens' Expogiving Cabinet Ministers bers, has but 212,000 square

sition, and Heads of Departments

miles. Austria, in round numthe privilege of seats on the floors of Con. bers, has 248,000 square miles. Ours is greater than

both combined. gress; to the tenure of the Presidential term of

is greater than all France, Spain, office; and followed with his allusions to the Portugal, and Great Britain, including England, Ire

land, and Scotland, together. Slave-feature as incorporated in the Constitu

In population we

have upward of five millions--according to the cention, pronouncing the sentiment that freedom

sus of 1860; this includes white and black. The to the negro was a wrong—that the social fa- entire population, including white and black, of the bric of the States was founded upon Slavery original thirteen States, was less than 4,000,000 in —that Slavery was the corner-stone of the 1790, and still less in '76, when the independence new edifice. [See pages 30-31, Vol. I., for of our fathers was achieved. If they, with a less his words on this point.] He continued :- population, dared maintain their independence

“I have been asked, what of the future? It has against the greatest power on earth, shall we have been apprehended by some that we would have ar- any apprehension of maintaining ours now! rayed against us the civilized world. I care not • In point of material wealth and resources, we who or how many they may be, when we stand upon are greatly in advance of them. The taxable the eternal principles of truth, we are obliged and property of the Confederate States cannot be less must triumph.

than $22,000,000,000. This, I think I venture but * Thousands of people, who begin to understand little in saying, may be considered as five times these truths, are not yet completely out of the shell; more than the Colonies possessed at the time they they do not see them in their length and breadth.

achieved their independence. Georgia alone posWe hear much of the civilization and Christianiza- sessed, last year, according to the report of the tion of the barbarous tribes of Africa. In my judg- Comptroller-General, $672,000,000 of taxable proment those ends will never be attained, but by first perty. The debts of the seven Confederate States teaching them the lesson taught to Adam, that in sum up, in the aggregate, less than $18,000,000 ; the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread,' and while the existing debts of the other of the late teaching them to work, and feed and clothe them

United States sum up, in the aggregate, the enorselves.

mous amount of $174,000,000. This is without “ But, to pass on. Some have propounded the taking into account the heavy city, corporation, inquiry : Whether it is practicable for us to go on

and railroad debts, which press, and will continue with the, Confederacy, without further accessions.

to press, a heavy incubus upon the resources of Have we the means and ability to maintain nation- those States. These debts, added to others, make ality among the powers of earth? On this point I a sum total not much under $500,000,000. With would barely say, that as anxious as we all have such an area of territory-with such an amount been, and are, for the Border States, with institu- of population-with a climate and soil unsurpassed tions similar with ours, to join us, still, we are abun

by any on the face of the earth-with such redantly able to maintain our position, even if they sources already at our command--with productions should ultimately make up their minds not to cast which control the commerce of the world—who their destiny with ours. That they ultimately will

can entertain any apprehensions as to our success, join us, be compelled to do it, is my confident belief; whether others join us or not? but, we can get on very well without them, even if

“I believe I state but the common sentiment, they should not.

when I declare my earnest desire that the Border “We have all the essential elements of a high na

States should join us. The difference of opinion tional career. The idea has been given out at the that existed among us anterior to secession, related North, and even in the Border States, that we are more to the policy in securing that result by cotoo small and too weak to maintain a separate nation operation, than from any difference upon the ultiality. This is a great mistake. In extent of terri- mate security we all looked to in common. These tory we embrace 560,000 square miles and upward. differences of opinion were more in reference to This is upward of 200,000 square miles more than policy than principle; and, as Mr. Jefferson said in was included within the limits of the original thir. his Inaugural, in 1801, after the heated contest preteen States. It is an area of country more than ceding his election, “there might be differences in double the territory of France or the Austrian em- opinion without differences on principle,' and that

• all, to some extent, had been Federalists, and all * For the Constitution, at length, see Appendix, Republicans ;' so it may now be said of us, that, Vol. I, pages 513–20.

whatever differences of opinion as to the best policy

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in having a co-operation with our Border sister | But, if we become divided—if schisms arise—if disSlave States, if the worst come to the worst, that sensions spring up--if factions are engendered if as we are all co-operationists, we are now all for party spirit, nourished by unholy personal ambiindependence, whether they come or not."

tion, shall rear its hydra head, I have no good to The speaker then con

prophesy for you. Without intelligence, virtue, ur. Stephens' Expo

integrity, and patriotism on the part of the people, gratulated the Southern sition.

no republic or representative government can be people that the revolution

durable or stable. had been bloodless, and promised so to be

“We have intelligence, and virtue, and patriot-a statement which he felt constrained to ism. All that is required is to cultivate and permake, in order to throw the responsibility of petuate these. Intelligence will not do without hostilities upon the Federal authorities, and virtue. France was a nation of philosophers. These thus to render the cause of the South just in philosophers became Jacobins. They lacked that the eyes of the conservative classes. He said: virtue, that devotion to moral principle, and that

“ I was not without grave and serious apprehen- patriotism which is essential to good government. sion, that, if the worst came to the worst, and cut- Organized upon principles of perfect justice and ting loose from the old Government would be the righte-seeking amity and friendship with all other only remedy for our safety and security, it would powers—I see no obstacle in the way of our upbe attended with much more serious ills than it has

ward and onward progress. Our growth, by accesbeen, as yet. Thus far we have seen none of those sions from other States, will depend greatly upon incidents which usually attend revolutions. No

whether we present to the world, as I trust we such material as such convulsions usually throw shall, a better government than that to which they up, have been seen. Wisdom, prudence, and pat- belong. If we do this, North Carolina, Tennessee, riotism have marked every step of our progress and Arkansas cannot hesitate long; neither can thus far. This augurs well for the future, and it is Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri. They will necesa matter of sincere gratification to me that I am sarily gravitate to us by an imperious law. We made enabled to make the declaration. Of the men I met ample provision in our Constitution for the admission in the Congress at Montgomery (I may be pardon- of other States; it is more guarded, and wisely so, ed for saying this) an abler, wiser, a more conser. I think, than the old Constitution on the same vative, deliberate, determined, resolute and patri- subject, but not too guarded to receive them as fast otic body of men, I never met in my life. Their

as may be proper. Looking to the distant future, works speak for them; the provisional govern- and perhaps not very distant either, it is not beyond ment speaks for them; the Constitution of the the range of possibility, and even probability, that permanent government will be a lasting monument

all the great States of the North-west shall graviof their worth, merit, and statesmanship.

tate this way, as well as Tennessee, Kentucky, Mis" But, to return to the question of the future: souri, Arkansas, &c. Should they do so, our doors What is to be the result of this revolution ? Will

are wide enough to receive them, but not until everything, commenced so well, continue as it has they are ready to assimilate with us in principle.” begun? In reply to this anxious inquiry, I can

As to the prospect of an open rupture with only say, all depends upon ourselves.

the North, and civil war, he said : man starting out in life on his majority, with health, “The prospect of war is, at least, not so threattalent, and ability, under a favoring Providence, ening as it has been. The idea of coercion may be said to be the architect of his own fortunes. shadowed forth by Mr. Lincoln in his Inaugural, His destinies are in his own hands. He may make seems not to be followed up, thus far, so vigorously for himself a name of honor or dishonor, according as was expected. Fort Sumter, it is believed, will to his own acts. If he plants himself upon truth, soon be evacuated. What course will be pursued integrity, honor, and uprightness, with industry, toward Fort Pickens and the other forts on the Gulf, patience, and energy, he cannot fail of success. is not so well understood. It is to be greatly desired So it is with us; we are a young Republic, just en that all of them should be surrendered. Our object tering upon the arena of nations ; we will be the is peace, not only with the North, but with the world. architect of our own fortunes. Our destiny, under all matters relating to the public property, public Providence, is in our own hands. With wisdom, liabilities of the Union, when we were members of it, prudence, and statesmanship on the part of public we are ready and willing to adjust and settle, upon men, and intelligence, virtue, and patriotism on the principles of right, equality, and good faith. the part of the people, success to the full measure War can be of no more benefit to the North than to of uur most sanguine hopes, may be looked for. The idea of coercing us, or subjugating us, is

A young


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utterly preposterous. Whether | do so. The Constitution makes Mr. Stephens' Expo. the intention of evacuating Fort no such provision. A General

Mr. Stephens' Expo Sumter is to be received as an Convention of all the States evidence of a desire for a peaceful solution of our has been suggested by some." difficulties with the United States, or the result of

Without proposing to solve the difficulty, necessity, I will not undertake to say. I would fain he barely made the following suggestion : hope the former. Rumors are afloat, however, that

“That as the admission of States by Congress un. it is the result of necessity. All I can say to you, therefore, on that point is, keep your armor bright in the nature of a contract or compact between the

der the Constitution was an act of legislation, and and your powder dry.

States admitted and the others admitting, why should “ The surest way to secure peace is to show your

not this contract or compact be regarded as of like ability to maintain your rights. The principles and

character with all other civil contracts-- liable to position of the present Administration of the United

be rescinded by mutual agreement of both parties? States—the Republican party-present some puz

The seceding States have rescinded it on their part. zling questions. While it is a fixed principle with

Why cannot the whole question be settled, if the them never to allow the increase of a foot of slave

North desire peace, simply by the Congress in both territory, they seem to be equally determined not to

branches, with the concurrence of the President, · part with an inch of the “accursed soil." Notwithstanding their clamor against the institution, they giving their consent to the separation, and a recog.

nition of our independence? This he merely offer. seem to be equally opposed to getting more, or letting go what they have got. They were ready to might be done with much less violence to construc

ed as a suggestion--as one of the ways in which it fight on the accession of Texas, and are equally

, tions of the Constitution than many other acts of ready to fight now, on her secession. Why is this?

that government. The difficulty has to be solved in How can this strange paradox be accounted for ?

some way or other—this may be regarded as a fixed There seems to be but one rational solution, and that is, notwithstanding their professions of humanity, they are disinclined to give up the benefits they With this exposition the Confederates derive from slave labor. Their philanthropy yields were willing to rest their case. Sustainto their interest. The idea of enforcing the laws has ing its views, they went into battle, the but one object, and that is a collection of the taxes

aggressors and assailants; defending its asraised by slave labor, to swell the fund necessary to sumed prerogatives, they wasted their best meet their heavy appropriations. The spoils are

blood and treasure. That the sentiments what they are after, though they come from the proclaimed were repulsive to the spirit of labor of the slave. He alluded to the difficulties and

every civilized people in Christendom did not embarrassments which seemed to surround the

affect Southern polity and purpose: to own question of a peaceful solution of the controversy

a “nigger” was the end and aim of every rewith the old government. How can it be done? is

volutionist. perplexing many minds. The President seems to

The Confederate Constitution think that he cannot recognize our independence, was to secure and perpetuate that “inestinor can he, with and by the advice of the Senate, mable privilege to every loyal Southerner."


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Great Naval Move.





THE “ War for the yard, the steam frigates Minnesota, Mississippi, Union" may be said to and Colorado, and the brig Bainbridge, were

have been opened, on the being hurriedly refitted. Commodore Stringpart of the Federal Government, by the ham, it was understood, would assume commovements in New York harbor early in mand of the Southern Squadron,* making April. The activity apparent in the Brook- the Minnesota bis flag-ship. lyn navy-yard, in putting vessels into com

* This Squadron, and its service, were determined upon mission, was followed (April 4th) by the ap

as early as March 25th, at which date the orders went forth propriation of the Collins ocean steamers for the commissions and rendezvous. It was composed as Baltic and Atlantic to Government service.

follows: Soon the California steamer Illinois was add

Commander-in-Chief-Flag-Officer Silas H. Stringham. ed to the number. All of these large and Second in Command—Flag-Officer G. J. Pendergrust. swift vessels were loaded with extraordirary expedition with heavy cargoes of provisions,

Captain--G J. Van Brunt.

Commander-Case. munitions, forage, and horses, while quarters

Lieutenants-Worden, Wainwright, Badger, Johnson, Foswere prepared on the Baltic for a regiment ter, Mitchell, Wilson. of troops. The steam frigate Powhatan, of

Chief Engineer-Franklin Johnson. eleven guns and three hundred men, was

Captain-Henry A. Adams. called into commission, and in three days'

Lieutenant and Executive Officer-J. R. M, Mullany. time was turned from " ordinary” into sail- Lieutenants-George P. Welsh, Wm. H. Murdagh, Robt. ing condition. She put to sea on the morn- F. R. Lewis, L. H. Norman.

Acting Master--Wm. P. McCann.
ing of April 6th, as convoy to the Atlantio.

Surgeon-M. G. Delaney.
The Harriet Lane, steam revenue cutter, of
five guns and ninety-six men, had already

Captain-John Marston.
put out of the Narrows, followed by the Lieutenants First, Alexander Murray; Second, John &
steam tugs Uncle Ben and Yankee. The

Maury; Third, James H. Rochelle; Fourth, Chas. H. Greene;

Fifth, Thomas 0. Selfridge.
steamer Water Witch, at the Philadelphia

Surgeon-Thomas Dillard.
navy-yard, was put in commission April 5th.
All these vessels acted under sealed orders, Captain-Chas. H. Poor.

Executive Officer-Lieutenant J. D. Todd.
and the public could only surmise as to their

Lieutenants-W. W. Low, M. P. Jones, G. E. Bolnap. destination. The steam frigates Roanoke and

Surgeon-John 0. C. Barclay.
Wabash, the steam corvette Savannah, and

the brig Perry, at the Brooklyn navy-yard, Captain James Glynn.
were being hurried into condition for com-

Lieutenants-Matthias C. Marin, Somerville Nicholson, mission. At the Boston (Charlestown) navy

Samuel R. Franklin, William H. Ward, Charles A. Babcock.

Surgeon-William Grier.

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Revolutionists to


The movement of troops ment. Matters were managed with much Movemeut of Troops. toward New York, from discretion, and the public could only conjec

interior stations, added to ture the destination of the troops, transthe feverish excitement now existing in all ports, and vessels of war. circles. Captain Barry's artillery and two The watchful friends of

Preparations of the companies of the Second infantry reached the South, in the North, Fort Lafayette on the morning of April 5th. gave full information of A company of sappers and miners, and sev- these preparations; while the enterprising eral companies of the Third infantry, were daily journals of the metropolis vied with already in the fort. At Fort Hamilton four each other in details of proceedings, and in hundred and ninety-one men were quartered, guesses at the truth. As a consequence, inready for immediate duty. Colonel Harvey creased activity and excitement prevailed in Brown, of the Second infantry, was in com- the Confederate States. Troops were thrown mand, and, together with Captain Foote and into Charleston and Pensacola, in large boclLieutenant Almy, acted with unceasing vigi- ies these positions being regarded as the lance in expediting the orders of Govern- points menaced.


Captain-William Walker.

Lieutenant Commanding--T. A. M. Craven.
Lieutenants,James A. Doyle, J. C. Williamson, Albert Lieutenants-J. M. Duncan, J. E. Jewett, and A. E K.
W. Smith, William N. Jeffers, William Mitchell, H. A. Benham.

Passed Assistant Surgeon-J. W. B. Greenhom.
Surgeon-Lewis W. Minor.

Engineers--First Assistant, J. A. Grier; Third Assistants,

L. Campbell, 0. H. Lackey, and J. D. Lining.
Engineers, Joshua Follansbee, W. B. Brooks, Marshal P.
Jordan, James W. Wittaker, Henry Snyder, E. F. Mayer, Jr.,

John K. Neill.

Lieutenant Commanding-John L. Davis.

Lieutenants-Charles H. Cushman, Thomas H. Eastman.

Engineers First Assistant, Charles H. Loring; Second As-
Captain-Samuel Mercer.

sistant, Edward Scattergood; Third Assistant, Reynolds Lieutenants-Egbert Thompson, Thomas C. Harris, and

Driver. George Brown.

STORESHIPS. Surgeon-Joseph Wilson, Jr.

STORESHIP SUPPLY-TWO GUNS. Chief Engineer-Harman Newell.

Captain-Alexander Gibson.
Engineers-First Assistants, Wm. J. Lamdin and James

Lieutenants-C. H. B. Caldwell, James S. Maxwell, Alfred
F. Lamdin; Second Assistants, J. McElmell and John Purdy; Hopkins.
Third Assistants, William H. Gladding, E. Laws, and H. C. Assistant Surgeon--A. W. Sandford.


Lieutenant Commanding James Madison Frailey.
Captain-Samuel F. Hazard.

Lieutenant-James M. Bradford. Lieutenants-Van R. Morgan, Beverly Kennon.

TRANSPORTS AND TUGS. Past Assistant Surgeon-Francis M. Galt.

The transports and tugs chartered, up to April 8th, conEngineers-First Assistant, E. W. Manning; Third Assist- sisted of the following vessels : ants, George H. Riley, Henry Wright, and David Smith.


Coatzacoalcos ..... 1,000 Ocean Queen....... 1,500


1,000 Yankee.. .... Lieutenant Commanding—Abner Read.


2,000 | Thomas Freeborn.. 3:20 Lieutenants–J. R. Eggleston, J. M. Stribling.


2,000 Illinois...

1,500 Assistant Surgeon- Algernon S. Garnet.

9,720 Engineers First Assistant, W. H. Cushman; Third Assist

The Home Squadron, at the date of April 6th, was distri

buted as follows: ants, M. H. Plunkett, K. Wilson.

Minnesota...... Ready for commission at Boston.

Water Witch... Went in commission at Philadelphia, Apl. 5th.
Captain J. Faunce.

Powhatan .Sailed from New York barbor, April 61h.
First Lieutenant-D. B. Constable; Second, H. 0. Porter; Brooklyn......Off Fort Pickens, March 23d.
Third, J. M. Thatcher; Fourth, Horace N. Gamblo.

Crusader....... Sailed from New York, March 18th.
Surgeon-J. N. Campbell.

Cumberland ...Flag-ship, Norfolk, March 23d. Chief Engineer-J. R. Dryberg; First Assistant, Walter

Falmouth...... Moored at Aspinwall.
Scott; Second, C. G. Dale; Third, F. F. Pulsifer.

Mohawk ...... Sailed from New York, March 18th.

Macedonian.... Vera Cruz, March 25th.
Lieutenant Commanding James H. Strong.

Pawnee........At Wasbington, March 27th. Lieutenants-Alphonse Barbot, E. T. Sheddon, C. C. Car- Pocahontas..... Norfolk, March 26th. penter.

Sabine.. Off Pensacola, March 23d. Assistant Surgeon-Delavan Bloodgood.

St. Louis.......Of Fort Pickens, March 23d. Engineers---First Assistant, John S. Abert; Second Assist- Supply......

...... New York for Gulf, March 23d. ants, E L Dick, Geo. D. Emmons, and Edward C. Patten. Wyandotte ....Off Fort Pickens, March 23d.


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