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MR. STEPHENS' EXPOSITION.
in having a co-operation with our Border sister But, if we become divided--if schisms arise--if disSlave States, if the worst come to the worst, that sensions spring up-if factions are engendered--if as we are all co-operationists, we are now all for party spirit, nourished by unholy personal ambiindependence, whether they come or not."
tion, shall rear its hydra head, I have no good to The speaker then con
prophesy for you. Without intelligence, virtue, Mr. Stephens' Expo
integrity, and patriotism on the part of the people, gratulated the Southern sition.
no republic or representative government can be people that the revolution
durable or stable. had been bloodless, and promised so to be
“We have intelligence, and virtue, and patriot-a statement which he felt constrained to ism. All that is required is to cultivate and permake, in order to throw the responsibility of petuate these. Intelligence will not do without hostilities upon the Federal authorities, and virtue. France was a nation of philosophers. These thus to render the cause of the South just in philosophers became Jacobins. They lacked that the eyes of the conservative classes. He said: virtue, that devotion to moral principle, and that
"I was not without grave and serious apprehen. patriotism which is essential to good government. sion, that, if the worst came to the worst, and cut- Organized upon principles of perfect justice and ting loose from the old Government would be the right_seeking amity and friendship with all other only remedy for our safety and security, it would
powers-I see no obstacle in the way of our upbe attended with much more serious ills than it has
ward and onward progress. Our growth, by acces
sions from other States, will depend greatly upon been, as yet. Thus far we have seen none of those incidents which usually attend revolutions. No
whether we present to the world, as I trust we such material as such convulsions usually throw shall, a better government than that to which they up, have been seen. Wisdom, prudence, and pat-belong. If we do this, North Carolina, Tennessee, riotism have marked every step of our progress
and Arkansas cannot hesitate long; neither can thus far. This augurs well for the future, and it is Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri. They will necesa matter of sincere gratification to me that I am
sarily gravitate to us by an imperious law. We made enabled to make the declaration. Of the men I met ample provision in our Constitution for the admission in the Congress at Montgomery (I may be pardon- of other States; it is more guarded, and wisely so, ed for saying this) an abler, wiser, a more conser
I think, than the old Constitution on the same vative, deliberate, determined, resolute and patri subject, but not too guarded to receive them as fast otic body of men, I never met in my life. Their
as may be proper. Looking to the distant future, works speak for them; the provisional govern
and perhaps not very distant either, it is not beyond ment speaks for them; the Constitution of the the range of possibility, and even probability, that permanent government will be a lasting monument
all the great States of the North-west shall graviof their worth, merit, and statesmanship.
tate this way, as well as Tennessee, Kentucky, MisBut, to return to the question of the future :
souri, Arkansas, &c. Should they do so, our doors What is to be the result of this revolution ? Will
are wide enough to receive them, but not until everything, commenced so well, continue as it has they are ready to assimilate with us in principle." begun? In reply to this anxious inquiry, I can
As to the prospect of an open rupture with only say, all depends upon ourselves. A young the North, and civil war, he said : man starting out in life on his majority, with health, “ The prospect of war is, at least, not so threattalent, and ability, under a favoring Providence, ening 'as it has been. The idea of coercion may be said to be the architect of his own fortunes. shadowed forth by Mr. Lincoln in his Inaugural, His destinies are in his own hands. He may make seems not to be followed up, thus far, so vigorously for himself a name of honor or dishonor, according as was expected. Fort Sumter, it is believed, will to his own acts. If he plants himself upon truth, soon be evacuated. What course will be pursued integrity, honor, and uprightness, with industry, toward Fort Pickens and the other forts on the Gulf, patience, and energy, he cannot fail of success.
is not so well understood. It is to be greatly desired So it is with as; we are a young Republic, just en- that all of them should be surrendered. Our object tering upon the arena of nations; we will be the
is peace, not only with the North, but with the world. architect of our own fortunes. Our destiny, under All matters relating to the public property, public Providence, is in our own hands. With wisdom, liabilities of the Union, when we were members of it, prudence, and statesmanship on the part of public we are ready and willing to adjust and settle, upon men, and intelligence, virtue, and patriotism on the principles of right, equality, and good faith. the part of the people, success to the full measure War can be of no more benefit to the North than to of var most sanguine hopes, may be looked for. The idea of coercing us, or subjugating us, is
utterly preposterous. Whether do so. The Constitution makes Mr. Stephens' Expo. the intention of evacuating Fort no such provision. A General
Mr. Stephens' Expo Sumter is to be received as an Convention of all the States evidence of a desire for a peaceful solution of our has been suggested by some." difficulties with the United States, or the result of
Without proposing to solve the difficulty, necessity, I will not undertake to say. I would fain he barely made the following suggestion : hope the former. Rumors are afloat, however, that
“ That as the admission of States by Cougress un. it is the result of necessity. All I can say to you, therefore, on that point is, keep your armor bright der the Constitution was an act of legislation, and
in the nature of a contract or compact between the and your powder dry.
States admitted and the others admitting, why should “ The surest way to secure peace is to show your
not this contract or compact be regarded as of like ability to maintain your rights. The principles and
character with all other civil contracts-- liable to position of the present Administration of the United
be rescinded by mutual agreement of both parties? States—the Republican party--present some puz
The seceding States have rescinded it on their part. zling questions. While it is a fixed principle with them never to allow the increase of a foot of slave Why cannot the whole question be settled, if the
North desire peace, simply by the Congress in both territory, they seem to be equally determined not to
branches, with the concurrence of the President, part with an inch of the “accursed soil." Notwith. standing their clamor against the institution, they giving their consent to the separation, and a recog.
nition of our independence? This he merely offer. seem to be equally opposed to getting more, or
ed as a suggestion—as one of the ways in which it letting go what they have got. They were ready to fight on the accession of Texas, and are equally might be done with much less violence to construc
tions of the Constitution than many other acts of ready to fight now, on her secession. Why is this? How can this strange paradox be accounted for ?
that government. The difficulty has to be solved in
some way or other—this may be regarded as a fixed There seems to be but one rational solution, and
fact." that is, notwithstanding their professions of humanity, they are disinclined to give up the benefits they
With this exposition the Confederates derive from slave labor. Their philanthropy yields were willing to rest their case. Sustainto their interest. The idea of enforcing the laws has ing its views, they went into battle, the but one object, and that is a collection of the taxes
aggressors and assailants; defending its asraised by slave labor, to swell the fund necessary to
sumed prerogatives, they wasted their best meet their heavy appropriations. The spoils are
blood and treasure. That the sentiments what they are after, though they come from the
proclaimed w ері sive to the spirit of labor of the slave. He alluded to the difficulties and
every civilized people in Christendom did not embarrassments which seemed to surround the
affect Southern polity and purpose: to own question of a peaceful solution of the controversy with the old government. How can it be done? is
a "nigger" was the end and aim of every re
volutionist. perplexing many minds. The President seems to
The Confederate Constitution think that he cannot recognize our independence, was to secure and perpetuate that “inestinor can he, with and by the advice of the Senate, / mable privilege to every loyal Southerner.”
TIE BECRET PREPARATIONS IN NEW YORK FOR REINFORCING
PICKENS AND SUMTER. LARGE NAVAL FORCE CALLED INTO
STEAM FRIGATE MINNESOTA-FORTY GUNS.
FRIGATE SABINE-FIFTY GUNS.
THE “ War for the yard, the steam frigates Minnesota, Mississippi, Great Naval Move.
Union" may be said to and Colorado, and the brig Bainbridge, were
have been opened, on the being hurriedly refitted. Commodore Stringpart of the Federal Government, by the ham, it was understood, would assume commovements in New York harbor early in mand of the Southern Squadron,* making April. The activity apparent in the Brook- the Minnesota his flag-ship. lyn navy-yard, in putting vessels into com
• This Squadron, and its service, were determined upon, mission, was followed (April 4th) by the ap
as early as March 25th, at which date the orders went forth propriation of the Collins ocean steamers for the commissions and rendezvous. It was composed as Baltic and Atlantic to Government service.
Commander-in-Chief-Flag-Ofhcer Silas H. Stringham.
Captain--G J. Van Brunt.
Commander-Case, munitions, forage, and horses, while quarters
Lieutenants-Worden, Wainwright, Badger, Johnson, Foswere prepared on the Baltic for a regiment ter, Mitchell, Wilson. of troops. The steam frigate Powhatan, of
Chief Engineer-Franklin Johnson. eleven guns and three hundred men, was
Captain-Henry A. Adams. called into commission, and in three days'
Lieutenant and Executive Officer-J. R. M. Mullany. time was turned from “ordinary” into sail- Lieutenants-George P. Welsh, Wm. H. Murdagh, Robt. ing condition. She put to sea on the morn
F. R. Lewis, L. H. Norman.
Acting Master--Wm. P. McCann.
Surgeon-M. G. Delaney.
Maury; Third, James H. Rochelle; Fourth, Chas. H. Greene;
Fifth, Thomas 0. Selfridge.
Executive Officer-Lieutenant J. D. Todd.
Lieutenants-W. W. Low, M. P. Jones, G. E. Belnap.
Surgeon John 0. C. Barclay.
Lieutenants-Matthias C. Marin, Somerville Nicholson, mission. At the Boston (Charlestown) navy
Samuel R. Franklin, William H. Ward, Charles A. Babcock.
SLOOP CUMBERLAND TWENTY-FOUR GUNS.
SLOOP ST. LOUIS-TWENTY GUYS.
BLOOP MACEDONIAN-TWENTY-TWO GUNS
The movement of troops ment. Matters were managed with much Movemeut of Troops. toward New York, from discretion, and the public could only conjec
interior stations, added to ture the destination of the troops, transthe feverish excitement now existing in all ports, and vessels of war. circles. Captain Barry's artillery and two The watchful friends of
Preparations of the companies of the Second infantry reached the South, in the North, Fort Lafayette on the morning of April 5th. gave full information of A company of sappers and miners, and sev- these preparations; while the enterprising eral companies of the Third infantry, were daily journals of the metropolis vied with already in the fort. At Fort Hamilton four each other in details of proceeilings, and in hundred and ninety-one men were quartered, guesses at the truth. As a consequence, inready for immediate duty. Colonel Harvey creased activity and excitement prevailed in Brown, of the Second infantry, was in com- the Confederate States. Troops were thrown mand, and, together with Captain Foote and into Charleston and Pensacola, in large boulLieutenant Almy, acted with unceasing vigi- ies - these positions being regarded as the lance in expediting the orders of Govern- points menaced.
STEAM SLOOP BROOKLYN-TWENTY-FIVE GUNS.
STEAMER CRUSADER--FIGHT GUNS. Captain-William Walker,
Lieutenant Commanding--T. A. M. Craven. Lieutenants-James A. Doyle, J. C. Williamson, Albert Lieutenants—J. M. Duncan, J. E. Jewett, and 4. E. K. W. Smith, William N. Jeffers, William Mitchell, H. A. Benham. Adams.
Passed Assistant Surgeon-J. W. B. Greenhom. Surgeon-Lewis W. Minor.
Engineers--First Assistant, J. A. Grier; Third Assistants, Engineers Joshua Follansbee, W. B. Brooks, Marshal P.
L. Campbell, 0. H. Lackey, and J. D. Lining.
STEAMER WATER WITCH-THREE GUNS.
Lieutenant Commanding-John L. Davis.
Lieutenants-Charles H. Cushman, Thomas H. Fastian. STEAM SLOOP POWHATAN-ELEVEN GUNS.
Engineers--First Assistant, Charles H. Loring; Second AsCaptain-Samuel Mercer.
sistant, Edward Scattergood; Third Assistant, Reynolds Lieutenants-Egbert Thompson, Thomas C. Harris, and
Driver. George Brown.
STORESHIPS. Surgeon, Joseph Wilson, Jr.
STORFSHIP SUPPLY-TWO GUNS. Chief Engineer-Harman Newell.
Captain-Alexander Gibson. Engineers--First Assistants, Wm. J. Lamdin and James
Lieutenants-C. H. B. Caldwell, James S. Maxwell, Alrod F. Lamdin; Second Assistants, J. McElmell and John Purdy;
STORESHIP RELEASE-ONE GEX.
Lieutenant Commanding James Madison Frailey.
Lieutenant-James M. Bradford. Lieutenants-Van R. Morgan, Beverly Kennon.
TRANSPORTS AND TCGS. Past Assistant Surgeon-Francis M. Galt.
The transports and tugs chartered, up to April 8th, conEngineers-First Assistant, E. W. Manning; Third Assist- sisted of the following vessels : ants, George H. Riley, Henry Wright, and David Smith.
Tins. Coatzacoalcos, 1,000 Ocean Queen..
1.500 STEAMER WYANDOT--FIVE GUNS.
400 Lieutenant Commanding-Abner Read.
320 Lieutenants-J. R. Eggleston, J. M. Stribling.
..... 1,500 Assistant Surgeon- Algernon S. Garnet. Engineers-First Assistant, W. H. Cushman; Third Assist
The Home Squadron, at the date of April 6th, was distri
buted as follows: ants, M. H. Plunkett, K. Wilson.
Minnesota...... Ready for commission at Boston.
Water Witch...Went in commission at Philadelphia, Apl. 5th. Captain J. Faunce.
Powhatan ..... Sailed from New York harbor, April 6th. First Lieutenant-D. B. Constable; Second, H. 0. Porter; | Brooklyn... Of Fort Pickens, March 23d. Third, J. M. Thatcher; Fourth, Horace N. Gamblo.
Crusader....... Sailed from New York, March 18th. Surgeon-J. N. Campbell.
Cumberland ...Flag-ship, Norfolk, March 23d. Chief Engineer-J. R. Dryberg; First Assistant, Walter
Falmouth...... Moored at Aspin wall.
Mohawk ...... Sailed from New York, March 18th.
Macedonian.... Vera Cruz, March 25th,
Pawnee........At Washington, March 27th. Lieutenants-Alphonse Barbot, E. T. Shuddon, C. C. Car- Pocahontas.. Norfolk, March 26th. penter.
Sabine..... Off Pensacola, March 23d. Assistant Surgeon-Delavan Bloodgood.
St. Louis.......Off Fort Pickens, March 232. Engineers First Assistant, John S. Abert; Second Assist. Supply.....
....... New York for Gulf, March 234. ants, E L Dick, Geo. D. Emmons, and Edward C. Patten. Wyandotte ....08 Fort Pickens, March 230.
The Confederate Commissioners' last
Preparations of tho
A dispatch from Charles- diplomatic Commission of the Confederate ton, dated April 6th, read: Congress to the Federal Government at
“ Reliable information has Washington. As stated [see page 18), the been received from the North, that reinforce Southern Commissioners ments are ordered to Fort Sumter, and will be ac. did not call for the reply companied by a squadron under command of Com-to their first communicamodore Stringham.
tion to the Department of State. The rea“ Five thousand Southern men, in addition to
sons, and the Commissioners' view of affairs those at present in the fortifications, are ready to
in the interregnum, will appear in their letter take the field within twenty-four hours.
to Mr. Seward, of April 9th, which was at The ultimatum, siege or surrender, has not yet
once a plea and a declaration of hostility been sent to Major Anderson; but with the supplies sent to-day, he was notified by General Beau against the United States Government. It
read as follows: regard that they are the last, which is equivalent to a declaration of hostilities. This is positive.
“WASHINGTON, April 9th, 1861. “ Troops have been ordered to rendezvous at Hon. Wm. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State points remote from Charleston, but within support
of the United States, Washington : ing distance, to watch the movements of the enemy. The Memorandum (see pages 16-17] Cated They move at once.
· Department of State, Washington, March 15th, " Governor Pickens has all day been inspecting 1861,' has been received through the hands of Mr. the batteries, accompanied by a portion of his J. T. Pickett, Secretary to this Commission, who, Council and senior officers of the army. Everything by the instructions of the undersigned, called for it throughout was in a state of efficiency. Bloodshed on yesterday at the Department. is inevitable, and if one drop is spilt, no one knows “ In that Memorandum you correctly state the when it will end.
purport of the official note addressed to you by the “ A formal demand for the surrender of the fort undersigned, on the 12th ult. Without repeating has not been made, and may not be made at all. the contents of that note in full, it is enough to say
“For obvious reasons, the intentions of the Con- here that its object was to invite the Government federacy are involved in mystery.
of the United States to a friendly consideration of The excitement is intense, and everybody is in the relations between the United States and the fighting humor.”
seven States lately of the Federal Union, but now All doubts as to the pur- separated from it by the sovereign will of their Lincoln's Arowal of bis Policy.
poses of the Federal Ex- people, growing out of the pregnant and undeniable
ecutive were dispelled by fact that those people have rejected the authority the arrival, at Charleston, April 8th, of
of the United States, and established a Government Lieutenant Talbot, as a messenger from the of their own. Those relations had to be friendly or War Department at Washington, to say that hostile. The people of the old and new Governan unarmed steamer would proceed to sup-stand to each other in the relation of good neigh
ments, occupying contiguous territory, had to ply Fort Sumter's garrison with provisions. bors, each seeking their happiness and pursuing The Lieutenant had previously arrived at their national destinies in their own way, without Washington (on the morning of April 6th) interference with the other, or they had to be rival as a messenger from Major Anderson, to say and hostile nations. The Government of the Conthat, supplies of fresh food from Charleston federate States had no hesitation in electing its having been cut off, the garrison would be choice in this alternative. Frankly and unreserved, forced to surrender at discretion, from starva- seeking the good of the people who had intrusted tion, if supplies were not thrown in, or the them with power, in the spirit of humanity, of the evacuation ordered. He returned, as stated, Christian civilization of the age, and of that Amerito Charleston to announce the determination canism which regards the true welfare and happi. of his Government to provision the garrison, rate 'States, among its first acts, commissioned the
ness of the people, the Government of the Confede. at all hazards. That reply sounded the toc- undersigned to approach the Government of the sin of war.
United States with the olive branch of peace, and Before proceeding with the narrative of to offer to adjust the great questions pending bethe remarkable military events which quickly tween them in the only way to be justified by the followed, we will here close the story of the consciences and common sense of good men who