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sion Falsification.

“cement the Union” by hurling anathemas/ would follow upon the secession of the Cotagainst the Anti-Slavery sentiment of the ton States. This opinion gave zest to the North,

disunion movement, as, in the near future, It is here worthy of re- the Secessionists beheld their harbors teeming Southern Contempt

mark, that the South, while with a commerce too long committed to the for the Yankees.

it virtually held in sub- North—their streams lined with •looms too jection a large class of citizens in the North, long monopolized by New England skill and still despised them, as the British used Arenergy—their cities a nursery for the ten thounoid, and paid him gold for his treason, yet sand shops and factories required by the needs despised the creature even to forbidding his of a great and self-sustaining people. As a presence. The epithet “Yankee" had long specimen of the system of falsehood and eximplied, to the Southern understanding, aggeration practiced by the

A specimen of Seces, something mean or abject. Up to the very intriguants, to lure their last hour, prior to the response to Mr. Lin- victims on to the fatal iscoln's proclamation for troops, (April 15th,) sue of disunion, and to impress the Southern the disunion leaders confidently counted musses with a false idea of the results to folupon such aid and comfort from the commer- low the act, we quote from the Charleston Mercial North and manufacturing East, as would cury': New York correspondence [March 12th :) greatly assist to secure Southern independ

Any troops raised to invade the South, would

have to march over the dead bodies of at least their ence. The all-potent agency relied upon was

own number before they ever set foot on Southern the supposed dependence of Northern com

soil, and Greeley, and Beecher, and Field, and the merce and Eastern manufactures upon South

other truculent Abolition leaders, would be seen ern patrons. The dollar-loving, mercenary

some fine morning swinging by the neck from the men of the Free States were regarded as lamp-posts of Broadway. But I fear that even your lacking the spirit to defend their Union determination to stand by your rights, thongh it has sentiments by the sword. The following cowed the poltroons whose tongues and types were paragraph, from the New Orleans Bee, so brave, will not ultimately present insurrections (March 10th,) simply enibodied the almost at the North. The whole city of New York, you generally prevalent feeling in the South re- may rely upon it, is on the verge of bankruptcy. garding the honor and courage of the North: Not five dry-goods houses will be able to stand.

There is no business being done. The number of “ The Black Republicans are a cowardly set, after hands discharged is immense. The Morrill tariff all. They have not the courage of their own con

will bring the commercial crisis bere, made from rictions. They tamper with principles. Loathing political causes, to an explosion next month. The Slavery, they are willing to incur almost any sacri- greater part of the foreign trade will be diverted fice rather than surrender the Border States. Ap southward, and in a short time pauperism and genepearances indicate their disposition even to forego ral distress will be so great, that risings and riots the exquisite delight of sending fleets and armies to

will take place, and the white slaves of commerce make war on the Confederate South, rather than and capital, both in New York and New England, run the risk of forfeiting the allegiance of the fron

will administer to the lips of their taskmasters the tier Slave States. We see by this how hollow and poisoned chalice wbich they have prepared for the perfidious is their policy, and how inconsistent are

planters of the South. An ignorant proletarian their acts with their professions. The truth is, they

mass, whose condition at best is infinitely inferior to ablior Slavery, but they are fully alive to the danger of losing their power and influence, should struction they have received from their oracles.

that of your negroes, will be sure to better the inthey drive Virginia and the other Border States out Long taught that property is robbery,' they will of the Union. They chafe, doubtless, at the hard necessity of permitting South Carolina and her sis. put the doctrine into practice at last upon a scale

of fearful dimensions. At this moment, there are ters to escape from their thraldom, but it is a ne

fifty thousand human beings in New York and cessity, and they must, perforce, submit to it.”

Brooklyn who know nbt where they will be able to The opinion was sedulously disseminated, get their breakfast to-morrow morning, and every by the press of the South, particularly during day the number of the destitute will greatly increase. the months of January, February and March, The New York papers conceal or gloss over this the distress and pauperism in the North terrible reality. If the South wants recruits to fight its battles against invading hosts of Abolitionists, "Southern independence.” If the masses of and to spare the lives of its own citizens, let the the Confederate States were thus deieved Confederacy employ a few agents in New York and much was due to their willingness to be mis other cities of the North, and it will soon have as informed; but, the greatest shar. of crime many troops as it requires. There is not an unem- which flowed from a conflict with the Fedeployed Irishman who would not gladly enlist in the ral Government may, with propriety, be cause, and there are thousands of native Democrats charged upon a press suborned to treason eager for the same service. And, should the Lin- and ambition. A free press and free schools coln Administration proceed to make war upon

are said to be the bulwarks of free instituyour commerce, you can find at the North any number of ships and men ready for letters of marque orned press and restricted system of education

tions. The converse is equally true :a subfrom the Southern Confederacy." There is not, to use an Irish license of

are instruments of tyranny. That the Southphraseology, a statement of fact here which

ern States have been the victims of such & is not a falsehood. It was simply conceived tyranny, to a deplorable degree, history will in the same spirit of baseness and treachery

be compelled to chronicle. which seemed to underlie the entire fabric of

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THE SEORET HOPE IN TIE SOUTH FOR PEACE. GOV. PICKENS'

MESSAGE OF CONGRATULATION. CONFIDENCE IN A PEACEFUL ISSUE. ALEXANDER I. STEPHENS' APOSTOL ATE. HIS POSITION" OI THE ORGANIC LAW OF THE NEW SLAVE CONFEDERACY.

" EX

Condence in Peace.

ac

Governor Pickens' Mes

That the revolution | upon the proper parties—the few men of the was considered an Confederate Government who usurped the

complished fact, as early prerogatives of princes, in their direction of as April 1st, is evident not more from the affairs. legislation of the Confederate Congress and Governor Pickens, unthe acts of State Legislatures than in the der date of March 28th,

sago of Cougratulation. communications which passed between the communicated a message leaders of the secession movement. The idea to the State Convention of South Carolina, of any prolonged resistance, on the part of the in response to the resolution adopted by the Federal Government, to the scheme for Confederate Congress, February 12th, viz : Southern Confederacy, was not entertained. * Resolved, That this Government takes under its It was thought belligerent action might re

charge the questions and difficulties now existing be. sult in the case of Sumter, and grow out of

tween several States of this Confederacy and the

Government of the United States, relating to the the effort to repress the secession of Maryland; but, we believe that most of the better occupation of forts, arsenals, navy-yards, and other

public establishments, and that the President of classes in the South, and most of their lead

the Congress be directed to commanicate this reing men, did not, in their private judgments, solution to the Governors of the States." either expect or desire a state of actual war

The Governor stated that, on the 1st of between the two sections of the country. March, the Secretary of War of the ConfedThis is an important point to establish, since eracy wrote him as follows: "Under this act it serves to fix the hostilities which followed the President directs me to inform you, that

GOV. PICKENS' MESSAGE

OF

CONGRATULATION.

61

Governor Pickens?

he assum'es control of all the ambition with fanaticism, they Governor Pickens' Message. military operations of your attempted to organize the

Message, State, having reference to, great masses of the people so or connected with, questions between, your

as to act together in a consolidated majority, and

administer the common Government without regard State and powers foreign to it. He also directs me to request you to communicate to interests of separate communities should be pre

to the sacred guarantees by which the local rights and the Department without delay, the quantity served under the absolute control of their separate and character of arms and munitions of war Governments. This, of course, reversed the whole which have been acquired from the United philosophy of our peculiar system, and if permitted States, and which are now in the forts, arse- to become successful, would have given us no adnals, and navy-yards of your State, and all vance over the European systim of Government. other arms and munitions which your State In fact, it would have placed us behind them in may desire to turn over and make charge- progress, for many of their most enlightened and able to this Government."

powerful Governments asserted the doctrine, and The Governor complied with the resolu

acted upon it, that Governments and dynasties can

be changed by Popular Sovereignty, expressed tion and requisitions, and stated the facts

through universal suffrage, in independent commu. relating to the matter in the Message. He

nities; and they avow this as a substitute for the then proceeded to add bis congratulations old theory of divine and hereditary right. over the success of the revolution, in the fol- “ Under our old articles of Confederation the lowing interesting terms:

Government had failed, and the Constitution of the “ I herewith transmit the ordinances and reso- United States grew out of the force of circumlutions of the different states that have seceded, stances, and was adopted in order to secure, at and would call attention to the obvious propriety, that period, a more perfect union to enable us to of providing for them, together with our own ordi- resist foreign aggression. We have outgrown that Dance on the same subject, some suitable place of state of things, and the danger lately was not from safe deposit. They are the simple, but authentic foreign aggression, but from internal corruption, records of events well calculated to produce a pro- and from an assumption in parts and majorities of found impression upon the future destiny of our absolute Governments over other parts, without country.

reference to the limitations and reservations of the “ Heretofore in the history of the world, the compact. Thus, that Constitution ran its career, great struggle has been to secure the personal and fulfilled its destiny, under the perverted and rights of individuals. In former times the power vitiated idea that we were a consolidated people. of government absorbed all individual or personal Under prejudices fostered by designing men, and rights of citizens. But our English ancestors, by under the worst passions inflamed by bad men, an their sturdy virtues, engrafted, at different periods, absolute majority was created, who assumed that such grants and restrictions upon the British Con-their will must necessarily be the Government, institution as effectually secured personal rights, and stead of the fixed principles of the Constitution, as far as that branch of liberty is involved, they which were intended to guard the local rights and made it as perfect as any other country.

interests of the separate and independent commu" To secure the political rights of separate and nities which composed the Confederacy of States. independent communities, required a higher and

“ Our State, true to the great principles upon broader range of political experience. The guar. which the Confederacy was formed, and true to antees for personal rights in England was a great those great and progressive ideas which were so advance over the old feudal system of Europe ; and identified with American Independence, was forced it was then left to the separate States of America to resume her original powers of Government; and to develop a higher experience over a larger ex. if she succeeds in engrafting the fundamental right tent of territory, in those guarantees necessary to of a separate and independent State to withdraw secure the local rights of separate independent from any Confederacy that may be formed, whencommunities, united under one common govern

ever her people, in sovereign Convention assemment.

bled, shall so decide, then she will have made " The old Constitution was intended to effect this another advance in the science of Government, and advance in the science of Government, and if it had added another guaranty to the great principle of been properly administered, would have continued civil liberty. And if this principle could be seto develop the mighty resources and power of a

cured without an appeal to arms and blood, it wonderful people. But, under the combination of

would show that the country has progressed in cir

Governor Pickens'

ilization and intelligence, so show indifference to any of the great, complicated

far as to be able to settle all interests and relations with which she was surMessage.

controversies and issues in rounded. volving political rights, by an appeal to reason, in- “When your illustrious body adjourned, you saw terest, to free discussion, to Conventions, to trea- the State standing alone, surrounded with peril, and ties and covenants, rather than by an appeal to clouds resting upon the future. Under the kind brutal force.

dispensations of a superintending Providence, I am “True, we have encountered misrepresentation now able to present her to you under a brighter and abuse, and for a people so small in numbers as day, surrounded by other States rich in their rewe are to make such an issue as we did, was full sources, with their brave and patriotic sons standing of danger and difficulty.

as a guard in the portals of a new Temple, reared “But no people are it to be free, unless they by our common counsels, and dedicated to the sepxare able to treat denunciation with indifference, and rate sovereignty of free and independent States. to meet danger with fortitude.

“F. W. PICKENS." “From peculiar circumstances, South Carolina

This Message, while it gives us an interwas called on to take the first step in this march to

esting view of the Southern view of the reindependence. She had to encounter the first shock volution, also proves that its author, one of in the bitterness and fierce passions of our oppo. the most outwardly belligerent of Secessionnents. Those who had mastered the power of the Government, and were fondly gazing on the rich ists, really regarded the state of peace as asand ripe fruit supposed to be just within their grasp,

sured. The same assurance was extended to naturally felt exasperated in disappointment, caused the people by the Montgomery Congress in its by this State interposing to arrest them in their appointment of Commissioners to Washinglawless career of mad ambition and wild fanaticism. ton, to negotiate for the amicable settlement For a period we were surrounded with great difficul- of all old relations, and the friendly arrangeties, and threatened with danger that appeared imi- ment of new relations between the two Gorminent.

ernments. (See their communication to the “ As far as the Executive is concerned, I always Secretary of State, pages 16–17, Vol. II.] considered that the peculiar mission of this State

It is not necessary to rewas, by a firm and temperate course, to lay the mark upon the singular The Dosire for Peace. foundation of the Confederacy of States, homoge

presumption on which this neous in feeling and interest, with such institutions and domestic civilization as would unite them in confidence in “peace and good will” rested : one common destiny, with a government devoted the “Memorandum” of Mr. Seward (see pages to their peace and safety, and with no interest to 17-18,] will answer on this point; but, that the produce the slightest aggression upon other poople; intelligent people of the South not only but deeply interested to develop those productions hoped for peace but also deprecated a state that are so largely demanded in the peaceful pur- of war, we assume to be conclusive, despite Baits of mankind, and entering so largely into the the offensive attitude of affairs. The fact of comforts and progressive civilization of the world.

men being in arms—of the investment of “When this State first withdrew from the Fede. Forts Pickens and Sumter—of the thorough ral Union, I felt that we bore, on one side, critical military organization of States, were the outrelations to the Confederacy we had left, and also ward means to intimidate the North—to very delicate and peculiar relations to those Slave States which constituted the border of the Southern the Southerners were necessary to give the

conquer a peace;" and, in the opinion of States; and we had still higher and more sacred duties and relations toward our sister States of the appearance of power to the new Government, South, who were expected nobly to come to our

But, the better class of citizens, even where side in the formation of a new Confederacy.

they had espoused the cause of secession,

shrunk from the terrors and disabilities of “ All these relations made our course quite complicated, and full of deep obligations. In adminis. actual war as too fearful a price for the mere tering the duties of the Executive office, I can truly change of their national capital from Washsay that I never for one moment lost sight of the ington to Montgomery; and, if the forces relations our State bore to all, and it has ever been called into the field were ever used to premy endeavor, while sustaining her separate rights cipitate the conflict, the people were powerand independence, never to do anything that might less before the Star Chamber tyranny of the MR. STEPHEN S'APOSTOLATE.

63

tolate.

a new

forty men who, exalted to power without the Slave-owner, must be constrained not only to popular voice, legislated and decreed without embark in the cause, but to give it, also, their awaiting for the popular assent.

cordial support, both moral and material. The speech made by To secure that support Mr. Stephens made Mr. Stephens' Apos. Alexander H. Stephens, his exposition; and it is not hazarding much

Vice-President (by election to say that that exposition did more to consoliof the “Congress” at Montgomery) of the date Southern sentiment, more to prepare the Confederate Government-March 21st, at Southern mind for even a fanatical adherence Savannah, Georgia, has been referred to as em to the Davis Administration, than all other bodying the ideas upon which the new order influences combined. Hence the speaker's of things was founded (see Vol. I., pgs 30-31.] words assume an historical significance, and The quotation there given was an exposition, we lay before the reader such portions of the more particularly, of the Slave-element enter- “exposition” as seem to have been instruing into, and characterizing, the Confederate mental in centralizing sympathy for, and conorganic law. That section of the speech re- fidence in, the policy of resistance to all atlating to the ability of the new Government tempts upon the independence of the Con. to maintain its independence, deserves con- federate States. He said: sideration here, as it was this speaker's

“We are passing through "glittering generalities" which reconciled

Mr. Stephens' Expo

one of the greatest revoluthe intelligence of the South to the alarums tions in the annals of the

position. of war which followed. Having been a

world. Seven States have, within the last three strong Union man up to the moment of the months, thrown off an old Government, and formed passage, by the Georgia Convention, of its

This revolution has been signally marked, Ordinance of Secession, Mr. Stephens was re- up to this time, by the fact of its having been acgarded as a safe and conservative counsellor; complished without the loss of a single drop of and his views, set forth on the occasion re- blood. This new Constitution, or form of Governferred to, prevailed to rally around the ment, constitutes the subject to which your attenAdministration of Jefferson Davis the con

tion will be partly invited. servatism and intelligence of the Seceded

“ In reference to it, I make this first general reStates. Prior to that date (March 21st,) it is mark: it amply secures all our ancient rights, believed the new dynasty did not have the franchises, and privileges. All the great principles confidence nor the sympathy of the well

of Magna Charta are retained in it. No citizen is

deprived of life, liberty, or property, but by the informed and wealthier classes, to any great judgment of his peers, under the laws of the land. degree.

The great principle of religious liberty, which That it had their acquiescence is true,

was the honor and pride of the old Constitution, is if silence gave consent; but, the ruling forty still maintained and secured. All the essentials knew too well the danger of carrying forward of the old Constitution, which have endeared it to their Government without the friendship and the hearts of the American people, have been prehearty co-operation of the best citizens. The served and perpetuated. Some changes have been turbulent and illy-informed of the population, made—of these I shall speak presently. Some of would do for voters and soldiers-would ad- these I should have preferred not to have seen mirably answer the purposes of machinators made ; but these, perhaps, meet the cordial approagainst liberty, and the ancient order of bation of a majority, of this audience, if not an

overwhelming majority of the people of the Con. things; but that population--composed federacy. Of them, therefore, I will not speak. largely of “poor white trash,” of pennyless But, other important changes do meet my cordial politicians, of bankrupt spendthrifts, of approbation. They form great improvements upon gamblers and adventurers—was an element the old Constitution. So, taking the whole new of danger as well as of strength, and could Constitution, I have no hesitancy in giving it as my be made to yield very little to the tax- judgment, that it is decidedly better than the old. gatherer and the tribute-taker. The planter, Allow me briefly to allude to some of these im. the banker, the merchant, the real-estate provements.” operator, the steamboat proprietor, the He then recurred to the Tariff; to the fea

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