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Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Louis. | enforcement, whether under the name of iana, and abstain from all attempts to collect rev- anti-coercion or any other name, is disunion; enues in these States."

and that it is the duty of the President to Both resolutions were laid over, to be de- use all the means in his power to hold and bated the day following. The wish to ad- protect the public property of the United journ made many Senators unwilling to States, and enforce the laws thereof, as well consider the resolutions at length, fearing a in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, protracted debate on the question of advis- Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and ing and directing the President.

Texas, as within the other States of the On Thursday (March 28th) Trumbull, of Union. Illinois, introduced a resolution declaring This was briefly discussed, but the desire that, in the opinion of the Senate, the true to adjourn overrode this and the other resoway to preserve the Union is to enforce the lutions introduced. The Senate adjourned laws of the Union; that resistance to their sine die at four o'clock.

T

CHAPTER VI.

LINCOLN'S CABINET ON THE EVACUATION OF FO.RT BUMTER. THE

PRESIDENT'S COURSE. CONDITION OF FORT PICKENS. LIN-
COLN'S MESSENGERS TO FORT S UM TER. STATE OF PUBLIC
FEELING. THE "AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING NA-
TIONAL
UNITY.''

SOUTHERN CONTEMPT OF NORTHERN MEN.
A SPECIMEN OF DIS UNION FALSE HOOD. ITS MORAL.

Cabinet discussion of

The news from Washing- | tion was first presented, they agree as to the the question of ton, March 14th, was calcu- stern necessity which is urged as the only Evacuation.

lated to excite profound justification for a recourse which, in the best interest. A dispatch stated: “Two sessions aspect, seems to involve a certain degree of of the Cabinet have been held upon the national humiliation. The unity of the Cabifinal determination concerning Fort Sumter. net, however, will not be affected by the opThe first met at 10 o'clock and adjourned posing views on this subject, which has now at 1, and reconvened at 4 and adjourned at assumed a shape that admits of but one solu7. It is well understood that there is a tle- tion, for which General Scott and his military cided difference of opinion among the mem- associates are wholly responsible. Nothing bers on this question, which first found ex- remains now to be done after these concluding pression at the conference on Saturday night, deliberations, but to issue the formal orders, when the military reports, advising the with which have been approved by the highest drawal, were submitted. That difference authority. The particular mode of withwas emphasized to day in very positive terms, drawing Major Anderson's force has yet to be and led to a protracted discussion. While determined. General Scott's inclination, two members of the Cabinet disagree as to this days ago, was to send them to New York by policy, and have done so since the proposi- steamer, which would save the necessity of

a

Evacuation.

passing through Charleston. That purpose sponsibility” even though the course pursued may, however, be changed before the last was not in consenance with that advised by order is given. No messenger has yet been bis Cabinet or expected by the public. The sent to Major Anderson in regard to this mat- Sumter complication illustrated this self-reliter, as the newspapers have reported. He ance, in a remarkable manner. When the has, however, been prepared for a decisive country had, apparently, made up its mind communication from the War Department, to see the beleaugered band of loyalists march since he made a detailed report last week, out of the fastness which kept the sacrilegeshowing the limited stock of supplies in Fort oue horde of Union-breakers at bay, the Sumter."

President was silent Day and night the This states the condition of the question of deed was present to his mind; and slowly, as evacuation, so far as related to the discussions the biscuits and meat of the garrison prowithin the Cabinet. The withdrawal of the vision-chest grew low day by day, the thought garrison having been determined upon, as a took form which was to give him the hearts "military necessity," it seemingly only re- and hands of a united people in exchange for mained for the President to permit the dis- the loss of that fastness, at once the Key to patch of the order for evacuation to be sent Charleston and the portal of hope to the lover to consummate the step declared necessary. of his country. The public in the Northern States became Whatever was to be the fortune of Sumter, reconciled to the decision, so far as its intense it became apparent that the remaining forts feeling would permit. Still, there were not in possession of the General Government were wanting many who regarded the surrender to be retained, at all hazards. The statements

of the post, under menace, made by Senator Clingman, in the debate on Opposition to an

not only as a national hu- the message, that warlike preparations were

miliation, but as a positive going on at the Navy Yard, were not without confession of the weakness of the Goverment. foundation. Several vessels, as early as March By this class the evacuation was pronounced 10th, had passed South to reinforce those a virtual surrender to revolution. In the fortifications still in the hands of the Govern. Senate the decision found several most ment troops. Sumter alone seemed left to its uncompromising opponents—among them solitary fate. Pickens, unWade, of Ohio, Wilson, of Massachusetts, der command of Lieutenant and Trumbull, of Illinois—all of whom freely Slemmer, was rapidly apexpressed their pposition to the withdrawal proaching a state of efficiency for action. of Major Anderson. Whatever may have That gallant officer had, by bis loyalty, saved been their influence with the President, if the fortress from the hands of the revolutionany, it is certain that the Executive did not ists. When those in command at the Navy accede to the “military necessity,” for days Yard were rejoicing over the hauling down grew into weeks, and yet the missive of hu- of the Stars and Stripes, he had hastily evacumiliation did not go forth.

ated Fort McRae, and, passing over to PickIn this instance, and in ens, there resolved to resist the conspirators others of eminent and vital to the last. His conduct stands out in satis

importance, the President factory contrast to that of Commander showed a quiet and cautious independence Farrand, and Lieutenant Renshaw. After of judgment which rendered it certain that the occupancy of Pickens, the little force at the Chief Magistrate was one of those men his command were put to the severcst labor having both a will and a way of his own. in rendering the fortress tenable. In this lie Solicitous for the opinions of those best quali- was assisted by marines from the vessels-offiod to give advice, patient in obtaining in- war lying off in the harbor. By March 15th formation, watchful of the currents of public the fort was deemed capable of resisting the feeling, Mr. Lincoln was slow in forming his assault then hourly threatened by General judgment; but, when once the way seemed Bragg, the Confederate commander, who, for clear, he did not hesitate to “assume the re- / weeks, bad been making extensive prepara

Condition of Fort

Pickens.

The President's De

liberation.

CONDITION

OF

FORT

PICK ENS.

57

Condition of Fort

Pickens.

Fort Sumter.

tions for forcing Slemmer of the important positions at Key West and
out of the Santa Rosa for- the Tortugas. [See vol. I. page 368.]
tress. It was reported from Several messengers from

Messengers to Washington, March 16th, that the fort was in the Federal authorities to vested by thirteen full batteries, including Fort Sumter appeared in Forts McRae and Barrancas, which command-Charleston during the middle and latter part ed not only Pickens but the offing. At that of March. Surgeon Fox, of the United States date the steam corvette Brooklyn, and the sail- Navy, was dispatched by Mr. Lincoln, and ing frigate Sabine, were lying off the port with passed over to Sumter, “by special permisreinforcements on board. No attempts were sion of the South Carolina authorities," to made to land the troops, however, since the inspect the savitary condition of the fort, as rebel commander threatened to open fire well as confer privately with Major Anon the vessels and on Pickens, if the rein- derson; but the attendance of Captain Hartforcement was attempted. But, the night- stene prevented the desired private conferly mission of small boats which put off, ence. with muffled oars, to the outside of Santa Colonel G. W. Lay, of General Scott's staff, Rosa island, gave the brave Lieutenant good appeared at Charleston March 20th, and had cheer and helping hands, and when the a long interview with Governor Pickens and middle of the month had passed, the fortress General Beauregard, understood to be in was prepared for the threatened bombard- reference to terms of evacuation, and the ment. Beside the Brooklyn and Sabine, the disposition of the armament of the fort, Wyandotte and several sloops-of-war were un

should the Federal Government order the derstood to be present, prepared to render surrender of the fortress. effective service. This powerful array un

March 25th, Colonel Lamon, as a special doubtedly prevented the assault; and the messenger of the President, arrived in Charlesthree thousand Confederates, with “souls on

ton. After an interview with the authorfire for the fray,'' all under command of a ities, he passed over to the fort. His visit redoubtable officer, were compelled to wit- was announced as one of “ pacification.” He ness the old flag's morning salute, without had an unrestricted interview with Major the power to banish it from their sight. The Anderson, whom he found in good spirits, presence of a strong naval force at that point, and with provisions enough to hold out to with reinforcements, was one of the acts April 15th. He returned to Washington which marked the brief term of Secretary the Southern States! The North had the heavy Holt's service. To his orders, to that dis

guns, the light arms, the powder and ball, just as position of the vessels-of-war, as well as to the North had everything else that belonged to the Slemmer's efficiency, does the country owe common Government. How quietly were the salvation of Pickens,* and the retention shifted from our soil who might have been here

to-day to murder us at Abraham Lincoln's order. * The service which his predecessor, John B. How slender the garrisons becaine in Southern forts Floyd, rendered to the cause of disunion and treason, which were made for us, and belong to nobody else, was thus set forth by the Atlanta (Geo.) Confederacy, but which a savage enemy now chafes and rages to of March 16th. :

get possession of! Who sent 37,000 stand of arms "But for the foresight, and firmness, and patriotic to Georgia? How came 60,000 more prime death. providence of John B. Floyd, in what stress and dealing rifles at Jackson, Miss.? And, in short, why peril would the Cotton States be floundering this have we anything at all in the South to mail the day! He saw the inevitable doom of the Union, or strong hands of the sons of the South with at this the doom of his own people. For many months hour, when every heart, and head, and arm of her past, from his stand-point, he had an extended field children is needed in her defense ? Truth demands of vision, which enabled him to see the great danger it of us to declare that we owe to John B. Floyd an which threatened us, but which was hid below the eternal tribute of gratitude for all this. Had he horizon from the eyes of most of us.

When his been less the patriot than he was, we might now faithful loyalty to his own persecuted people began have been disarmed and at the mercy of a nation of its labors in our defense, in what à condition were cut-throats and plunderers."

men A " Conservative"

March 26th, reporting unfavorably to rein- | but this will be, at present, our main topic. Four forcements. All the schemes devised for millions of immortal beings, incapable of self-care, throwing supplies into the beleaguered for and indisposed to industry and foresight, are provitress Mr. Lamon reported to be impractica- dentially committed to the hands of our Southern ble-an opinion which Major Anderson, also, from them if they would. Emancipation, were it

friends. This stupendous trust they cannot pat was understood to entertain..

possible, would be rebellion against Providence, and The several reports of these messengers destruction to the colored race in our land. We at seemed to leave no alternative but the with-the North rid ourselves of no responsibility by as. drawal of the little band from Charleston. suming an attitude of hostility to Slavery, and thus The order for evacuation was hourly look- sundering the bonds of State fellowship; we only put ed for by the country, as well as by An- it out of our power to do the good which both huderson himself. But, the days wore into manity and religion demand ; should we not rather weeks, and that order was not given. The recognize the Providence of God, in his placing such interest in the garrison became hourly more

a vast multitude of the degraded and dependent

sons of Africa in this favored land, and cheerfully painful. The crisis was approaching. The

co-operate, by all needful labors and sacrifices, with national pulse seemed to stand still for the His benevolent design to save, and not to destrog word that was to declare the fate of the Re-them? Under a Providential dispensation, lifting public.

them up from the degradation and miseries of indoAs showing something of the spirit of a lence and vice, and exacting of them due and peedvery large and influential class of citizens of ful labor, they can certainly be trained and nurthe North, at this juncture, we may mention tured, as many have been, for the services and joys the existence of a Society organized in New of heaven; and if the climate and institutions of the York under the presidency of Prof. Samuel South are such that our fellow-citizens there can F. B. Morse. It represented

afford to take the onervus care of them, in return the commercial interests

for their services, should we not gladly consent? Organization.

They freely concede to us our conscientious convicmore particularly--among

tions, our rights, and all our privileges; should we its chief corporators being found the names

not as freely concede to them theirs? Why should of several eminent mercharts, while the New

we contend? Why paralyze business, turn thouYork Journal of Commerce became its “ sands of the industrious and worthy poor out of em. gan.” The society was called the “Amer ployment, sunder the last ties of affection that can ican Society for promoting National Unity." bind these States together, destroy our once prosIt held its first session in New York, March perous and happy nation, and perhaps send multi6th, and put forth its plea in a “ programme,” tudes to premature graves—and all for what? Is which was a singular commixture of religion,

not such a course a struggle of arrogant assumption politics and commerce—all directed against against the Providence of the Most High ? and, if “ Abolitionism,” the great prime demoral- persisted in, will it not surely bring down his heavy

and prolonged judgments upon us ?" izer and disorganizer. We may quote from

This religio-commercial enterprise did not, this document as one of those “ signs of the times" which indicated how cleverly com

we may state, attract any particular atten

tion, although strongly indorsed and susand religion could hob-nob with

tained by that powerful organ of the PresbySatan, when he threatened to disturb their

terian (Old School) denomination, the New quiet and their profits :

York Observer. The great tide of public “We believe that the time has come when such feeling was sweeping insensibly onward, evil teachings (abolitionism) should be firmly and boldly confronted, not by the antagonisms of doubt against the old barriers where property in

man was intrenched; and those subservient ful and perishable weapons, but by the Word of God, which liveth and abideth forever,' as expound servants who ordained the “American Soed by a broad and faithful recognition of his moral ciety for promoting National Urity," by and providential government over the world. It is fighting the battles of the propagandists with with this view that we propose an organized Scriptural weapons, daily became less poeffort, &c., &c.

tential. We advert to the organization sim“Our attention will not be confined to Slavery, ply as one of the last religious efforts to

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“ cement the Union” by hurling anathemas would follow upon the secession of the Cotagainst the Anti-Slavery sentiment of the ton States. This opinion gave zest to the North,

disunion movement, as, in the near future, It is here worthy of re- the Secessionists beheld their harbors teeming Southern Contempt

mark, that the South, while with a commerce too long committed to the

it virtually held in sub- North—their streams lined with •looms too jection a large class of citizens in the North, long monopolized by New England skill and still despised them, as the British used Ar. energy-their cities a nursery for the ten thounoid, and paid him gold for his treason, yet sand shops and factories required by the needs despised the creature even to forbidding his of a great and self-sustaining people. As a presence. The epithet “Yankee" bad long specimen of the system of falsehood and eximplied, to the Southern understanding, aggeration practiced by the

A specimen of Seces, something mean or abject. Up to the very intriguants, to lure their last hour, prior to the response to Mr. Lin. victims on to the fatal iscoln's proclamation for troops, (April 15th,) sue of disunion, and to impress the Southern the disunion leaders confidently counted Musses with a false idea of the results to folupon such aid and comfort from the commer

low the act, we quote from the Charleston Mer. cial North and manufacturing East, as would cury's New York correspondence [March 12th:) greatly assist to secure Southern independ

Any troops raised to invade the South, would

have to march over the dead bodies of at least their ence. The all-potent agency relied upon was

own number before they ever set foot on Southern the supposed dependence of Northern com

soil, and Greeley, and Beecher, and Field, and the merce and Eastern manufactures upon South

other truculent Abolition leaders, would be seen ern patrons. The dollar-loving, mercenary some fine morning swinging by the neck from the men of the Free States were regarded as lamp-posts of Broadway. But I fear that even your lacking the spirit to defend their Union determination to stand by your rights, though it has sentiments by the sword. The following cowed the poltroons whose tongues and types were paragraph, from the New Orleans Bee, so brave, will not ultimately present insurrections (March 10th,) simply embodied the almost at the North. The whole city of New York, you generally prevalent feeling in the South re- may rely upon it, is on the verge of bankruptcy. garding the honor and courage of the North: Not five dry.goods houses will be able to stand.

There is no business being done. The number of " The Black Republicans are a cowardly set, after hands discharged is immense. The Morrill tariff all. They have not the courage of their own con

will bring the commercial crisis bere, made from rictions. They tamper with principles. Loathing political causes, to an explosion next month. The Slavery, they are willing to incur almost fice rather than surrender the Border States. Ap-southward, and in a short time pauperism and gene

greater part of the foreign trade will be diverted pearances indicate their disposition even to forego ral distress will be so great, that risings and riots the exquisite delight of sending fleets and armies to

will take place, and the white slaves of commerce make war on the Confederate South, rather than

and capital, both in New York and New England, run the risk of forfeiting the allegiance of the fron will administer to the lips of their taskmasters the tier Slave States. We see by this how hollow and

poisoned chalice wbich they have prepared for the perfidious is their policy, and how inconsistent are their acts with their professions. The truth is, they mass, whose condition at best is infinitely inferior to

planters of the South. An ignorant proletarian ablior Slavery, but they are fully alive to the dan

that of your negroes, will be sure to better the inger of losing their power and influence, should

struction' they have received from their oracles. they drive Virginia and the other Border States out of the Union. They chafe, doubtless, at the hard Long taught that property is robbery,' they will Decessity of permitting South Carolina and her sis. put the doctrine into practice at last upon a scale

of fearful dimensions. At this moment, there are ters to escape from their thraldom, but it is a ne

fifty thousand human beings in New York and cessity, and they must, perforce, submit to it."

Brooklyn who know nbt where they will be able to The opinion was sedulously disseminated,

get their breakfast to-morrow morning, and every by the press of the South, particularly during day the number of the destitute will greatly increase. the months of January, February and March, The New York papers conceal or gloss over this the distress and pauperism in the North , terrible reality. If the South wants recruits to fight

any sacri

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