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principles. The Senator- from power, in order that these questions Breckenridge's Re

who by turns had been the might be adjusted on constitutional principles.

eulogist and denouncer of Douglas retorted saying, the Republicans—said they had acted in a that, although Brecken- Douglas' last Word. spirit of patriotic devotion to the whole coun- ridge would not go back try, and desired to give equal rights to all the and tell his constituents that the people of States ; that they had particularly abandoned the Slave States stood in a better position their principles as to Slavery in the Territories. than ever, as regarded their rights in the He would not charge the Senator with the Territories, the fact still remained as he purpose to misrepresent him, but that Sen- (Douglas) bad stated it, and the desire of his ator called attention to two paragraphs in heart was that the people of Kentucky, and his (Breckenridge's) speech. He said that of every State in the Union, should be made he (Breckenridge) had declared that the aware of it. He, too, desired to put the Border Slave States could not remain in the Republican party out of power, but he would Union except on equal terms, or without an not foster unkind feelings in the South for equitable division, and that the South had party purposes. He would tell the truth no right to believe that they would receive about the Republican party, even if it operthe protection and recognition they ask, ated to their credit. Now, the inference to be drawn from this Breckenridge suggested that Douglas now was, that he (Breckenridge) was in favor of ask the Republicans here the reason for precipitating Kentucky out of the Union. omitting, in the Territorial bills, any alluThe Senator from Illinois had given a slight sion to, or prohibition of, Slavery. Douglas twist to his language. He (Breckenridge) answered that, as already stated by himself, did say, on more than one occasion, that the they had so acted from patriotic considerdominant party had manifested, by the acts ations to prevent a further disruption of the of their representatives, that they will not Union. He wanted to crush down every abolish Slavery in the States; that, as equal Disunionist in Kentucky. He wanted to States, they could not remain in the Union strengthen his (Breckenridge's) hands. The when the property of all of them was not to Senator had told them of his devotion to the be recognized or protected.

Union, and he (Douglas) wanted to save The Union was broken already, and, unless the country and the valuable services of the some energetic, manly efforts were made to Senator from Kentucky for the next six settle the question on broad national princi- years. And, he repeated, that he wanted to ples, the Union will be broken still further. strengthen his hands and the hands of every It could not be saved by persuading the peo- other man, and to show that Kentucky is ple that the Republicans have abandoned the safe, even under a Republican Administraprinciples to which they still adhere. Such tion, and to put down secession in erery a declaration was calculated to produce ap- other State of the Union. prehension and injurious effect. President The yeas and nayş were finally called on Lincoln recognizes a qualified property in a motion to lay the Douglas resolution of Slave labor within the Slave States; but, at inquiry on the table. It resulted in yeas 23, the same time, he, in his Inaugural, recog- nays 11. So the resolution was tabled. nizes the enunciation of the Chicago Plat- Breckenridge then asked leave to offer the form, that the normal condition of all the following: Territories is freedom, &c. This is the con

* Resolved, That the Senate recommend and advise the re

Sundry Significant viction and principle of the majority on this

moval of the United States floor, as well as of the President himself and troops from the limits of the Confederate States." his party. Was it not, therefore, belittling Clingman had also prepared one, covering to say that the Republicans have abandoned the same ground, which he offered, viz. : their essential principles, when all their ma- Resolved, That, in the opinion of the Senate, it is chinery is leveled against Slavery? He expedient that the President withdraw all Federal would be glad to see the Republicans driven | troops from the States of South Carolina, Georgia,






Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Louis- enforcement, whether under the name of iana, and abstain from all attempts to collect rev- anti-coercion or any other name, is disunion; enues in these States."

and that it is the duty of the President to Both resolutions were laid over, to be de- use all the means in his power to hold and bated the day following. The wish to ad- protect the public property of the United journ made many Senators unwilling to States, and enforce the laws thereof, as well consider the resolutions at length, fearing a in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, protracted debate on the question of advis- Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and ing and directing the President.

Texas, as within the other States of the On Thursday (March 28th) Trumbull, of Union. Illinois, introduced a resolution declaring This was briefly discussed, but the desire that, in the opinion of the Senate, the true to adjourn overrode this and the other resoway to preserve the Union is to enforce the lutions introduced. The Senate adjourned laws of the Union; that resistance to their sine die at four o'clock.





Cabinet discussion of

The news from Washing- tion was first presented, they agree as to the the question of ton, March 14th, was calcu- stern necessity which is urged as the only Evacuation.

lated to excite profound justification for a recourse which, in the best interest. A dispatch stated: “Two sessions aspect, seems to involve a certain degree of of the Cabinet have been held upon the national humiliation. The unity of the Cabifinal determination concerning Fort Sumter. net, however, will not be affected by the opThe first met at 10 o'clock and adjourned posing views on this subject, which has now at 1, and reconvened at 4 and adjourned at assumed a shape that admits of but one solu7. It is well understood that there is a dle- tion, for which General Scott and his military cided difference of opinion among the mem- associates are wholly responsible. Nothing bers on this question, which first found ex- remains now to be done after these concluding pression at the conference on Saturday night, deliberations, but to issue the formal orders, when the military reports, advising the with- which have been approved by the bighest drawal, were submitted. That difference authority. The particular mode of withwas emphasized to day in very positive terms, drawing Major Anderson's force has yet to be and led to a protracted discussion. While determined. General Scott's inclination, two members of the Cabinet disagree as to this days ago, was to send them to New York by policy, and have done so since the proposi- steamer, which would save the necessity of


passing through Charleston. That purpose sponsibility” even though the course pursued may, however, be changed before the last was not in consenance with that advised by order is given. No messenger has yet been bis Cabinet or expected by the public. The sent to Major Anderson in regard to this mat- Sumter complication illustrated this self-reliter, as the newspapers have reported. He ance, in a remarkable manner. When the has, however, been prepared for a decisive country had, apparently, made up its mind communication from the War Department, to see the beleaugered band of loyalists march since he made a detailed report last week, out of the fastness which kept the sacrilegeshowing the limited stock of supplies in Fort ous horde of Union-breakers at bay, the Sumter.”

President was silent. Day and night the This states the condition of the question of deed was present to his mind; and slowly, as evacuation, so far as related to the discussions the biscuits and meat of the garrison prowithin the Cabinet. The withdrawal of the vision-chest grew low day by day, the thought garrison having been determined upon, as a took form which was to give him the hearts ** military necessity," it seemingly only re- and hands of a united people in exchange for mained for the President to permit the dis- the loss of that fastness, at once the Key to patch of the order for evacuation to be sent Charleston and the portal of hope to the lover to consummate the step declared necessary. of his country. The public in the Northern States became Whatever was to be the fortune of Sumter, reconciled to the decision, so far as its intense it became apparent that the remaining forts feeling would permit. Still, there were not in possession of the General Government were wanting many who regarded the surrender to be retained, at all hazards. The statements

of the post, under menace, made by Senator Clingmau, in the debate on Opposition to an

not only as a national hu- the message, that warlike preparations were

miliation, but as a positive going on at the Navy Yard, were not without confession of the weakness of the Goverment. foundation. Several vessels, as early as March By this class the evacuation was pronounced 10th, had passed South to reinforce those a virtual surrender to revolution. In the fortifications still in the hands of the GovernSenate the decision found several most ment troops. Sumter alone seemed left to its uncompromising opponents among them solitary fate. Pickens, un

Condition of Fort Wade, of Ohio, Wilson, of Massachusetts, der command of Lieutenant and Trumbull, of Illinois—all of whom freely Slemmer, was rapidly apexpressed their opposition to the withdrawal proaching a state of efficiency for action. of Major Anderson. Whatever may have That gallant officer had, by bis loyalty, saved been their influence with the President, if the fortress from the hands of the revolutionany, it is certain that the Executive did not ists. When those in command at the Navy accede to the “military necessity,” for days Yard were rejoicing over the hauling down grew into weeks, and yet the missive of hu- of the Stars and Stripes, he had hastily evacumiliation did not go forth.

ated Fort McRae, and, passing over to PickIn this instance, and in ens, there resolved to resist the conspirators others of eminent and vital to the last. His conduct stands out in satis

importance, the President factory contrast to that of Commander showed a quiet and cautious independence Farrand, and Lieutenant Renshaw. After of judgment which rendered it certain that the occupancy of Pickens, the little force at the Chief Magistrate was one of those men his command were put to the severcst labor having both a will and a way of his own. in rendering the fortress tenable. In this he Solicitous for the opinions of those best quali- was assisted by marines from the vessels-offied to give advice, patient in obtaining in- war lying off in the harbor. By March 15th formation, watchful of the currents of public the fort was deemed capable of resisting the feeling, Mr. Lincoln was slow in forming his assault then hourly threatened by General judgment; but, when once the way seemed Bragg, the Confederate commander, who, for clear, he did not hesitate to “ assume the re-weeks, bad been making extensive prepara


The President's De






Condition of Fort


Fort Sumter.

tions for forcing Slemmer of the important positions at Key West and
out of the Santa Rosa for- the Tortugas. [See vol. I. page 368.]
tress. It was reported from Several messengers from

Messengers to Washington, March 16th, that the fort was in the Federal authorities to vested by thirteen full batteries, including Fort Sumter appeared in Forts McRae and Barrancas, which command- Charleston during the middle and latter part ed not only Pickens but the offing. At that of March. Surgeon Fox, of the United States date the steam corvette Brooklyn, and the sail- Navy, was dispatched by Mr. Lincoln, and ing frigate Sabine, were lying off the port with passed over to Sumter, “ by special permisreinforcements on board. No attempts were sion of the South Carolina authorities,” to made to land the troops, however, since the inspect the savitary condition of the fort, as rebel commander threatened to open fire well as to confer privately with Major Anon the vessels and on Pickens, if the rein- derson; but the attendance of Captain Hartforcement was attempted. But, the night- stene prevented the desired private conferly mission of small boats which put off, ence. with muffled oars, to the outside of Santa Colonel G. W. Lay, of General Scott's staff, Rosa island, gave the brave Lieutenant good appeared at Charleston March 20th, and had cheer and helping hands, and when the a long interview with Governor Pickens and middle of the month had passed, the fortress General Beauregard, understood to be in was prepared for the threatened bombard- reference to terms of evacuation, and the ment. Beside the Brooklyn and Sabine, the disposition of the armament of the fort, Wyandotte and several sloops-of-war were un should the Federal Government order the derstood to be present, prepared to render surrender of the fortress. effective service. This powerful array un

March 25th, Colonel Lamon, as a special doubtedly prevented the assault; and the messenger of the President, arrived in Charlesthree thousand Confederates, with “souls on

ton. After an interview with the authorfire for the fray,'' all under command of a ities, he passed over to the fort. His visit redoubtable officer, were compelled to wit- was announced as one of " pacification.” He ness the old flag's morning salute, without had an unrestricted interview with Major the power

to banish it from their sight. The Anderson, whom he found in good spirits, presence of a strong naval force at that point, and with provisions enough to hold out to with reinforcements, was one of the acts April 15th. He returned to Washington which marked the brief term of Secretary the Southern States ! The North had the heavy Holt's service. To his orders, to that dis- guns, the light arms, the powder and ball, just as position of the vessels-of-war, as well as to the North had everything else that belonged to the Slemmer's efficiency, does the country owe common Government. How quietly were the salvation of Pickens,* and the retention shifted from our soil who might have been here

to-day to murder us at Abraham Lincoln's order. * The service which his predecessor, John B. How slender the garrisons became in Southern forts Floyd, rendered to the cause of disunion and treason, which were made for us, and belong to nobody else, was thus set forth by the Atlanta (Geo.) Confederacy, but which a savage enemy now chafes and rages to of March 16th. :

get possession of! Who sent 37,000 stand of arms "But for the foresight, and firmness, and patriotic to Georgia? How came 60,000 more prime deathprovidence of John B. Floyd, in what stress and dealing rifles at Jackson, Miss.? And, in short, why peril would the Cotton States be foundering this have we anything at all in the South to mail the day! He saw the inevitable doom of the Union, or strong hands of the sons of the South with at this the doom of his own people. For many months hour, when every heart, and head, and arm of her past, from his stand-point, he had an extended field children is needed in her defense ? Truth demands of vision, which enabled him to see the great danger it of us to declare that we owe to John B. Floyd an which threatened us, but which was hid below the eternal tribute of gratitude for all this. Had he horizon from the eyes of most of us. When his been less the patriot than he was, we might now faithful loyalty to his own persecuted people began have been disarmed and at the mercy of a nation of its labors in our defense, in what à condition were cut-throats and plunderers."

men A “ Conservative"

March 26th, reporting unfavorably to rein- | but this will be, at present, our main topic. Four forcements. All the schemes devised for millions of immortal beings, incapable of self-care, throwing supplies into the beleaguered for and indisposed to industry and foresight, are provitress Mr. Lamon reported to be impractica-dentially committed to the hands of our Southern ble-an opinion which Major Anderson, also, from them if they would. Emancipation, were it

friends. This stupendous trust they cannot pat was understood to entertain.

possible, would be rebellion against Providence, and The several reports of these messengers destruction to the colored race in our land. We at seemed to leave no alternative but the with the North rid ourselves of no responsibility by asdrawal of the little band from Charleston. suming an attitude of hostility to Slavery, and thus The order for evacuation was hourly look- sundering the bonds of State fellowship; we only put ed for by the country, as well as by An- it out of our power to do the good which both huderson himself. But, the days wore into manity and religion demand ; should we not rather weeks, and that order was not given. The recognize the Providence of God, in his placing such

a vast multitude of the degraded and dependent interest in the garrison became hourly more

sons of Africa in this favored land, and cheerfully painful. The crisis was approaching. The

co-operate, by all needful labors and sacrifices, with national pulse seemed to stand still for the His benevolent design to save, and not to destroy word that was to declare the fate of the Re-them? Under a Providential dispensation, lifting public.

them up from the degradation and miseries of indoAs showing something of the spirit of a lence and vice, and exacting of them due and needvery large and influential class of citizens of ful labor, they can certainly be trained and nurthe North, at this juncture, we may mention tured, as many have been, for the services and joys the existence of a Society organized in New of heaven; and if the climate and institutions of the York under the presidency of Prof. Samuel South are such that our fellow-citizens there can

F. B. Morse. It represented afford to take the onervus care of them, in return the commercial interests

for their services, should we not gladly consent? Organization.

They freely concede to us our conscientious convicmore particularly--among

tions, our rights, and all our privileges; should we its chief corporators being found the names

not as freely concede to them theirs? Why should of several eminent mercharts, while the New

we contend? Why paralyze business, turn thou. York Journal of Commerce became its“ sands of the industrious and worthy poor out of em. gan." The society was called the “Amer ployment, sunder the last ties of affection that can ican Society for promoting National Unity." bind those States together, destroy our once prosIt held its first session in New York, March perous and happy nation, and perhaps send multi6th, and put forth its plea in a “programme,” | tudes to premature graves—and all for what? Is which was a singular commixture of religion, not such a course a struggle of arrogant assumption politics and commerce—all directed against against the Providence of the Most High ? and, if "Abolitionism,” the great prime demoral- persisted in, will it not surely bring down his heavy

and prolonged judgments upon us ?” izer and disorganizer. We may quote from

This religio-commercial enterprise did not, this document as one of those “signs of the times” which indicated how cleverly com

we may state, attract any particular atten

tion, although strongly indorsed and susmerce and religion could hob-nob with

tained by that powerful organ of the PresbySatan, when he threatened to disturb their

terian (Old School) denomination, the New quiet and their profits :

York Observer. The great tide of public “We believe that the time has come when such feeling was sweeping insensibly onward, evil teachings (abolitionism) should be firmly and boldly confronted, not by the antagonisms of doubt against the old barriers where property in ful and perishable weapons, but by the Word of

man was intrenched; and those subservient God, which liveth and abideth forever,' as expound servants who ordained the “ American Soed by a broad and faithful recognition of his moral ciety for promoting National Urity," by and providential government over the world. It is fighting the battles of the propagandists with with this view that we propose an organized Scriptural weapons, daily became less poeffort, &c., &c.

tential. We advert to the organization sim“Our attention will not be confined to Slavery, ply as one of the last religious efforts to


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