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Eleventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Jarrett. | seat of war to the Potomac. Thenceforward
hills and valleys to echo with the tramp of A Sixth brigade was afterwards (June 234) added, com- armed hosts, and the blood of men to crimposed of three regiments from the Fifth brigade, (the last
son all its streams. three named,) and U. S. infantry and a battery. This was given to Brigadier-General Abercrombie. General Negley's
Cadwalader, with six
Williamsport brigade was filled up with newly arrived Western regiments. thousand men, remained
menaced. The First brigade, Gene- at Williamsport, whose Crossing the
ral Thomas, moved direct heights he fortified. Johnston soon pressed
upon Williamsport, cross- down upon the river at that point. General ing the Potomac at that point, by wading, Jackson (rebel) occupied the peninsula in on the morning of the 16th. This passage strong force, with reserves distributed ng was made as preparatory to the march upon the approaches. Reenforcements direct from Martinsburg, where, it was understood, the Richmond were sent to Winchester, which enemy still lingered. General Cadwalader's point the Confederates had resolved to retain. division moved over the river at the same Harper's Ferry they evacuated, the Richmond point shortly after the passage by Thomas. press stated, because it was a mere trap too Governor Sprague accompanied the Rhode dangerous to hold.” Island battery. General Williams' brigade The withdrawal of the Federal forces was encamped at Williamsport on the afternoon stated to have been a strategic movement orof the 16th. Governor Hicks, of Maryland, dered by Scott, designed to draw the rebel was with Patterson during the 16th, and co- main body from its concentration toward operated with the General in making the dis- : Williamsport, thus to aid McClellan's moveposition.
ments toward Romney, while Patterson could These movements were move the more readily over the river at & Retrograde Move
countermanded, however, point below Williamport.
by the Commanding-Gen- Patterson, however, exeral, and the several brigades recrossed the 'plicitly stated (see his dePotomac on the 18th, encamping at Will- fense given in the Appeniamsport. Their disposition was then mate- dix] that the retrograde was ordered because rially changed-the Rhode Island regiment, Scott had not made the demonstration prom(Colonel Burnside,) the Rhode Island battery, ised toward Manassas; but had, on the other and all the U. S. regulars of Thomas' brigade, band, ordered him (Patterson) to send to being ordered on to Washington. Patter- : Washington, at once, all the regulars, horse son's position at Hagerstown, for the moment, and foot, and the Rhode Island regiment and remained unchanged. The rebels, taking battery, with further command for him (Patheart at this counter movement, again infest- terson) to keep within his then limits, &c. ed the opposite banks of the Potomac, in
Patterson, in the document referred to, large bodies. A troop of three hundred re- gives a somewhat detailed statement of his visited Harper's Ferry to render more com- manæuvres and movements up to and his plete their work of destruction. Everywhere final occupation of Harper's Ferry. It was Union men who had not already fled were not until the morning of July 2d that the seized and carried off within the Confederate Potomac was again crossed. Williamsport lines. Terror sat enthroned throughout that again was chosen as the point—why, is not lately peaceful and prosperous land. Treason explained. The troops consisted of the folhad made good its words,* to transfer the lowing regiments, now brigaded and reor
ganized anew : The people of the Gulf States need have no apprehension; they might go on with their planting ard their other business as usual ; the war would
Brevet Major-General George Cadwalader, commanding,
consisting of First, Third and Fourth brigades. not come to their section : its theatre would be along the borders of the Ohio Rwer and in Virginia."—How
Colonel George H. Thomas, Second U. S. cavalry, con ell Cobb's Speech.
manding, consisting of four companies U. S. Cavalry and
THE FIG IT NEAR MARTINSBURG.
of the Potomac.
First Philadelphia city troops, Cap. of things, expected to do, having Governor tain James ; battalion of artillery
Curtin and Governor Hicks for his support. and infantry, Major Doubleday ; First Rhode Island regiment and battery, Colonel Burnside ; Sixth Pennsylvania The fact that he had in his front an active, regiment, Colonel Nagle ; Twenty-Årst Pennsylvania regi- vigilant and determined antagonist, should ment, Colonel Ballier ; Twenty-third do., Colonel Dare.
have made him self-reliant, quick to strike,
tenacious to hold, and ready for any emerBrigadier-General E. C. Williams, commanding, consisting
gency. Scott and the Secretary of War of Seventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Irwin; Eighth do., Colonel Emley ; Tenth do., Colonel Meredith; would have offered little opposition to a Twentieth (Scott Legion) do., Colonel Gray.
campaign thus waged; and, such a campaign
they positively enjoined. Colonel D. S. Miles, U. S. infantry, commanding, consisting The first attempt at a of Second and Third U. S infantry, Major Sheppard ; Ninth
The Second Crossing
second advance was made Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Longnecker ; Thirteenth do., Colonel Rowley ; Sixteenth do., Colonel Zeigle.
at Sheppard's Ford, two
miles below dam No. 4. The tow-path was SECOND DIVISION.
cut down for the easy passage of the men, Major-General William H. Keim, commanding, consisting of the Second and Fifth brigades.
guns; the opposite bank
was attained by the advance companies, Brigadier-General G. C. Wynkoop, commanding, consisting when it was discovered that the ascent into of First Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Yobe ; Second do.,
Virginia territory was there too steep to be Colonel Stambaugh ; Fourth do., Colonel Minier ; Twenty. fourth do., Colonel Owen.
practicable. The troops therefore all march
ed back again and took up a position around Brigadier-General Negley, commanding, consisting of Four-Williamsport: from whence they advanced teenth Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Johnston ; Fifteenth early on the morning of July 2d. No oppodo., Colonel Qakford.
sition was offered until the three brigades of
Abercrombie, Thomas and Negley had crossColonel Abercrombie, commanding, consisting of First
ed. The enemy, under General Jackson, Wisconsin regiment, Colonel Starkweather ; Fourth Connecticut regiment, Colonel Woodhouse ; Eleventh Pennsylvania
were in good position on the Peninsula, at regiment, Colonel Jarrett ; and probably Major Doubleday's Porterfield's farm, near Haynesville. There artillery will be attached.
they received the Federal assault, which was The change noticeable in this reorganiza- made by Abercrombie with
Fight Near Martinstion shows how temporary was every order the First Wisconsin and -how illy defined were the movements of Eleventh Pennsylvaniawith the army, and how imperfectly means were such spirit that, after a sharp but brief conadapted to ends. Here was a large body of test, Jackson's men fell back toward Marmen moving with an imperfectly defined ob- tinsburg, and soon retreated to Bunker Hill ject into an enemy's country, having only twelve miles toward Winchester. Pattersix guns. The strength and disposition of son then asked for reenforcements to follow the enemy apparently were unknown, and, up his blow by an advance upon Winchester, by Patterson's own confession, no special where Johnston was understood to be in point of attack or plan of campaign had been strong force-say fifteen thousand men, with definitively arranged in his own mind. Pat- proper artillery. Pending the arrival of reterson had men enough for bold, dashing, enforcements, Martinsburg was occupied, effective work; and such work, without de- while the advance brigades pushed out for tailed orders, Scott evidently expected him several miles beyond, on the Winchester to perform — leaving to the General com- road. These were afterwards withdrawn to manding, to a great degree, the duty of find- Martinsburg, and the army kept in close ing his own equipments, providing his own order, apprehending, as Patterson did, a visitransportation, creating his own depots of sup- tation from Jackson and Johnston. The plies, organizing his own reserves from reen- rebel pickets pressed the Federal lines closely, forcements to be had for the asking. He and picket skirmishes became frequent. must, of course, have assumed some respon
Reenforcements began to reach Martinssibility; but, that he was, in the very nature burg rapidly after the 7th of July, on which
An Advance Coun
day General Stone's column, I thing less was required of him. Keep John
about twenty-six hundred ston engaged that he should not reenforce strong, reached Williamsport. It consisted Beauregard at Manassas. He offered no atof the Seventeenth Pennsylvania volunteers, tack, pushed no material advance, made no (artillery,) Colonel F. E. Patterson; the Ninth feints to confuse and distribute the enemy, New York regiment, Colonel Styles ; the First who remained at WinchesNew Hampshire regiment, Colonel Tappan, ter and Bunker Hill closely and a portion of the. Twenty-fifth Penn- compacted ready for any sylvania regiment, Colonel Coke. The Nine- sudden movement that emergencies might teenth and Twenty-eighth New York soon require. These are the simple facts of the followed. These forces were soon added to last twelve days of Patterson's campaign. Patterson's division, giving him about twen- | They should have been days of great achievety-five thousand men. The Rhode Island ment. His troops, whose terms of enlistment battery, detached by orders of Scott, was expired on or near the 20th of July, panted restored, and assumed its place in the bri- for action, prayed for it, begged for it; yet gade of Thomas. The First and Third the eager men, and no less eager officers, rePennsylvania and the First Rhode Island turned home, having seen no enemy. Only also came forward and took their division Abercrombie's two regiments, McMullin's ranpositions.
gers and Perkins' battery had “ smelt pow. Orders for an advance der.” Such a waste of energy, of fine miliwere issued July 7th. The tary force, of patriotic ardor, were enough to
orders, as announced, were excite the storm of scorn and indignation for a movement by two divisions—the First wbich swept over the country after the Geneunder Cadwalader to take the Winchester ral's failure became apparent. turnpike, the Second under Keim to take a The Richmond Inquirer of July 10th anparallel road a short distance further to the nounced the withdrawal to Winchester of east. The First and Third Pennsylvania Johnston's force from Bunker Hill and the were to remain at Martinsburg as guard to road to Martinsburg, giving as a chief reathe depot of stores. This advance was not son that Patterson had intrenched himself made-why, we are left to surmise. Patter- behind the women and children of Martinsson, in his defense, stated that, on the 8th burg, whom he refused to send away at Johnof July, a council of officers was called and ston's request. A correspondent, writing an advance voted against. He said : from Martinsburg under date of July 14th,
“ Colonel Stone, the junior line officer, spoke stated other, and, unquestionably, the true, twice and decidedly against an advance, advocating reasons for the rebel retrograde: "It is said," a direct movement to Shephardstown and Charles- he wrote, “that General Patterson believes
All who spoke opposed an advance, and all that the retreat of the enemy is a mere ruse voted against one. On the same day he informed
to draw him on; but, if Johnston succeeds the General-in-Chief of the condition of affairs in the in drawing our General into an ambuscade, valley, and proposed that he should go to Charles
he will have to draw harder than he ever town and occupy Harper's Ferry, and asked to be informed when he would attack Manassas. On the
before drew in his life. The truth, apparent 12th he was directed to go where he had proposed, to most observers, is, that Johnston considers and informed that Manassas would be attacked on
this force too strong for him, which, accordTuesday, the 16th."
ing to all accounts of his strength, it certainly In this interval is written the history of is, and, therefore, very properly retreats. the disaster to our arms at Bull Run. It was There is no mystery in it; and, as for us, I not in the power, nor province, of Patterson's can see no reason whatever to surmise any subordinates to say whether or not an ad-deep-laid plan to circumvent. It certainly vance should be made. Their duty was to is time to test that question.” This, written obey, and Patterson's duty was to fulfill or- as early as the 14th, when there yet was time ders from Washington, which were — keep to fall with crushing force on the enemy, or Johnston engaged. Nothing more nor any- to keep him diverted, may be regarded as
the view of an observer who expressed the The object of this movement was thus stacurrent army opinion,
ted by one apparently properly informed: July 13th a company of artillery and two “ The deflection towards this place is doubtless of Doubleday's guns marched back to Will- based upon the idea that, to continue overland iamsport-affording any prowling band of transportation from Hagerstown by way of Williamsrebel scouts a fine opportunity to secure two port and Martinsburg towards Winchester, a dis
tance of forty-one miles, would require too heavy a good pieces of artillery. July 14th they march
force to guard the route. By seizing upon this point ed back to Martinsburg. July 14th Negley's General Patterson obtains possession of the Winbrigade, tired of its inaction, obtained leave chester and Potomac Railroad from this point to to move off toward Harper's Ferry, to occupy Harper's Ferry, and however limited its capacity that deserted and ruined position. It was
may be for transportation, it will save the wear and accompanied by one battery of light artillery. rear and delay attendant on the slow movements of
July 17th the quiet at a couple of hundred wagons. Besides, all necessary
Bunker Hill (occupied after supplies can be brought by the Baltimore and Ohio Johnston's withdrawal to Winchester) was
road from Baltimore to Sandy Hook, one mile from broken by the long looked-for order--for the ferry. By taking this materiel of war one mile up
the Chesapeake and Ohio canal they can be taken uard! The men exultingly flew to arms.
across the breast of the Government dam, or, indeed, Those whose three months' term had nearly
most of them can be boated or cross in scows to the or quite expired thought no more of a re
wharf just above the desolate looking piers of the turn home, but readily joined in the move
burnt railroad bridge. Thus a nearer and more cerment. They were only too rejoiced to
tain base of suplies is had and a most essential elea little glory” before disbandment.* For- ment of success. Moreover, a larger amount of men uard! The quick response, the shouts of. can be thrown forward from here to the point where pleasure, the songs, the rapid striking of the real battle is to be fought." tents, packing of knapsacks, deployment into All of which, as well as Patterson's own brigade line proved to the commanding offi- version of his movements, failed to convince cer, if proof were wanting, that, to take Win- | the public that that studied avoidance of the chester, he only had to lead.
enemy accomplished anything but the defeat "Forward! file left!” of the entire object of the expedition and the occupied.
ran along the anks. The loss of our movement against Manassas. From
Winchester road was de Charlestown he hastily fell back upon Harserted and left far to the right. Away the per's Ferry, with his entire force, after the ranks moved and teams followed, to the east, Bull Run disaster. along the road to Charlestown. Winchester He learned, le so stated, was not to be assailed, and the troops again that Johnston started on the
Campaign. were to be baffled in their hope. Murmurs, 20th in a southeasterly dicurses, threats in sub-tones run along the lines. rection, with thirty-five thousand troops and The liilarity was all gone. The music ceased a large artillery force. This left him no eneto play. The hot tramp became monotonous. my to tight, except the guerrillas; but, the From the ardor of soldierly emulation to the news reaching him on the 22d, that all had indifference of listlessness the change had been lost by Johnston's reenforcement of been complete. Charlestown was occupied Beauregard, the order to evacuate Charlesat noon (17th), without opposition. Colonel town and Martinsburg was soon given, and Yohe
, with the First Pennsylvania from Mar- the army was hurried 10 Harper's Ferry. tinsburg, conducting the provision train from Patterson was supersedthence, came into Charlestown on the 18th.
ed July 25th, by Major* The General, in his defense, makes a strong
General Banks, who was point of his lack of confidence in his troops, who, he relieved of the command at Baltimore to asstates, were unwilling to tarry over their time, &c. sume the responsible duty of averting the It is proven by a multitude of witnesses that the impending disaster to the army at Harper's men were chagrined at inaction, not disinclined to Ferry, whither the rebels were then pressing. over-service if it would sbow them the enemy.
He arrived at the Ferry to find a fast disin
Failure of the
tegrating and dissatisfied army awaiting his | imputed to the old chief; but, the public will command. Patterson immediately withdrew, be slow to believe such imputations, withon not tarrying cven a few hours after Banks' the corroborative evidence of official docuassumption of the command. His absence ments. The evidence cited by Mr. Chandler, was not a matter of concern.
of Michigan, in his Military Expose, maile in If we have commented on this campaign the U. S. Senate July 16th, is, apparently, with some severity, it is because a careful ex- conclusive on the points raiséđ—of Patter. amination of the voluminous evidence offered son's responsibility for the defeat of McDowell in regard to its conduct has failed to produce at Bull Run; and, it is not probable any eviany satisfactory excuse for the inefficiency dence is in existence to disprove the plain which characterized it at almost every step. statements before the Committee of InvestiThe archives of the War Department may gation which made the defeat a subject of exonerate Patterson, and may fix upon Gene- inquiry. [See Appendix, page 494, for Chanral Scott the blame which Patterson plainly dler's citations, see also page 271.)
July 4.-Extra session of the Federal Congress. July 10.--Battle of Laurel Hill, Va. McClellan's
July 5.— The President's Message delivered. It ty-five prisoners and one gun secured.
lan's forces, under General Rosecrans, composed of
— The U. S. Senate expelled from that body the Fremont placed in command.
members from Virginia, North Carolina, Texas, Ar
kansas and Nicholson from Tennessee. -Desperate dash at Middle York bridge, Va. Forty-five men of the Third Ohio, on & scout, cut
July 12- Surrender to MoClellan of Colonel Pe. their way through 250 rebels.
gram and 600 troops, at Beverly, together with can:
non, tents, stores, &c. July 8.--Skirmish at Bird's Point, Mo. Rebel loss, 3 killed and 8 wounded.- Rebels routed at Bealing mish near Newport News. Union scouts (12) cap
-The rebels routed at Barboursville, Va.-Skirton, Va.-Rebel camp at Florida, Mo., broken up.
tured by the rebels. - Arrival of a flag of truce from Jefferson Davis, covering a bearer of dispatches to President Lin.
July 13.-General Garnett forced to a stand dear coln. The dispatches consist of a letter threaten. St. George, Va., (at Carricksford,) by McClellan's ing retaliation if any “privateer” is hung.
advance, under General Morris and Captain Ben-