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The campaign in West- | stained from sending troops Purposes of the Cam.
ern Virginia had two ob- across the Ohio, or even from paign.
jects in view ; 1st, to assist posting them along its banks, in the development of the Union movement, although frequently urged by many of your prom. by keeping out the emissaries and bayonets inent citizens to do so.
“ It determined to await the result of the State of the Confederates; 2d, to force the rebels backward from the Potonnac and thus relieve election, desirous that no one might be able to say,
that the slightest effort had been made from this the Baltimore and Ohio railway, which was
side to influence the free expression of your opinfast becoming a necessary highway for the ions, although the many agencies brought to bear transport of troops and to supply Washington upon you by the rebels were well known. You with army subsistence. The Governors of have now shown, under the most adverse circumthe several Western States convened at Cleve- stances, that the great mass of the people of Western land, Ohio, early in May, to arrange for con- Virginia are true and loyal to that beneficent Gov. cert of action in the peril which at that time ernment under which we and our fathers have lived seemed particularly to threaten the West and so long. As soon as the result of the election its great avenues of commerce—the Ohio and was known, the traitors commenced their work of Mississippi rivers. As a result of their de- destruction. The General Government can not liberations they requested Government to or
close its ears to the demand you have made for as. ganize the Department of the Ohio. This sistance. I have troops to cross the river. They
come as your friends and brothers; as enemies only wish was acceded to immediately, and Gene
to armed rebels who are preying upon you. Your ral McClellan placed in command by orders homes, your families, and your property are safe of May 10th. [See page 143.]
under our protection. All your rights shall be reThe campaign opened ligiously respected. May 26th, when McClellan
“Notwithstanding all that has been said by the issued his first proclama- traitors to induce you to believe our advent among tion. It read:
you will be signalized by an interference with “ HEAD , h, OHIO,} your slaves, understand one thing clearly : Not only CINCINNATI, May 26th, 1861.
will we abstain from all each interference, but we “ To the Union Men of Western Virginia :
will, on the contrary, with an iron hand, crush any " VIRGINIANS: The General Government has long attempt at insurrection on their part. enough endured the machinations of a few factious
“Now that we are in your midst, I call upon you rebels in your midst. Armed traitors have in vain endeavored to deter you from expressing your loy- to fly to arms and support the General Government; alty at the polls. Having failed in this infamous
sever the connection that binds you to traitors ; pro attempt to deprive you of the exercise of your dear
claim to the world that the faith and loyalty so long est rights, they now seek to inaugurate a reign of boasted by the Old Dominion are still preserved in terror, and thus force you to yield to their schemes,
Western Virginia, and that you remain true to the and submit to the yoke of the traitorous conspiracy,
Stars and Stripes. G. B. MCCLELLAN, dignified by the name of the Southern Confederacy.
“Major-General Commanding." They are destroying the property of citizens of your This was followed by an Address to the State, and ruining your magnificent railways. The army, calculated still further to reassure the General Government has heretofore carefully ab- loyal Virginians that their persons, property
The Rebel Rout at
and rights would be re- and necessary repairs, did not reach the place Address to his Troops.
spected. It was worded : until Thursday morning, when six companies SOLDIERS :—You are ordered to cross the fron. under Colonel Kelley, occupied the enemy's tier, and to enter on the soil of Virgina. Your mis. late quarters. On Friday the rest of the two sion is to restore peace and confidence ; to protect regiments came in. This advance was the majesty of the law, and to secure our brethren rapidly followed by the Fifteenth Ohio, from the grasp of armed traitors. I place under the
Colonel Dickey; Sixth Indiana, Colonel Critsafeguard of your honor the persons and property of
tenden, and Seventh Indiana, Colonel Dumont, the Virginians. I know you will respect their feel
while the forces hurried up from Parkersburg ings and all their rights, and will preserve the strict.
to the junction. est discipline.
McClellan ordered the “ Remember, that each one of you holds in his keeping the honor of Ohio and the Union. If you surprise of Philippi by a
Philippi. are called to overeomne armed opposition, I know forced march. Brigadieryour courage is equal to the task. Remember that General Morris arranged the plan of the er. your only foes are armed traitors. Show mercy even pedition. On the night of June 20, two dito them, when in your power, for many of them are visions of two regiments each, started for the misguided.
point of attack--one by way of Webster, un“ When, under your protection, the loyal men of der command of Colonel Dumont, consisting Western Virginia have been enabled to organize and of eight companies of the Seventh Indiana, four form until they can protect themselves, you can re
companies of the Fourteenth Ohio, Colopel turn to your homes, with the proud satisfaction of Steedman, with his artillery under command having preserved a gallant people from destruction."
of Lieutenant-Colonel Sturgis, assisted by Prior to the issue of these Colonel Lander, who volunteered for the enOccupation of documents, everything had
terprise. The second division, under combeen arranged for the ad- mand of Colonel Kellogg, comprised the First vance. Colonel Kelley, in command at Camp Virginia, and companies from the Sixteenth Carlisle, in Ohio, opposite Wheeling, gave . Ohio and Seventh Indirna. This body moved the word of command for the onward move
east by way of Thornton, thence south to Phiment, Sunday evening, (May 26th,) by read- lippi (twenty-two miles) by a rapid march. ing the Proclamation and Address.
It was a most wretched night for such an The announcement was received with wild enterprise. The darkness was intense; the huzzas by the troops. Monday morning the mud was deep; the wind and rain drove advance, composed of the First Virginia vol. against the ranks like invisible hands to reunteers, passed into Virginia eleven hundred strain their march. Kelley's men, having the strong, and, at seven o'clock, were en route longer route to pursue, did not reach the rear for Grafton, a place of some strategic impor- of Philippi at the time named--four o`clock tance, lying at the junction of the Baltimore A, M. Dumont and Lander arrived in season and Ohio and the Northwestern Virginia and awaited Kelley's appearance on the railways. The First Virginia was followed southern side of the town to cut off the eneimmediately by the Sixteenth Ohio volunteers, my's retreat when routed by the front attack. Colonel Irvine. The Fourteenth Ohio, Colo- The enemy soon became aware of the Fednel Steedman, at the same time crossed the eral presence, when great commotion followriver at Marietta, and occupied Parkersburg, ed in his camps. A hasty retreat was, evithe western terminus of the Northwestern ' dently, proposed. Lander, impatient at this railroad.
threatened loss of his game, ordered the arThe rebels, then in possession of Grafton, tillery to open, from its commanding posihad arranged for a descent on Wheeling; but tion, while Dumont with his fine infantry hastily evacuated on the night of Monday, rushed up the road, across the bridge, and having previously destroyed railway bridges into the town to sweep the rebels before him. and culverts, and placed obstructions on the Lander, like a Saladin, could endure no dis track at several points to the west of Grafton.' tant view of the fight. Leaving the artillery The Federals, detained by broken bridges to be served by Sturgis, he dashed down the
of Both Parties.
almost precipice front of the | As a consequence, the Unionists were subThe Rebel Rout at
hill, and, in a moment, was jected to many perils and persecutions. Philippi.
flying like a spirit of de- Great numbers of them fled to Grafton, Phistruction before all into the town, followed by lippi and Wheeling-forsaking their homes the shouting men. A brief struggle only fol- to escape conscription or arrest. lowed. The dismayed enemy, under Colonel
The Federal forces rap
Subsequent Activity Porterfield, for a moment staggered under idly augmented at Grafton the artillery fire, then fled with precipitancy and vicinity during June, to the south. Colonel Kelley*3 force came with a view to compass the enemy and up at the opportune moment, and fell upon press him from the strongholds he was the retreat with all the zeal which the almost disposed to retain. Colonel Steedman's spent strength of the wearied men would al- regiment moved forward on the 14th to low. Kelley himself led in the pursuit, and Buckhannon, to protect the Union men of was struck down by a pistol-shot from the that place, but again fell back, finding the Confederate Assistant-Quartermaster. Lan- danger of being cut off too imminent. The der, seeing the act, alone rushed in upon a rebels were exceedingly active. Great numsurrounding company of the enemy and drove bers of reenforcements came in from the Capthe assassin into a fence corner. His friends ital. Ex-Governor Wise was placed in chief rallied for a rescue, but Lander, with his two command in Western Virginia. Colonel Peunspent revolvers, confronted them so like a gram was detailed to fortify the position on Nemesis that none dared to come within his Rich Mountain. General Garnett was at range. A squad of Kelley's men soon came Laurel Hill. Rumors were frequent of ad- 6 up, and would have bayoneted the rebel on vances and surprises. Scouts and spies lurkthe spot had not Lander declared that he ed everywhere, in all guises, and both friend would protect a prisoner of war with his and foe were fully informed of each other's life. He was as merciful and just in victory doings. The rebels designed a bold push as brave and terrible in battle. [Kelley, shot for the occupancy of Cumberland, thus to through the lungs, was pronounced, by the outflank McClellan's advance and to “ carry surgeons, mortally wounded ; but after weeks the war into Yankee Doodledom”-as the of suffering, the brave man and excellent com- Richmond papers facetiously said was their mander was again in the field at the head of true policy. Notwithstanding Colonel Lew. a brigade.] The Union loss was two killed Wallace’s bold dash into Romney, June 11thi, and Colonel Kelley wounded. The rebel loss the rebel forces infested the region round was sixteen killed and ten prisoners. about in strong force ; and the evacuation
The enemy's camp contained much store (by them) of Harper's Ferry (June 14th) was of provisions, clothing and munitions, and followed by rapid dashes to the west, as if seven hundred and forty-nine stand of arms, putting out “ feelers” in anticipation of their all of which were secured. Porterfield re- arranged movement in force to the North. treated to Beverly, thence to Huttonsville, Piedmont, near the Maryland line, on the whither the Confederate leaders soon center- Baltimore and Ohio Railway, was visited by ed a large force, while they also proceeded the enemy in considerable furce, on the 19th, to fortify several strong strategic and perma- when they proceeded to a general destrucnent positions at those points which com- tion of bridges, telegraph wires, &c. They manded the avenues of access to Southern then pushed for Cumberland, where they Virginia, through the Alleghany Mountains. hoped to capture Colonel Wallace and his Thus disposed the rebels felt not only secure, bold Zouaves, who held a number of rebel but conceived the idea of eventually forcing officers prisoners, taken at Romney. But, McClellan back from Grafton. To secure the the rapid reenforcement of Wallace by the requisite force, the Governor of Virgivia mountaineers, compelled the bold Confedecommanded the militia of Western Virginia rates to give up their hopes of entering Cumto repair to the Huttonsville camp, and forced berland, or of destroying its superb bridge. levies were made to a considerable extent. McClellan arrived at Grafton June 23d.
He then issued his second terms which bear repetition, as throwing light proclamation, repeating his upon the character of the conquest at which
former pledges, and saying: the Union army aimed. It is of value as “ To my great regret, I find that the enemies of evidence bearing on the points already althe United States continue to carry on a system of luded to (see page 177] regarding the differhostilities prohibited by the laws of war among bel
ence of spirit which animated the armies : ligerent nations, and of course far more wicked and
To the Soldiers of the Army of intolerable when directed against loyal citizens en
McClellan's Address the West :
to his Soldiers. gaged in the defense of the common Government
“ You are here to support of all.
the Government of your country, and to protect the “Marauding parties are pursuing a guerrilla war
lives and liberties of your brethren threatened by a fare, firing upon sentinels and pickets, burning rebellious and traitorous foe. No higher or nobler bridges, insulting, injuring and even killing citizens duty could devolve on man, and I expect you to because of their Union sentiments, and committing bring to its performance the highest and noblest many kindred acts.
qualities of soldiers' discipline-courage and mercy. "I do now, therefore, make proclamation and I call upon the officers of every grade to enforce warn all persons that individuals or parties engaged the highest discipline ; and I know that those of all in this species of warfare, irregular in every view grades, privates and officers, will display in battle which can be taken of it, those attacking sentries, cool, heroic courage, and will know how to show pickets, or other soldiers, destroying public or pri- mercy to a disarmed enemy. Bear in mind that vate property, or committing injuries against any you are in the country of friends, not of enemies; of the inhabitants because of Union sentiments or
that you are to protect, not to destroy. Take nothconduct, will be dealt with in their persons and ing, destroy nothing, unless you are ordered to do property according to the severest rules of military so by your General Officers. Remember that I have law.
pledged my word to the people of Western Virginia “ All persons giving information or aid to the that their rights in person and property shall be public enemies, will be arrested and kept in close respected. I ask every one of you to make good : custody, and all persons found bearing arms, un
this promise in its broadest sense. We have come less of known loyalty, will be arrested and held for here to save, not to upturn. I do not appeal to the examination."
fear of punishment, but to your appreciation of the This was called for by the venomous char- sacredness of the cause in which we are engaged. acter betrayed by the Secessionsts, who be- Carry into battle the conviction that you are right, came guerillas, bridge-burners, scouts and and that God is on our side. Your enemies have thieves, as occasion offered. The Proclama- violated every moral law; neither God nor man tion was designed to reduce the conflict to
can sustain them. They have, without cause, rethe rules of civilized warfare.
belled against a mild and paternal Government;
they have seized upon public and private property: The disposition of the troops at the date
they have outraged the persons of Northern men, of his arrival was as follows: Sixth Indiana merely because they came from the North, and of and Fourteenth Ohio at Philippi ; Sixteenth Southern Union men, merely because they loved Ohio at Cheat River; Eighth and Tenth In- the Union ; they have placed themselves beneath diana at Clarksburg; Ninth Ohio at Weh- contempt, unless they can retrieve some honor on ster bridge; Third and Fourth Ohio at Graf- the field of battle. You will pursue & different ton. The Confederates were encamped in course. You will be honest, brave, and merciful. strong force thirteen miles from Philippi. You will respect the right of private opinion. You Porterfield, with three thousand men, occu
will punish no man for opinion's sake. Show to the pied Huttonsville, Pegram was at Rich
world that you differ from our enemies in these Mountain.
points of hovor, honesty and respect for private McClellan made a rapid inspection of opinion, and that we inaugurate no reign of terror
where we go. Soldiers, I have heard that there the surrounding country, visiting all the
was danger here. I have come to place myself at camps, conferring with all the officers, and
your head and share it with you. I fear now but soon arranged his plans of action. His poli- one thing, that you will not find foemen worthy of cy was one of active advance and rapid your steel, I know that I can rely upon you. strokes. On the 25th, he issued a second ad- ("Signed) GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, dress to his soldiers. It was couched in
The leniency shown dis- | thy R. Stanley; Nineteenth Ohio, Colonel The leniency Shown
loyal persons, in Western Saml. Beatty; Eighth Indiana, Colonel Wm. Disloyal Persons.
Virginia, during the period P. Benton ; Ninth Indiana, Colonel Gideon of McClellan's command, gave no little of C. Moody, (afterwards Colonel Milroy ;) Tenth fense to those who preferred to treat with Indiana, Colonel M. D. Marson; Fifteenth rigor every person found in arms against the Indiana, Colonel G. D. Wagner; the Chicago Union. But, though much harm came of al- Dragoons, Captain W. Baker; Sturgis' Rifles, lowing vicious enemies their liberty on sub- | (McClellan's Body Guaril,) Captain Sturgis ; scribing to an oath which they hastened to Chicago Cavalry, Captain Barker; the Coldscorn, good came from the leniency prac- water (Michigan) Artillery, Captain Culp. ticed. The masses of people, though really At Philippi was the Sixth Indiana, Colonel Unionists, had been taught and made to feel Thos. T. Crittenden; at Ripley the Twentythat the army was sent for their subjugation first Ohio, Colonel Jesse S. Norton; at Grafand dispoliation—that slaves were to be freed ton (head-quarters of Brigadier-General Hill) and armed, and “the Yankees” made pos- the Seventh Indiana, Colonel Dumont; Tbirsessors of the soil. To disabuse the people teenth Ohio, Colonel Wm. S. Smith ; the Kanof such impressions was McClellan's purpose, sas Artillery and Company I of the Fourth in order that they might rally around the (regular) artillery, Lieutenant Ward. Wheeling Government and thus reorganize Colonel Cox (ranking Brigadier-General) thie State. To have carried the sword into on the Kanaw ha, watching the movements Virginia without these assurances, would have of Ex-Governor Wise, held the line of the been to find an implacable enemy in every river with the Eighth Ohio, Colonel S. S. resident. As results showed, the course pur- Carroll; Twelfth Ohio, Colonel J. W. Lowe; sued made them friends and coadjutors; First Kentucky, Colonel W. Woodruff; Western Virginia soon furnished several fine Second Kentucky, Colonel W. G. Terrell ; and effective regiments for Federal service. Eleventh Ohio, Colonel De Villiers. The same policy prevailed, at a later day, in At Cheat River were the Fifteenth Ohio, other States, but with less successful results. Colonel Moses R. Dickey, (Colonel G. W. In most instances Jeniency was construed as Andrews acting;) Sixteenth Ohio, Colonel J. evidence of pusillanimity; and cases were Irvine, and the First Virginia. only too frequent where commanding officers There were, also, en route for the field the forgot both self-respect and humanity in their Thirteenth Indiana, Colonel J. C. Sullivan ; endeavors to “show mercy to a conquered Fourteenth Indiana, Colonel N. Kimball; enemy." Such instances served all the more Seventeenth Indiana, Colonel M. S. Hascall. rapidly to hasten the development of that At Clarksburg were the fast forming stern sentiment which found its expression Second and Third Virginia volunteers, afterin the Congressional Confiscation and Eman- ward commanded respectively by Colonel cipation Act of July, 1862.
Jno. W. Moss and Colonel David T. Heroes ; At the date of July 4th, also the Sixth Ohio, Colonel W. K. Bosley. McClellan's forces number- These somewhat scatter
ed about thirty-two thou-ed forces McClellan began sand effective men, distributed as follows: to centralize rapidly. By in the vicinity of Buckhannon, under his own July 8th his lines were so far compressed personal command and that of Brigadier- that the advance was ordered. The enemy's General Rosecrans, were the Third Ohio, main force was then intrenched at Laurel Colonel Isaac H. Marrow; Fourth Ohio, Hill. McClellan's plan was to approach it Colonel Lorin Andrews; Seventh Ohio, Colo- from the south and west, by way of Bucknel E. B. Tyler ; Ninth Ohio, Colonel Robert hannon, while Brigadier-General Morris with 8. McCook; Tenth Ohio, Colonel Wm. H. four thousand men pushed out toward Laurel Lytle; Fourteenth Ohio, Colonel Jas. B. Hill, direct, to keep the enemy's attention in Steedman ; Seventeenth Ohio, Colonel Jno. that direction. McConnell ; Eighteenth Ohio, Colonel Timo- After a sharp skirmish at Buckhannon,
Enumeration of McClellan's Forces.
The Forward Move