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THREATS

OF

RETALIATION.

19

Threats of Retalia.

tion.

Kentucky not only refused to call a Con- | forth threats of retaliation vention, but positively preferred a solution from the Confederates, not of her troubles in the Union. Her Governor only in the shape of proessayed the task of preparing the way for scriptive enactments, but in the more excit"cooperation”-should a resort to arms be ing promise of making them the battle-field had; but, the people, under the inspiration in the strife, which, it would appear, the Conof faithful guardians of her best interests, re- federate leaders had resolved to inaugurate. fused to be won from the path of duty, and The Charleston Courier, speaking for the remained steadfast in their loyalty.

lords of State, in its issue of March 8th, said: Tennessee, also, was firmly resolved upon “ The Border States, whose position is almost neremaining in the Federal Union; or, if the cessarily decided by Virginia, bave lost the opporworst should come, of standing in the position tunity of deciding the issue of Union or Disunion.

It is now too late for them to discuss that question, of an “armed neutral”—a position about as

which is decided for Disunion by the inexorable possible for her to retain, as for gunpowder

logic of events. to sleep beside a bed of coals. Still, the fact

They have almost lost, or will soon lose, the that she would not consort with the Confed- glorious mediatorial privilege of deciding whether erates, and threatened to keep them from her Disunion shall be peaceable or forceful. They will soil, was sufficient to excite and anger the soon lose the opportunity of exerting any influence Secession managers, as well as to cause them in the question beyond the poor privilege of furnishmuch uneasiness in her behalf. Had Andrew ing the battle-fields and foraging for opposing Johnson been her Governor, instead of Isham armies, and of being pressed into reluctant service G. Harris, how different would have been her and action by the prevailing force for the time being. future! She then would have remained a

No army of hireling myrmidons can or shall

ever reach a Southern State, if determination and very heart of flame in the centre of the revo

resolute anticipation can prevent it by carrying the lution, to send up beacon-fires of loyalty from

war beyond our borders. Such a movement would her glorious hills and valleys—too soon, alas ! be strictly defensive, according to all rules of war, to become the burial-places for her betrayed after war has been forced upon us." sons, the rioting-field for her ruthless invaders.

The same line of argument was used by North Carolina was even more loyal, to all most of the influential journals, in the revoappearances, early in March, than Virginia. lutionary interests, in the Confederate limits. Although represented in the Confederate The Montgomery Advertiser, and other leadCongress by “Commissioners,” her people ing papers at the several State Capitals, urgwere regarded as too warmly attached to the ed a war policy as necessary to bring the old Confederacy to be easily dragooned or Border States to their side. The leaders lured into the new. Only some brilliant were not slow to perceive the vital force of coup-de-main, by the Secessionists, could the argument of arms, and hastened in arcarry the State out of the Union, to which the ranging their war policy. Thus, a Savannah large mass of her people were truly and sin- journal, as early as March 2d, said : cerely devoted.

Every energy on the part of the State, it would And even Virginia hung in the balance! seem, is now being sprung to the immediate organ. With her Pryor, Ruffin, Tyler, Seddon, Wise, ization and equipment of the two regiments of De Jarnette, Mason, Hunter, Garnett, Bocock,

Regulars' likely soon to be called to the field, led Letcher-all crowding her over the precipice

on by their respective chiefs, the intrepid Walker into the maelstrom of the revolution, she yet Brown, 60 prominent in the crisis, and of whom all

and the gallant Hardee. His Excellency Governor held on, spasmodically and desperately, to the South is justly proud, seems omnipresent in suthe Union. Like one of her own Slave

pervision throughout the State. Our word for it, wives clinging to her husband and children Georgia will not be found napping in the hour of when the trader called her for a Southern trial, but with · lance in rest and visor down,' ready market, she struggled against a hopeless fate to welcome the invader of her soil • with bloody ---80 powerful were the few over the many. hands to hospitable graves.?": Still, she struggled to the very last.

The resistance to the Secessionist - proThis hesitation of the Border States called gramme, in the Virginia Convention, impell

6

Canaille.

ed the managers to incite tumult against the impressed on the people that resistance to coercion Unionists, both to intimidate them, and to was not enough; that the true policy was to drive create a popular feeling for an open espousal the Convention out of the city. Scarcely had Mr. of the Confederate cause.

Irving uttered these words when the people shouted, On the evening of the That's it !'' that's right !' • drive them out !' and Union Feeling in Richmond.

8th, (March,) Hon. Wm. c. these cries were followed by a thundering cheer. Rives—& name memorable

After Mr. Cropper concluded, the crowd, which was

an immense one, marched to the music of the band in the political annals of the country-ad- of the Exchange Hotel, where Mr. Isbell took his dressed the people of Richmond. His influ- stand on the steps of the hotel, and was cheered ence was regarded as second to that of no most warmly. He addressed the multitude in a single person in the State-hence the import- thoroughly Southern rights, secession, and antiance attached to his words. His speech coercion speech, and was applauded to the echo was thoroughly Union in its sentiments. He throughout. The people then took up their line of approved the Peace Convention propositions, march through Franklin Street to the Examiner as wise and satisfactory. He opposed, with office, where they stopped and gave three hearty all the powers of his logic, the effort to cheers for John M. Daniel, editor of the Examiner." place Virginia “at the tail end of the South- This John M. Dániel was

The Reign of tbe ern Confederacy”—to become the chief suffer- one of Mr. Buchanan's faer, in its behalf, in the event of war. He said vorite foreign representathe State could reconstruct the Union; and tives, who had returned to the charge of his it was her duty, for it was in her power, to journal, at the call of the Secessionists, to do so. Other speakers followed Mr. Rives“ help in carrying the State out of the accursin the cause of the Union. This demonstra- ed Union”-a Union which he had not failed to tion succeeded one of another and more violent misrepresent and malign when abroad. His character, which transpired during the after-course, after his return, was one of mingled noon of the same day, in behalf of the cause malignancy and baseness towards every man of disunion, and as the beginning of a series who presumed to question the propriety of of “expressions” especially designed to in the secession of Virginia. He was a fit emcite a spirit of violence towards the Unionists. bodiment of the spirit of disunion.

The Union flag was haul- The Whig further added : ed down from the Market

“At the meeting of the people held at the Old house pole on the 8th, and, Market yesterday, we heard a desire expressed by amid huzzas from a great crowd, (composed many of the crowd that the people should march en largely of such turbulence as only Richmond masse to the Mechanics' Hall, where the Convention commanded,) the Palmetto flag was run up in was in session, and then and there have their say its stead. Speeches followed—all in a vio- about the course this old Commonwealth should lent strain, designed and well calculated to pursue, and teach the old women in pantaloons of arouse popular passions. The Whig thus

our Convention that they had better become true announced the affair:

men at once, or vamose." * Every sentiment of disapprobation of the ac

There were brave and determined spirits in tion of the Convention, every sentiment in favor of that Convention, who truly represented their secession, was received enthusiastically, and when people; but they, ere long, became powerMr. Douglas, at the conclusion of his remarks, de less, if not silenced, before the leaders having clared that Virginia would stand with her face to the canaille at their back. It was the drama the foe and fall into a glorious grave, before she of the French Revolution attempted on would permit the march of Lincoln's myrmidons American soil—differing nothing in spirit through Virginia, or permit coercion, the people from it, only lacking its sans culotte force of responded to the sentiment with vociferous applanse. Mr. Douglas was followed by Mr. Gordon, Mr. Wil.

The Virginian who shall truthfully loughby Newton, Mr. Charles Irving, and Mr. Crop write the story of those forty days will illumiper, and we noted especially that when some of nate the page of " History with characters and those gentlemen asked what would Virginia do, the deeds which will prove the “Mother of Prespeople answered, with loud acclamation, Secede !idents" also to have been the mother of • Secede!' Mr. Irving, in the course of his remarks, Conspirators.

A Disunion Demon.

stration.

arms.

CHAPTER II.

THE CONGRESS OF THE SECEDED BTATES. COERCION OP THE

BORDER STATES. VIRGINIA'S INTEREST IN SLAVE-BREEDING. PERMANENT CONSTITUTION OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES. THE TYRANNY PRACTICED IN ITS ADOPTION BY CONVENTIONS. VOTER ON ITS ADOPTION. CONDITION OF TIE BORDER STATES DURING MARCH. CONGRATULATIONS OVER THE FALL OF SUM TER.

The Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States,

THE Confederate Con- ! Mr. Curry proposed to reach the Virginia The Confederate

gress remained in session conscience through the vital channel of her Congress. up to March 16th.

Its pocket. Star - Chamber proceedings only transpired March 7th, the Congress confirmed Jefferwhen it became necessary to divulge the laws son Davis' appointments, as follows: Colonel enacted. It debated and acted with pro- Braxton Bragg, of Louisiana, to be Brigadierfound secrecy. The States were living under General, and Colonel William J. Hardee, of a régime as irresponsible and dictatorial as Georgia, to be Colonel in the army of the the rule of the old Venetian Republic which Confederate States. it typified.

On the 8th the Texan Deputies signed the On the 6th, (March,) Mr. Curry, of Ala- Provisional Constitution. bama, introduced and had adopted the fol

The Permanent Constilowing, in open session :

tution of the Confederate Resolved, That the Committee on the Judiciary States, under discussion for be instructed to inquire into the expediency of pro- several weeks, was finally adopted, March hibiting the importation of Slaves into the Confed- of the negroes are in cismontane Virginia, and that erate States from the United States, except by per- section pays in taxation, on persons and personal sons emigrating thereto for the purpose of settle

property, lands and lots, and licenses, $1,750,000, ment or residence."

against $1,000,000 of transmontane Virginia, or threeThis looked like “coercing” Virginia

fourths more. whose best source of income was in the pro- “From about 1815 to 1845 emigration to the duction of negroes for a Southern market. South was greatest. In that time Virginia emigrated Missouri and Kentucky sent some negroes some $450,000,000 worth of slaves; in the middle South, but only such as were sold in the decade of the term, $180,000,000 ; and, notwithbreaking up of estates, or were disposed of standing the low price at which, with one short inby owners fearful of the slaves escaping to terval, slaves ruled in the three decades, and the the North. The Old Dominion alone, of all consequent encouragement to home agriculture, the States of the Confederacy, made the rais- cismontane lands went down 127 per cent. in the ing of negroes for market a leading business.* face of a transmontane appreciation of 50 per cent.-

a comparative loss to Eastern Virginia of 62; per • The Richmond Examiner gave publicity to the cent!" figures of this traffic in negro“ stock," which we This last confession, it is presumed, was made are sure will take many by surprise :

unintentionally. That Eastern Virginia lands, which “There are now in this State negroes of the esti- produced most of the slaves for a market, should mated value of nearly $400,000,000. Upon an inside have depreciated, while lands in Western Virginia, a estimate, they yield in gross surplus produce, from region comparatively free of slaves, should have insales of negroes to go South, $10,000,000; tobacco, creased enormously in value, certainly is a thunder$8,000,000; flour, $8,000,000; corn, cotton, and other ing argument both against Slave breeding and Slavo products, $2,000,000—a total of $28,000,000. Most labor.

Conventions.

10th. It assumed as its basis the Consti- | the people, without their

Usurpations of the tution of the United States, but differed direct consent — as Ordifrom that instrument in important points. nances of Secession had been One of its added provisions recognized and adopted without their submission to a vote protected Slavery. A synopsis of the Consti- of the people—as the Confederate Congress tution read as follows:

was made up of members whom the people “No person who is foreign, and not a citizen of had no voice in selecting—as a new Governthe Confederate States, is allowed to vote for any ment had been put in force, upon which the officer, civil or political, State or Federal.

people were not permitted to vote-it was “ Under the first clauses South Carolina is entitled expected by the Southern communities that, to 5 Representatives in Congress; Georgia 10; Ala- when the Permanent Constitution was to be bama 9; Florida 2; Mississippi 7; Louisiana 6; Tex ordained, the people would have a vote upon as 6; and each State to two Senators.

it, thus to give their endorsement to the new “ The State Legislaturos may impeach Judicial order of things. But, never were hopes, raor Federal officers resident and acting in said States tionally formed, doomed to a more certain by a two-thirds vote. “ Both Houses of Congress may grant seats on the the Constitution allowed to go before the people

disappointment. In not a single instance was floor to either of the principal officers of each executive department, with the privilege of discuss for their vote! The same high-handed tyranny ing measures of his department.

which had prevailed to bring about the revo “Representation on the basis of three-fifths for lution, was now too secure in its power to slaves is continued.

fear the popular clamor; and the State ConCongress is not allowed, through duties, to foster ventions alone assumed the right to pass any branch of industry.

upon the final organic law. Thus, men chosen “The foreign slave-trade is prohibited.

merely to consider the question of Union or DisCongress is prohibited from making appropria- unionor, if the latter was decided upon, to tions unless by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses, agree upon an Ordinance of Secession, upon except the appropriations be asked by the head of which the voters alone should be permitted to pulks some department, or the President.

judgmentusurped dictatorial powers, remained “No extra compensation is to be allowed to any in permanent session, passed Ordinances of Secescontractor, or officer, or agent, after the contract is

sion, inaugurated a new Government, and, made, or the service rendered.

“Every law shall relate to but one subject, and finally, sealed their revolutionary proceedings, by be expressed by titles.

adopting the new Constitutionall without "The President and Vice-President are to hold once allowing the popular voice any expression ! office for six years.

A parallel for such proceedings can only “The principal officers of departments and the be found in the bayonet-rule of the First diplomatic service are removable at the pleasure of Consul of France, and, like his rule, but prethe President. Other civil officers are removable pared the way for the next step in tyranny when their services are unnecessary, or other good —the assumption of regal power, by one causes and reasons. Removals must be reported to the Senate when practicable. No captious removals

The Alabama Convention are tolerated.

ratified the Permanent “Other States are to be admitted to the Confed

Constitution March 11th, eracy by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses.

The Confederacy may acquire Territory, and by a vote of 87 to 5. Slavery shall be acknowledged and protected by

The South Carolina Convention, having Congress and the Territorial Government.

taken a recess to April 1st, did not imme“When five States shall ratify the Permanent Con. diately pass the instrument. It was ratified stitution, it shall be established for said States, until April 6th, by a vote of 114 to 16. ratified. The Provisional Constitution shall continue The Louisiana Convention, March 16th, in force, not extending beyond one year." voted down an ordinance for submitting the

Another feature of the revolution was now Constitution to the people--yeas 26 ; Days to be developed. As the entire Secession 74. The instrument was not adopted until movement had been made over the heads of March 21st. It was very bitterly opposed by

man.

Ratifications of the

Constitution.

ELECTIONS

IN THE BORDER

STATES.

23

the minority, who did not hesitate to pro-dred and sixty-seven dollars, and forty-six cents, nounce the rule of the Confederate States an now in the hands of A. J. Guirot, State Depositary, unmitigated oligarchy. It was finally adopt- and known as the Bullion Fund, be transferred to ed by a vote of 101 to 7-many of those in the Government of the Confederate States of Amer. the minority having withdrawn rather than ica ; and that said State Depositary be, and he is

hereby authorized, and instructed to pay said sum, sit under the pressure brought to bear on them.

upon the order of the Secretary of the Treasury of The Georgia State Convention remained

said Confederate States. in session until March 23d, to adjust all rela- “Sec. 2. It is further ordained, That the sum of tions with the new Government. It adopted one hundred and forty-seven thousand, five hundred the Permanent Constitution nearly unan- and nineteen dollars, and sixty-six cents, being the imously, and, before adjournment, passed over balance received by said State Depositary from the to the Confederate Government all the forts, Custom-House, the 31st of January last, be transfer. arsenals, custom-houses, &c., " seized” from red to said Government, and paid by said Depositary the United States. It also provided for a

upon the order of said Secretary." loan of five hundred thousand dollars, to be

Five hundred and thirty-six thonsand, raised on State securities, for the benefit of seven hundred and eighty-seven dollars, and the Central Government.

twelve cents—what a windfall! Truly, those The Mississippi Convention ratified the Southern men, "endowed with such keen Constitution March 30th, by a vote of 78 to 7. sense of honor and lofty respect for private

The Florida Convention, having adjourn- virtue,” were great rogues, nevertheless—or, ed, reassembled in April, and then, by an rather, their ideas of meum and tuum were almost unanimous vote, accepted the Con- those of the highwayman. “By their plunstitution,

der shall ye know them,” grew to become a The loan called for by well-received aphorism, as applied to the The Confederate

the Confederate Congress Confederates, early in the year 1861. The Finances.

was reported, at first, as Louisville Journal thus humorously, but sehaving been eagerly absorbed, at par; a few verely, adverted to the Southern mania for days later it was reported that “ a few mil- “ seizures” and “ appropriations” of Federal lions had been reserved, for the people to have property: the privilege of investing in;" still later, the “ Crime is progressive, and after the first plunge Charleston papers began to scold the banks nothing is more easy than to go from bad to worse. for their tardiness in subscribing to it; and, A cotemporary says the fatally demoralizing effect by March 10th, it was confessed that the of the first step is seen in the easy transition to other Confederate Treasury was able to obtain from wrongful acts, as in De Quincey's case of the man the loan scarcely enough for current expenses

wbo, beginning the downward path with murder, over and above the Customs receipts. Geor- last to procrastination ; so the Seceding States, be

went on by degrees until he came to lying, and at gia, as stated above, came to the rescue, with ginning with treason and levying war, find it easy a loan to the Government of five hundred to go on until at last they come to downright theft thousand dollars—Alabama having, several - not of forts only, but of vessels, arms, and weeks previously, voted a like sum. But, in money." neither case was the money forthcoming. The elections ordered Hence, the Treasury grew weak, and the di- in Arkansas, North Carorectors turned longing eyes towards the lina, and Tennessee, to test money belonging to the United States, still the sentiments of the people on the question in the Mint and Sub-Treasury at New Or- of secession, resulted, in the first, in the choice leans. How must the hearts of those unpaid of thirty-five "unconditional Secessionists" patriots have rejoiced on the receipt of and forty “Union men" as delegates to the following refreshing document !

the Convention called, The Union men, “An Ordinance to transfer certain funds to the Govern- however, were known to be so only com

ment of the Confederale States of America : ditionally. The officers of the Convention " SECTION 1. It is hereby ordained, That the sum of were chosen from among the “Unionists." three hundred and eighty-nine thousand, two hun. It was represented that Arkansas would be

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Arkansas.

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