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ern cause.

to suspend hostilities till the meeting of Congress, their law-givers. Major Anderson, the hero met with no success, and asks that all party feeling of Fort Sumter, a Kentuckian, had been sobe extinguished, and that Kentucky maintain the licited by his fellow-citizens to assume compeace, honor and safety of her citizens.

mand of a Kentucky brigade. At the date of This fell upon a Legis- the proclamation arrangements were perfectGovernor Magoffin.

lature neither disloyal nor ed for the enrollment of Kentucky's full quota weak. The State was soon legislated into an which Anderson was to lead. Its first duty “ armed neutrality," as at first advised by was to watch the hordes overrunning TenMessrs. Crittenden, Guthrie, and others of the nessee; and to see that Buckner and Magoffin “Old Court" party leaders—those men who, did not betray the Commonwealth as Tenin the terrible State convulsions of 1821-25, nessee had been betrayed by her infamously sustained the regularly constituted and legiti- disloyal authorities. mate Courts against an attempted revolution.

The Legislature (May 220) The course of events, however, ere long bore refused to accept the pro

Attitude of the

Legislature, away that barrier to the State's active loyalty, clamation of the Governor when none were more earnest in making as embodying a relation of the true position common cause with the country than Critten- which the State should hold toward the Conden and his old Whig coadjutors; while the federate and United States Governments. disloyal followed Breckenridge, who pre- This was blow number one at “ neutrality.” served the semblance of obedience to his oath The Senate rejected the House bill approprionly to sit in the councils of the nation at ating three millions to arm the State. This Washington to intrigue and spy for the South-was blow number two. An act was passed

amending the Militia law so as to compel the May 20th, Governor Ma- State Guards to take the oath of loyalty, Magoffin's “ Neutrali

goffin issued his proclama- swearing to support the Constitution of the ty" Proclamation

tion of neutrality, reciting United States and of Kentucky. This was the facts of the existence of a “horrid, unnatu- blow number three. It virtually killed neural and lamentable strife," for which Kentucky trality. In the Senate, on the 22d, Mr. Roswas “not responsible either by thought, word seau* made a firm, eloquent, out-spokon or deed," and declaring:

speech in behalf of active co-operation with Now, therefore, I hereby notify and warn all the Federal Government.

Rosseau's other States, separate or united, especially the His declarations indicated

Union Speech United and Confederate States, that I solemnly for the half-repressed sympabid any movement upon Kentucky soil, or occupa- thies and hopes of two-thirds of his people. tion of any post or place therein, for any purpose We may extract as follows, to indicate the whatever, until authorized by invitation or permis, views entertained, at at that time, by the unsion of the legislative and executive authorities. I

qualified Unionists: especially forbid all citizens of Kentucky, whether incorporated in the State Guard or otherwise, making

" When Kentucky goes down, it will be in blood.

Let that be understood. She will not go as other any hostile demonstrations against any of the aforesaid sovereignties, to be obedient to the orders of

States have gone. Let the responsibility rest on lawful authorities, to remain quietly and peaceably you, where it belongs. It is all your work, and

We have at home, when off military duty, and refrain from all

whatever happens will be your work. words and acts likely to provoke a collision, and so

more right to defend our Government than you have otherwise conduct that the deplorable calamity of

to overturn it. Many of us are sworn to support it.

Let our good Union brethren at the South stand invasion may be averted; but, meanwhile, make prompt and efficient preparation to assume to the

their ground. I know that many patriotic hearts in paramount and supreme law of self-defense, and the Seceded States still bea: warmly for the old

Union—the old flag. The time will come when we strictly of self-defense alone."

shall all be together again. The politicians are have All this, at the first view, looked decidedly inimical; and, indeed, was so, as far as a * Afterwards the gallant Union General, whose Governor's proclamation was law; but, the Kentucky brigade at Pittsburg Landing performed people were truer to their own interests than I such sigual service.

JOSEPH HOLT'S LETTER.

171

ing their day. The people will yet have theirs. I and the other two States that saved Kenhave an abiding confidence in the right, and I know tucky. The question was flatly asked by this secession movement is all wrong. There is, in General Boyle, of the army, then a private fact, not a single substantial reason for it. If there citizen of Kentucky, “Will you have twelve is, I should be glad to hear of it; our Government thousand men ready the moment we ask for has never oppressed us with a feather's weight. them ?', It was flatly asked of the Governors The direst oppression alone could justify what has brought all our present suffering upon us.

of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the reply

May God, in his mercy, save our glorious Republic !"

was, they would sustain them; and I suppose The Senate, on the 24th of May--the last I may add that Mr. Lincoln was telegraphed day of the session-passed resolutions declar- to, asking whether he would assist them, and ing that “ Kentucky will not sever connec

he said, ' with his whole power.' Mr. Boyle tion with the National Government, nor take telegraphed to Governor Dennison for ten up arms for either belligerent party; but arm thousand men at call. He replied, 'You can herself for the preservation of peace within have them.' He also asked for ten thousand her borders, and tendering their services as from Indiana and Illinois, and received the mediators to effect a just and honorable same reply. This was the salvation of Kenpeace."

tucky.” It is extraordinary, in view of the great

Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky all must strength of the secession sentiment in the have cast their fortunes with the Slave ConLegislature, that a more revolutionary course

federacy had it not been for their proximity was not pursued. Much was owing to the to the Free States, and for the presence, among firm stand taken by the friends of the General them, of citizens whose devotion to the Union Government. Though the test vote in the exceeded their love for “Southern institulower House stood forty-nine Unionists to tions." Tennessee and Virginia had such forty-three Secessionists, the former acted in citizens; but, alas ! they were “precipitated" perfect concert, while the latter were divided before help could reach them, and were only and vacillating.

But, with infinitely less restored to the Union by the appalling ordeals power to back him, the Tennessee Governor of suffering and blood. The future will had given his State over 'to the embraces of scarcely credit as a fact that the conspirators the black monster of rebellion, and why could were really eager to court the ordeal-knownot Kentucky be " leagued” with the same ing, as they did, that their soil would be

come the battle-field, and desolation would, Rev. Dr. Breckenridge, inevitably, follow in the train. But, the fact Dr. Breckenridge's

in his Cincinnati address is written in the very word rebellion, and can

(May, 1862) said: “We are only be accounted for by the reckless ambiin the habit of thinking hard, very hard, tion which controlled the leaders, and the of the loyal portion in Tennessee or South mental and moral hallucination which posCarolina, that they permitted this insurrec- sessed the people, namely: of founding a vast tion. They were oppressed at home, and Slave Confederacy, untrammeled by any compelled to take up arms against the Gov- alliance with Free States. ernment. You will allow me to make a local We should not omit to.

Joseph Holt's Letter. and personal reference, and to say that if it mention, as having exerhad not been by mere accident-if it had not cised an important influence on the loyal senbeen for the blessing of God and the heroism timent of the State, a letter written by Joseph of some persons—the very same thing would Holt, ex-Secretary of War, to a citizen of Kenhave happened in Kentucky; and I will go tucky, upon the policy of the Federal Govfurther and say, in extenuation of the conduct ernment, &c. Its examination of the entire of many who were really loyal citizens further question of Kentucky's relations and duty to south–I will say further, that it was the prox- the Government, was most able and exhaustimity of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, the fidel- ive. It dealt unsparing blows at treasonity of the people of the latter States, upon vindicated the right of the Federal Adminiswhich these men depended—of your people tration to send troops through or into any

dark power?

Declarations.

Tennessee

State to suppress rebellion ders. Let those hostile armies Joseph Holt's Letter.

Address to Kentucky. and treason—rebuked, with meet on our soil, and it will much severity, the proclaimed “neutrality" | matter but little to us which may succeed, for de

struction to us will be the inevitable result. Our of Kentucky, and censured the course of those whose fears prevented them from doing their fields will be laid waste, our houses and cities

will be burned, our people will be slain, and duty in the crisis. The letter was printed at

this goodly land be re-baptized the land of blood.' length'in several leading Union journals, and And even the institution to preserve or control was, also, issued in pamphlet form. It thus which this wretched war was undertaken, will found its way to all sections of the State, and, be exterminated in the general ruin. Such is the commanding very general attention, proved evil that others will bring upon us, no matter which one of the most powerful silent influences side we take, if this is to be the battle-field. But brought to bear in centralizing opinion to the there is danger at home, even more appalling than point of active co-operation against the any that comes from beyond. People of Kentucky, rebellion.

look well to it that you do not get to fighting among If any thing was wanting yourselves, for then, indeed, you will find, that it is

an ill fight where he that wins has the worst of it. Menacing Kentucky. to arouse the patriotism of

Endeavor to be of one mind, and strive to keep the the people, it was found in

State steady in her present position. Hold fast to the menacing attitude of Tennessee. As early that sheet anchor of republican liberty, that the will as May 20th, troops in large numbers began of the majority, constitutionally and legally expressto rendezvous along the border-at Fountain ed, must govern. You have, in the election by Head,Springfield, Mitchellville and near Union which this Convention was chosen, displayed a City; while, the gathering at Nashville of a unanimity unparalleled in your history. May you force sufficient to open a way through to be as unanimous in the future ; may your majorities Louisville," indicated, more clearly than ever, be so decided that a refusal to obey may be justly the design of “compelling Kentucky to called factious. Trust and love one another. Avoid

Frown upon the petty ambition of assume her true position in the Southern angry strife. movement." If Kentucky remained inde demagogues who would stir up bad passions among

you. Consider, as wise men, what is necessary for pendent she would require not only the arms of her own people, but also the co-operation trust and look to that Almighty Being who has hith

your own best interests, and in humble submission, of the General Government.

erto so signally blessed us as a nation, for His guidThe Border State Con

ance through the gloom and darkness of this hour." vention assembled May The address to the People of the United

27th. It was attended by States was an elaborate appeal for peaceone delegate from Tennessee and four from patriotic in its tone, yet ambiguous on the Missouri. None appeared from Virginia--the point of duty; for, while it deprecated war, State at whose instigation the Convention it said: “It is proper for us to say that, in was called. John J. Crittenden was made

our opinion the Constitution delegates to no President. Among the Kentucky delegates one department of the Government, nor to all were James Guthrie, Archibald Dixon, ex- of them combined, the power to destroy the Governor Morehead, ex-Governor Wickliffe, Government itself, as would be done by the Joshua F. Bell, &c., &c.

division of the country into separate confede The proceedings culminated in two ad- racies, and that the obligation exists to maindresses--one to the People of Kentucky and tain the Constitution of the United States and one to the People of the United States. The to preserve the Union unimpaired." first discussed at considerable length the po- If the obligation existed to “maintain the sition of the State in the controversy pending. Constitution of the United States and to preIts terms will be inferred from this closing serve the Union unimpaired," why did that paragraph :

Convention pettifog Kentucky into a condiAlready one section declares that there will be tion of “neutrality"-of indifference to oblino war at home, but that it shall be in Kentucky and gations and solemn duty ? The address was Virginia. Already the cannon and bayonets of an also an appeal. The closing portions read: other section are visible on our most exposed bor. May we not earnestly hope that you, the people,

The Border State

Convention.

GENERAL

BUCKNER

AND

GENERAL MCCLELLAN.

173

The first Federal “ In

General Buckner and

General McClellan.

the whole people, without re- | the presence of a camp of Kentucky's Address

gard to parties or sections, will disloyalists at a point only to the People. be able to command a settle ten miles below Cairo, and

vasion" of Kentucky. meut of the national difficulties, and will see the five miles inland in Kentucky, dispatched two propriety and necessity of having a cessation of pre- companies to proceed to the point indicated sent hostilities, so that the measures of pacification and scatter the rebels. This was done during which your wisdom may devise can be calmly con

the night of June 5th, when the Union troops sidered by your constituted authorities?

“We venture to suggest for your consideration returned to Cairo. As a matter of course a and action two specific propositions as most likely protest followed from “the authorities” of to lead to pacification :

Kentucky. These authorities, however, conFirst. That Congress shall at once propose such sisted of only one person who, it appeared constitutional amendments as will secure to slave. from his "instructions,' had been requested holders their legal rights, and allay their apprehen by the Governor to preserve the “ attitude sions in regard to possible encroachments in the of self-defense” demanded by the proclamafuture.

tion. Colonel Prentiss answered the protest * Second. If this should fail to bring about the results so desirable to us, and so essential to the best the Union men of Kentucky should have his

very curtly by informing the protestant that hopes of our country, then let a voluntary Convenaid and protection at all times when it was tion be called, composed of delegates from the people of all the States, in which measures of peaceable solicited—that he was only amenable to the adjustment may be devised and adopted, and the Federal Government for his acts, nation rescued from the continued horrors and calam

Under date of June 10th, ities of civil war.

Major-General Buckner inTo our fellow-citizens of the North we desire to formed the Governor that say: Discard that sectional and unfriendly spirit, he had entered into an agreement with Genemanifested by teaching and action, which has con- ral McClellan—the Federal commander of the tributed so much to infame the feelings of the Department of the Ohio—by which the KenSouthern people, and justly create apprehension on tucky authorities were to protect United their part of injury to them.

States property within the limits of the State “ To our fellow-citizens of the South we desire to

—to enforce the laws of the United States say: Though we have been greatly injured by your according to their interpretation by the United precipitate action, we would not now reproach you States courts, and to enforce, with all the powas the cause of that injury; but we entreat you to re-examine the question of the necessity for such

ers of the State, Kentucky's “obligations of action, and if you find that it has been taken without neutrality as against the Southern States,” &c., due consideration, as we verily believe, and that the &c. McClellan, it was stated, stipulated that evils you apprehended from a continuance in the the territory of Kentucky should be respected Union were neither so great nor so uhavoidable as "even though the Southern States should ocyou supposed, or that Congress is willing to grant cupy it"—in which case, he was to call upon aeequate securities, then we pray you to return the State to remove the Southern forces. promptly to your connection with us, that we may Failing to remove them within a reasonable be in the future, as we have been in the past, one time, McClellan claimed the same right of great, powerful and prosperous nation."

occupancy as that given to the Souther Still prating compromise! When the Gov- troops, &c., &c. Also stipulating that he ernment was in the throes of a revolution to (McClellan) would withdraw his forces as ask the revolutionists to accept any other soon as he had “removed” the Southern terms of settlement than an adoption of the forces! This most absurd “arrangement" was fundamental principles of their movement ! soon made public, much to the dismay of the To ask the Free State majority to accept Federal Administration; but, only a momensuch “ terms of settlement” as a minority tary dismay, for General McClellan denied, would dictate ! It was the folly of “whistling in toto, the statements of Buckner, and stated down the hurricane," as Mr. Crittenden and that he had made no arrangement, of any kind his excellent friends soon discovered. —that the interview was repeatedly solicited

Colonel Prentiss, having been informed of | by Buckner, and when it did occur was per

sonal, not official. He said: “I made no publish some tangible excuse for his defection, stipulation on the part of the General Govern- and found it in the assumed bad faith of the ment, and regarded his voluntary promise to General Government in not carrying out the drive out the Confederate troops as the only arrangement which he had made with Mcresult of the interview." Buckner's course, Clellan! He had quaffed too deeply at the in soon after joining the Confederate cause, fountain of Jefferson Davis and John C. Breckbearing with him all the Kentucky troops enridge, and ceased to be the soul of honor over whom he exerted any influence, gives us when he became the instrument of Southern the key to the “ views” which he entertained dishonor. He lived long enough to read his of the interview referred to. He wished to errors and feel his disgrace.

CHAPTER XIV.

TIE CAMPAIGN OPENED. OCCUPATION OF VIRGINIA. DEATH OF

ELLSWORTH. REBEL MALIGNITY. BE A U REGARD'S INFAMOUS PROCLAMATION. MCDOWELL IN COMMAND. SCOTT'S PLAN OF THE WAR.

LIEUTENANT TOMPKINS' GALLANT DASI AT FAIRFAX C. H. OPERATIONS OF GENERAL BUTLER.

THE gathering of troops | sand rash, insolent and vioPlans of the

Plans of the at Washington and Rich. | lent men—the “flower of Belligerents.

Belligerents. mond to the majority of the Southern youth” – in observers was, after all, a mystery. The “de- arms, rest and a bloodless duty were simply fense of Washington" did not require so vast impossible. By May 15th the reconnoissances an army as rendezvoused there in May; nor and surveys made by the enemy, of the Virwas the immense aggregation of Southern ginia territory opposite Washington, made it forces at Richmond, at the same time, ex- apparent that the heights at Arlington, Alex. plained by the declared policy of the Con- andria, and the hills above Georgetown, were federates to resist invasion.” If the Fede- to be occupied. The aggregation of troops rals did not intend invasion, and the Confed- at Harper's Ferry was followed by their ocerates did not design to attack the Capital, cupation of the hills opposite, in Maryland. the novice in the art of war might well ask — The ferry at Williamsport was commanded then why the armies ?

by a large detachment of Virginia and South There was wisdom in this careful avoidance Carolina troops, May 19th, preparatory to of the first aggressive step. Notwithstanding crossing. Attempts were also made to seize the offenses already committed by the revolu- the ferry boats near Clear Spring, and at other tionists against the United States Government, points—all looking to an invasion of Maryand the menacing attitude of their armies, the land to co-operate with an arranged uprising Federal Administration evidently preferred in Baltimore. The plan of the rebels, it afto allow the hot-heads to commit the first terwards appeared, was to pass around Washact of hostilities direct. There was not much ington, after securing the surrounding points delay in that act. With twenty-five thou against approach; then to precipitate the

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