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THE

WHEELING

CONVENTION.

151

vention.

part of the population here are slaves, have nothing to do which he discussed the question of a separawith the Government, and no influence on its policy. The tion from the Eastern section of the State, character and political action of the country originates and adverted to the supremacy of the Genwith the SUPERIOR INTELLIGENCE, and is supported

eral Government. His views unquestionably #teadily.

Western Virginia was represented those of the most influential class. Loyal Western

loyal. Settled almost en- He favored a separation if it were done with Virginia.

tirely by non-slaveholders, the power of law and legislative procedure ; its people were not subjected to the tyranny and, though he denied the right of the of the “ dominant” class. The quite general United States Government to invade the circulation, through that section, of news-State, he concedéd the right of resistance to papers, gave the people more enlarged and treason, and therefore the necessity for the correct ideas of public affairs than prevailed presence of Government forces where treain the Eastern portion of the State, from son existed. which Northern newspapers were studiously

At the important Con

The Wherling Conexcluded. As one consequence, the few Seces- vention held in Wheeling, sionists were powerless to control the people May 13th, the preliminary to tlieir behests; and such men as Clemens proceedings were taken for a regularly elected and Carlisle found hearty response to their Convention. The fourth day of June was Union-loving sentiments.

named as the day of election, and the eleventh May 9th, the Governor's agent arrived at of June the day of the assemblage of the Grafton, in Western Virginia, to open the elected delegates to take action concerning rendezvous for troops called out under the a reorganization of the State Government. Governor's requisition. Informed of his pres

The spirit betrayed by the leading men in ence, the people waited upon the “ agent,'

that primary gathering-where about twenty ordering him to leave the place within twen- counties were represented-left no doubt of ty-four hours, which he did, and no troops the entire loyalty of the movement. While assembled at the call.

the hosts of Jefferson Davis were gathering On the contrary, however, an active loyalty, at all good strategic positions to meet the from that moment, began to prevail, and threatened Union advance, the people west eleven companies, sworn into the United of the Blue Ridge mountains were not left to States volunteer service, were in camp, at the the mercy of rebel bayonets, for the General Fair Grounds, in Wheeling, by May 20th. Government had, by the advice of the GovThe two first, on this roll of honor, were the ernors of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Penncommands of Captains Britt and Stephens,

sylvania, arranged to throw forward General Prior to the Convention McClellan's column, at once, to afford the Judge Thompson's at Wheeling, (May 13th,)

people and the Convention proper protecCharge.

Judge Thompson, of the tion, and to threaten the rebel occupation Circuit Court of Wheeling District, delivered of Harper's Ferry by a flank and rear movaa charge to the Grand Jury, (May 10th,) in

ment.

CHAPTER XL

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TIE CRISIS IN TENNESSEE. A DARK PAGE IN HISTORY.

SECESSION OF NORTH CAROLINA AND ARKANSAS.

The Bill of Sale.

This announcement for the red

THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA.

TENNESSEE's vote, Feb- other slaveholding States as Tennessee Going.

ruary 9th, on the question may wish to enter into it; “ Convention” or “No Convention,” resulted having in view the protection and defense of the in an overwhelming Union triumph isee Vol.

entire South against the war that is now being car

ried on against it.' II, page 24).

The said Commissioners met Hon. Henry W. time being reassured the country of that

Hilliard, the accredited representative of the ConState's loyalty ; but, the extraordinary revul

federate States, at Nashville on this day, and have sion of feeling created by the attack on Sum- agreed upon and executed a Military League between ter and the President's proclamation for

the State of Tennessee and the Confederate States of troops, swept away, at a dash, the “conserv

America, subject, however, to the ratification of the atism” of Tennessee, and soon arrayed her on two Governments, one of the duplicate originals of the side of treason. The Governor's answer which I herewith transmit for your ratification or reto the requisition, already quoted (see page jection. For many cogent and obvious reasons, un99), was the key-note of the miserere to fola necessary to be rehearsed to you, I respectfully low. The Unionists staggered before the recommend the ratification of this League at the storm which the demons of discord evoked; earliest practicable moment. and, though their influence was predominant

“ Very respectfully, ISHAM G. HARRIS." enough, for the moment, to place the State in

" CONVENTION BETWEEN THE STATE OF TENNESSEE AND a position of “Neutrality,” even that cloak for treason was soon cast aside. May 8th, the

“ The State of Tennessee, looking to a speedy ad

mission into the Confederacy established by the publication, by the Nashville papers, of the

Confederate States of America, in accordance with secret proceedings of the Legislature then in

the Constitution for the Provisional Government of session, announced to the people that their said States, enters into the following temporary liberties were gone, and that, thenceforward, convention, agreement and military league with the they were under the iron despotism of the Confederate States, for the purpose of meeting Confederate “authorities.” The story of this pressing exigencies affecting the common rights, sale of a State is fully told in the documents interests and safety of said States and said Confede. attesting it.

eracy. May 7th, Governor Har- First. Until the said State shall become a mem.

ris sent to the Legislature ber of said Confederacy, according to the Constituthe following communication and document:

tions of both powers, the whole military force and “ EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,

military operations, offensive and defensive, of said NASHVILLE, May 7th, 1861. State, in the impending confict with the United "Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Representatives :

States, shall be under the chief control and direction By virtue of the authority of your joint resolu

of the President of the Confederate States upon the tion, adopted on the 1st day of May inst., I appoint- same basis, principles and footing as if said State ed Gustavus A. Henry, of the county of Montgomery, were now and during the interval, a member of said Archibald O. W. Totten, of the county of Madison, Confederacy. Said forces, together with that of the and Washington Barrow, of the county of Davidson, Confederate States, to be employed for the common • Commissioners, on the part of Tennessee, to enter defense. into a Military League with the authorities of the “ Second. The State of Tennessee will, upon beConfederate States, and with the authorities of such coming a member of said Confederacy, under tho

The Bill of Sale.

861.}

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TEXNESSEE'S ORDINANCE

OF

SECESSION.

153

Secession,

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permanent Constitution of said Confederate States, States of America, are hereby

The Ordinance of
if the same shall occur, turn over to said Confede abrogated and annulled, and
rate States, all the public property, naval stores that all obligations on our part
and munitions of war, of which she may then be in be withdrawn therefrom; and we do hereby resume
possession, acquired from the United States, on the all the rights, functions and powers which by any of
same terms, and in the same manner, as the other said laws and ordinances were conveyed to the Gov.
States of said Confederacy have done in like cases. ernment of the United States, and absolve ourselves

Third. Whatever expenditures of money, if any, from all the obligations, restraints and duties incur-
the said State of Tennessee shall make before she red thereto; and do hereby henceforth become a
becomes a member of said Confederacy, shall be free, sovereign and independent State.
met and provided for by the Confederate States. “ Second. We furthermore declare and ordain that

" This Convention entered into and agreed on, in Art. 10, Sections 1 and 2 of the Constitution of the the city of Nashville, Tennessee, on the eventh day State Tennessee, hich requires members of the of May, A. D. 1861, by Henry W. Hilliard, the duly General Assembly, and all officers, civil and militaauthorized Commissioner to act in the matter for ry, to take an oath to support the Constitution of the Confederate States, and Gustavus A. Henry, the United States, be and the same are hereby abArchibald W. 0. Totten and Washington Barrow, rogated and annulled ; and all parts of the ConstituCommissioners duly authorized to act in like manner tion of the State of Tennessee, making citizenship for the State of Tennessee. The whole subject to of the United States a qualification for office, and the approval and ratification of the proper authori- recognizing the Constitution of the United States as ties of both Governments, respectively.

the supreme law of this State, are in like manner “ In testimony whereof, the parties a foresaid have abrogated and annulled.

herewith set their hands and seals, the day and Third. We furthermore ordain and declare, that year aforesaid, in duplicate originals.

all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution “ HENRY W. HILLIARD, [Seal.] of the United States, or under any act of Congress **Commissioner for the ConfederateStates of America. passed in pursuance thereof, or under any laws of

* GUSTAVUS A. HENRY, [Seal.] this State and not incompatible with this ordinance, A. 0. W. TOTTEN,

[Seal.]. shall remain in force and have the same effect as if " WASHINGTON BARROW, [Seal.] this ordinance had not been passed."

“ Commissioners on the part of Tennessee." Upon this the people were to ballot “Sep-
This “ league" was put upon its adoption aration,” “No separation."
immediately. The Senate ratified it by a At the same date (May 6th) the Legislature
vote of fourteen to six. The House by a vote passed an act adopting the Constitution of
of forty-two to fifteen-eighteen members not the Confederate States. Upon this act the
voting or absent. The ratification read : people were to vote (at the election ordered
* That said league be in all respects ratitied June 8th) “ Representation,” “No represent-
and confirmed, and the said General Assem-ation."
bly hereby pledges the faith and honor of The “Declaration" was passed in the Sen-
the State of Tennessee to the faithful observ- ate by a vote of twenty to four. In the House
ance of the terms and conditions of said | by forty-six to twenty-one.
league."

Thus was consummated the transfer of that
An act had, the day pre- State, with its tremendous Union majority,
The Ordinance of
viously, been adopted, or-

to the control and keeping of the conspiradering an election to be tors; and thenceforward the Unionists were held June 8th, at which the following “ De to suffer persecutions which forever will darkclaration of Independence” (Ordinance of en the page of Tennessee's history and cast a Secession) should be voted upon :

shadow upon the civilization of the nineteenth We, the people of the State of Tennessee, waiv.

century.*
ing our expression of opinion as to the abstract doc-
trine of secession, but asserting the right as a free

Those curious to read the story of suffering in and independent people to alter, reform or abolish Tennessee are referred to Parson Brownlow's book. our form of Government in such manner as we

There is enough of horror compressed in the ten think proper, do ordain and declare that all the laws | months' experiences of that man, to convince the and ordinances by which the State of Tennessee be

must incredulous that the spirit of secession was the came a member of the Federal Union of the United spirit of Evil.

Secession.

Arkansas Secedes.
The Ordinance.

Arkansas, like Tennessee, | under the name of the United States of America, is hastened to recant her late hereby forever dissolved. conservative action (see

* And we do further hereby declare and ordain, page 31). The call of Mr. Lincoln for troops that the State of Arkansas hereby resumes to herself

all rights and powers heretofore delegated to the was succeeded by a rapid regathering of the State Convention. Without much delay her citizens are absolved from all allegiance to said

Government of the United States of America--that the Ordinance of Secession was passed by a

Government of the United States, and that she is in vote of sixty-nine to one, viz.

full possession and exercise of all the rights and "An Ordinance to Dissolve the Union now existing between sovereignty which appertain to a free and independ

the State of Arkansas and the other States United with ent State. her under the compact entitled The Constitution of the “We do further ordain and declare, that all rights Urmed States of America.'

acquired and vested under the Constitution of the “ Whereas, in addition to the well-founded causes of

United States of America, or of any act or acts of complaint set forth by this Convention in resolutions Congress, or treaty, or under any law of this state, adopted on the eleventh March, A. D. 1861, against and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall rethe sectional party now in power at Washington main in full force and effect, and in no wise altered City, headed by Abraham Lincoln, he has, in the or impaired, and have the same effect as if this ordi. face of resolutions passed by this Convention, pledg.

nance had not been passed. ing the State of Arkansas to resist to the last extre

[Here follow the names of the delegates.) mity any attempt on the part of such power to co- Adopted and passed in open Convention on the erce any State that seceded from the old Union,

sixth day of May, A. D. 1861. proclaimed to the world that war should be waged

“ Attest,

ELIAS C. BOUDINOT, against such States, until they should be compelled

“Secretary of the Arkansas State Convention." to submit to their rule, and large forces to accom- The injustice and absurd

Special Point against plish this have by this same power been called out, ity of the “State Rights"

Secession. and are now being marshaled to carry out this inlu- doctrine is forcibly illusman design, and longer to submit to such rule or trated in this act of Arkansas, as it also was remain in the old Union of the United States would in the acts of Texas, Florida and Louisiana. be disgraceful and ruinous to the State of Arkansas: (See pages 206-299, &c., Vol. I.) Arkansas “Therefore, we, the people of the State of Arkah

was purchased of France by our General Gov. sas, in Convention assembled, do hereby declare ernment, to secure the possession and uninand ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, terrupted navigation of the Mississippi river that the ordinance and acceptance of compact,' and its affluents. It was, from the date of its passed and approved by the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas on the eighteenth day of Oc

first territorial organization up to the year tober, A. D. 1836, whereby it was, by said General 1861, a source of heavy expense to the GeneAssembly, ordained that, by virtue of the authority ral Government. In the item of mails alone, vested in said General Assembly by the provisions of

the cost of supporting the postal system in the Ordinance adopted by the Convention of dele. that State, for the fiscal year ending June, gates assembled at Little Rock, for the purpose of 1860, was two hundred and ninety thousand forming a Constitution and system of government for dollars over and above the receipts. The said State, the propositions set forth in ‘an act sup- cost of keeping the army on her borders to plementary to an act entitled an act for the admission protect her settlements has reached, it is said, of the State of Arkansas into the Union, and to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United alized by the sales of her public lands. Thus the

a sum twenty times greater than the sum reStates with in the same, and for other purposes, were

State not only owed its soil and its settlement freely accepted, ratified and irrevocably confirmed articles of compact and union between the State of

to the General Government, but it owed, also, Arkansas and the United States,' and all other laws, an enormous debt for the sustenance given by and every other law and ordinance, whereby the State the same benignant power to keep it from of Arkansas became a member of the Federal Union, want. What a munstrous assumption, therebe, and the same are hereby in all respects and for fore, is that which claims the right of a peoevery purpose here with consistent, repealed, abroga. ple to dissolve, at will, their relations and ted and fully set aside ; and the union now subsisting obligations to the parent Government! By between the State of Arkansas and the other States all rights of common law, guaranteeing the

ACT OF

CONFISCATION

A ND

REPUDIATION.

155

Act of Confiscation

Address of Arkansas

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purchaser in his possessions; by the law of commission. Among others was this ordiequity, securing correlative rights; by the nance, which we place on record as one of force of special legislation conceding supre- those landmarks of Southern feeling and macy, and acknowledging obedience, to the course of procedure. It may suggest to fuConstitution of the United States; by the ture lawgivers what course is best likely to rights of fraternity and highway obtained by avail with those who are the surrounding States—the principle of se- base enough to make bed

and Repudiation. cession must be pronounced wanting in law, fellows with treason : equity or good faith. The right of revolu- “An Ordinance in regard to Foreign Indebtedness in the tion to redress wrongs too grievous to bear, State of Arkansas, and with regard to other objects : may be conceded—the right of peaceful seces

“SECTION 1. Be it ordained by the people of Ark.

ansas, in Convention assembled, that all the debts sion, never. The “conservative" men

of whatever kind due or to become due hereafter,

whether the same be evidenced by record, bond, of the State--those who, ** Couservativt s."

note, bill of exchange, or by other proof; and whein the late Convention, had ther such indebtedness is dischargeable or to beopposed immediate secession and had pro- come dischargeable by money, property, or other cured the submission of the whole matter to choses in action, where the duty of payment is due a vote of the people, issued a belligerent or is to become due upon resident citizens of the manifesto or “address," from which we may State of Arkansas, and is due or is to become due quote: “The employment by the Federal to a resident or citizen of the State of Maine, the Government of its military power and mate

State of Rhode Island, the State of Massachusetts, rial resources, which have been supplied alike the State of Vermont, the State of New Hampsbire, by all the States of the Union, to compel any

the State of Connecticut, the State of New York, of them to submit to its jurisdiction, is utterly the State of New Jersey, the State of Pennsylvania, opposed to the spirit and theory of our insti- Miuois, the State of Michigan, the State of Iowa,

the State of Ohio, the State of Indiana, the State of tutions, and in a litile while would reduce

the State of Wisconsin, the State of Minnesota, the the States which constitute the weaker sec

State of California, the State of Oregon, or the State tion, to the condition of merc appanages or of Kansas, or to a resident or citizen of the Terriprovinces to the dominant and stronger sec- tory of Utah, Washington, Dacotah, Nevada, or tion, to which anarchy itself would be pre- Colorado, be and the same is hereby distrained and ferable.

appropriated to and for the use and benefit of the The South is 'our country'and while we State of Arkansas, and payments thereof are here. are satisfied that, up to the moment when after to be made to the State of Arkansas, in such the Government at Washington committed manner as shall be provided by ordinance of this the folly and wickedness of making war upon the State, and all other payments are hereby pro

Convention, or by enactment of the Legislature of the Seceded States, the conservative party in

hibited, and declared null and void, and the party Arkansas was largely in the ascendant, we

making the same shall be responsible to the State cannot believe that her soil is polluted by a

for the full value of such payment of money, or of being base and cowardly enough to stop to delivery of property or chose in action. consider, in casting his lot in the unequal “Sec. 2. Be it further ordained, That all money, struggle in which she is engaged, whether property and choses in action that are now in pos. she is right or wrong.'

session, or that may hereafter come to the possesThat was the proper course for Albert Rust sion of any attorney, marshal, sheriff or agent, or to pursue if he would still be in the van.

other person in this State, for the use or benefit of He took his seat in the Confederate Congress any citizen or resident in any of the aforesaid States May 17th, as one of the five delegates from and Territories, be and the same is hereby distrain

ed and appropriated to and for the use and benefit the “new sister." The act of admission to

of the State of Arkansas, and that all payments or the Confederacy was passed on that date.

delivery thereof, otherwise than such as may be Before adjournment, the Convention pass-hereafter provided by ordinance of the Arkansas ed, as other States had done before it, vari-State Convention, or enactment of the Legislature, ous acts looking to the “punishment” of the shall be null and void, and the party making such Free States for their sins of omission and payment, or delivering such property or chose in

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